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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913125/apomorphine-therapy-in-parkinson-s-and-future-directions
#1
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
Apomorphine infusion or injection is an important dopamine agonist non-oral therapy usually used in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) with refractory motor fluctuations. The drug also has appreciable efficacy for nonmotor fluctuations and is the quickest to reverse predictable "off" periods. Current subcutaneous administration, however, is complicated by problems associated with needle-based therapies, such as skin nodule formation, skin irritation, and avoidance of this treatment option by needle-phobic subjects...
November 30, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913104/d-ala2-gip-glu-pal-is-neuroprotective-in-a-chronic-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model-and-increases-bndf-expression-while-reducing-neuroinflammation-and-lipid-peroxidation
#2
Yanwei Li, WeiZhen Liu, Lin Li, Christian Hölscher
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Therefore, treatment to improve insulin resistance in T2DM may be useful for PD patients. Glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a member of the incretin hormone family that can promote insulin release and improve insulin resistance. Several GIP analogues have been developed as potential treatments for T2DM. We had shown previously that D-Ala2-GIP-glu-PAL, a novel long-acting GIP analogue, can play a neuroprotective role in the PD mouse model induced by acute MPTP injection...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912058/impaired-amino-acid-transport-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-is-a-cause-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Dora C Tărlungeanu, Elena Deliu, Christoph P Dotter, Majdi Kara, Philipp Christoph Janiesch, Mariafrancesca Scalise, Michele Galluccio, Mateja Tesulov, Emanuela Morelli, Fatma Mujgan Sonmez, Kaya Bilguvar, Ryuichi Ohgaki, Yoshikatsu Kanai, Anide Johansen, Seham Esharif, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Meral Topcu, Avner Schlessinger, Cesare Indiveri, Kent E Duncan, Ahmet Okay Caglayan, Murat Gunel, Joseph G Gleeson, Gaia Novarino
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of genetic disorders often overlapping with other neurological conditions. We previously described abnormalities in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway as a cause of ASD. Here, we show that the solute carrier transporter 7a5 (SLC7A5), a large neutral amino acid transporter localized at the blood brain barrier (BBB), has an essential role in maintaining normal levels of brain BCAAs. In mice, deletion of Slc7a5 from the endothelial cells of the BBB leads to atypical brain amino acid profile, abnormal mRNA translation, and severe neurological abnormalities...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912057/gut-microbiota-regulate-motor-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Timothy R Sampson, Justine W Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911740/the-puzzle-of-visual-development-behavior-and-neural-limits
#5
Lynne Kiorpes
The development of visual function takes place over many months or years in primate infants. Visual sensitivity is very poor near birth and improves over different times courses for different visual functions. The neural mechanisms that underlie these processes are not well understood despite many decades of research. The puzzle arises because research into the factors that limit visual function in infants has found surprisingly mature neural organization and adult-like receptive field properties in very young infants...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911342/impulsive-and-compulsive-behaviors-in%C3%A2-parkinson-disease-the-norwegian-parkwest-study
#6
Aleksander H Erga, Guido Alves, Jan Petter Larsen, Ole Bj Rn Tysnes, Kenn Freddy Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Impulsive and compulsive behaviors (ICBs) are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD), but data from population-based cohorts is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and associated demographic, clinical, neuropsychiatric and cognitive features of ICBs in a population-based PD cohort. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 125 patients with PD and 159 age- and gender-matched normal controls recruited from the Norwegian ParkWest study...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911244/neurosurgical-management-in-lateral-meningocele-syndrome-case-report
#7
Erik C Brown, Kunal Gupta, Christina Sayama
Lateral meningocele syndrome (LMS) is a rare genetic connective tissue disorder. It is associated with morphological changes similar to those of other connective tissue disorders, with the unique distinction of multiple, often bilateral and large, lateral meningoceles herniating through the spinal foramina. In some cases, these lateral meningoceles can cause pain and discomfort due to their presence within retroperitoneal tissues or cause direct compression of the spinal nerve root exiting the foramen; in some cases compression may also involve motor weakness...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911073/reducing-risky-alcohol-use-what-health-care-systems-can-do
#8
Amity E Quinn, Mary Brolin, Maureen T Stewart, Brooke Evans, Constance Horgan
Risky, non-dependent alcohol use is prevalent in the United States, affecting 25% of adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b). Massachusetts has higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking than most states (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015). Serious physical, social, and economic consequences result. Excessive alcohol use contributes to cancer, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, birth defects, motor vehicle injuries, and suicide, and it complicates management of chronic illnesses (Green, McKnight-Eily, Tan, Mejia, & Denny, 2016; Laramee et al...
April 27, 2016: Issue Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911020/changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-in-musicians-with-embouchure-dystonia
#9
Bernhard Haslinger, Jonas Noé, Eckart Altenmüller, Valentin Riedl, Claus Zimmer, Tobias Mantel, Christian Dresel
OBJECTIVE: Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling task-specific dystonia in professional brass musicians leading to spasms of perioral muscles while playing the instrument. As they are asymptomatic at rest, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in these patients can reveal changes in functional connectivity within and between brain networks independent from dystonic symptoms. METHODS: We therefore compared embouchure dystonia patients to healthy musicians with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with independent component analyses...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#10
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909399/a-subset-of-autism-associated-genes-regulate-the-structural-stability-of-neurons
#11
REVIEW
Yu-Chih Lin, Jeannine A Frei, Michaela B C Kilander, Wenjuan Shen, Gene J Blatt
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) comprises a range of neurological conditions that affect individuals' ability to communicate and interact with others. People with ASD often exhibit marked qualitative difficulties in social interaction, communication, and behavior. Alterations in neurite arborization and dendritic spine morphology, including size, shape, and number, are hallmarks of almost all neurological conditions, including ASD. As experimental evidence emerges in recent years, it becomes clear that although there is broad heterogeneity of identified autism risk genes, many of them converge into similar cellular pathways, including those regulating neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and spine stability, and synaptic plasticity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907033/normalization-of-patient-identified-plasma-biomarkers-in-smn%C3%AE-7-mice-following-postnatal-smn-restoration
#12
W David Arnold, Sandra Duque, Chitra C Iyer, Phillip Zaworski, Vicki L McGovern, Shannon J Taylor, Katharine M von Herrmann, Dione T Kobayashi, Karen S Chen, Stephen J Kolb, Sergey V Paushkin, Arthur H M Burghes
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive motor neuron disorder. SMA is caused by homozygous loss of the SMN1 gene and retention of the SMN2 gene resulting in reduced levels of full length SMN protein that are insufficient for motor neuron function. Various treatments that restore levels of SMN are currently in clinical trials and biomarkers are needed to determine the response to treatment. Here, we sought to investigate in SMA mice a set of plasma analytes, previously identified in patients with SMA to correlate with motor function...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906019/patterns-of-motor-activity-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats-compared-to-wistar-kyoto-rats
#13
Ole Bernt Fasmer, Espen Borgå Johansen
BACKGROUND: Increased motor activity is a defining characteristic of patients with ADHD, and spontaneously hypertensive rats have been suggested to be an animal model of this disorder. In the present study, we wanted to use linear and non-linear methods to explore differences in motor activity patterns in SHR/NCrl rats compared to Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NHsd) rats. METHODS: A total number of 42 rats (23 SHR/NCrl and 19 WKY/NHsd, male and female) were tested. At PND 51, the animals' movements were video-recorded during an operant test procedure that lasted 90 min...
December 1, 2016: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905391/-the-stabilometric-and-clinical-characteristics-in-patients-with-the-consequences-of-stroke-during-the-complex-rehabilitation
#14
V A Bronnikov, V B Smychek, Yu A Mavlikaeva, K A Sklyannaya, Yu I Kravtsov, A O Gorbacheva, A V Vil'deman
AIM: To perform the complex stabilometric and clinical assessment of movement disorders in post-stroke patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-three patients in the late recovery period of stroke underwent the complex rehabilitation in the hospital. RESULTS: Based on the dynamics of statokinesiogram area and shift of the center of pressure, four variants of stabilometric changes with different baseline parameters of patient's motor activity were determined...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905364/-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#15
G N Tayupova, A R Saitgareeva, A R Baitimerov, O S Levin
This review presents the results of studies investigating the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TKMS) on motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been found that TKMS reduces the severity of both motor and non-motor disorders without causing serious side-effects. Magnetic field therapy can be combined with pharmacological and non-drug therapies, including the use of dopaminergic therapy, antidepressants and anti-dementia drugs, as well as stereotactic operations. It is necessary to continue the study of the influence of TKMS on the severity of PD symptoms using different electromagnetic characteristics...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905363/-sleep-disorders-in-the-early-stage-of-parkinson-s-disease-in-untreated-patients
#16
N A Amosova, I G Smolentseva, P M Guseinova, O A Maslyuk, E L Gavrilov
Disorders of sleep and wakefulness occur in about 60-98% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The majority of research on the scale and nature of the disorders was performed in patients treated with antiparkinsonian drugs, and, therefore, the true picture of sleep disorders was interfering with side effects of therapy. The spectrum of these disorders in PD patients is broad and includes insomnia, parasomnia and hypersomnia. The main symptoms of insomnia are difficulty in maintaining sleep, associated with nocturia, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), night cramps, akinesia and tremor...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905362/-characteristics-of-parkinson-s-disease-course-in-the-heterozygous-carriage-of-mutations-in-the-glucocerebrosidase-a-gene
#17
O A Gan'kina, E E Vasenina, O S Levin, E Yu Fedotova, S N Illarioshkin
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease. Literature sources indicate the association of PD and mutations in the glucocerebrosidase A (GBA) gene. According to our study, the frequency of the two most common mutations in the GBA gene, N370S and L444P, is 1.85%. Mutation carriers have slower progression of motor symptoms, but are more likely to develop drug-induced motor fluctuations and dyskinesia. In carriers of GBA mutations, the severity of cognitive impairment corresponds to age-matched patients without mutations...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905361/-heterogeneity-of-excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-parkinson-s-disease
#18
O V Babkina, M G Poluektov, O S Levin
For the recent years, a special attention is given to the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including sleep/wake disorders representing one of the leading symptoms. Daytime sleepiness occurs in 30-55% of patients depending on duration and stage of the disease, leading to severe maladjustment. This symptom seems to be multifactorial by nature and identification of it's causes could have a great importance for the therapy. The main factors of the development of daytime sleepiness in Parkinson's disease and key points of the pathogenesis of «primary» daytime sleepiness are discussed...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905268/mapt-mutation-associated-with-frontotemporal-dementia-and-parkinsonism-ftdp-17
#19
Robert Haussmann, Marek Wysocki, Moritz D Brandt, Andreas Hermann, Markus Donix
We present a 56-year-old patient suffering from frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17). The history included a three-generation pedigree and the patient was found to be a mutation carrier. The diagnosis was hindered by late appearance of the hypokinetic movement disorder. For clinicians, it is important to consider rare neurodegenerative disease variants in early-onset familial dementia syndromes with behavioral, cognitive, and motor symptoms.
December 1, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903723/cerebellar-shank2-regulates-excitatory-synapse-density-motor-coordination-and-specific-repetitive-and-anxiety-like-behaviors
#20
Seungmin Ha, Dongwon Lee, Yi Sul Cho, Changuk Chung, Ye-Eun Yoo, Jihye Kim, Jiseok Lee, Woohyun Kim, Hyosang Kim, Yong Chul Bae, Keiko Tanaka-Yamamoto, Eunjoon Kim
: Shank2 is a multidomain scaffolding protein implicated in the structural and functional coordination of multiprotein complexes at excitatory postsynaptic sites as well as in psychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. While Shank2 is strongly expressed in the cerebellum, whether Shank2 regulates cerebellar excitatory synapses, or contributes to the behavioral abnormalities observed in Shank2(-/-) mice, remains unexplored. Here we show that Shank2(-/-) mice show reduced excitatory synapse density in cerebellar Purkinje cells in association with reduced levels of excitatory postsynaptic proteins, including GluD2 and PSD-93, and impaired motor coordination in the Erasmus test...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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