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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426141/melanocortin-2-3-and-4-receptor-gene-expressions-are-downregulated-in-cd8-t-cytotoxic-lymphocytes-and-cd19-b-lymphocytes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-responding-to-tnf%C3%AE-inhibition
#1
Marlene Andersen, Ivan Nagaev, Michael Kruse Meyer, Olga Nagaeva, Jarl Wikberg, Lucia Mincheva-Nilsson, Grethe Neumann Andersen
Melanocortin signaling in leukocyte subsets elicits anti-inflammatory and immune tolerance inducing effects in animal experimental inflammation. In man, however, the effects of melanocortin signaling in inflammatory conditions have scarcely been examined. We explored the differential reactions of melanocortin 1-5 receptor (MC1-5R) gene expressions in pathogenetic leukocyte subsets in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to treatment with TNFα inhibitor adalimumab. Seven patients with active RA donated blood at start and at three months treatment...
April 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411032/a-2-bp-insertion-c-67_68inscc-in-mc1r-causes-recessive-white-coat-color-in-bama-miniature-pigs
#2
Qitao Jia, Chunwei Cao, Tang Hai, Ying Zhang, Qiantao Zheng, Xiao Wang, Rui Zhang, Xianlong Wang, Ailing Luo, Hong Wei, Anming Meng, Qi Zhou, Hongmei Wang, Jianguo Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382689/p53-regulates-erk1-2-creb-cascade-via-a-novel-sash1-map2k2-crosstalk-to-induce-hyperpigmentation
#3
Ding'an Zhou, Zhongshu Kuang, Xing Zeng, Ke Wang, Jiangshu Ma, Huangchao Luo, Mei Chen, Yan Li, Jiawei Zeng, Shu Li, Fujun Luan, Yong He, Hongying Dai, Beizhong Liu, Hui Li, Lin He, Qinghe Xing
We previously reported that three point mutations in SASH1 and mutated SASH1 promote melanocyte migration in dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria (DUH) and a novel p53/POMC/Gαs/SASH1 autoregulatory positive feedback loop is regulated by SASH1 mutations to induce pathological hyperpigmentation phenotype. However, the underlying mechanism of molecular regulation to cause this hyperpigmentation disorder still remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism undergirding hyperpigmentation in the dyschromatosis disorder...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382155/preclinical-melanoma-imaging-with-68-ga-labeled-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-derivatives-using-pet
#4
Chengcheng Zhang, Zhengxing Zhang, Kuo-Shyan Lin, Jinhe Pan, Iulia Dude, Navjit Hundal-Jabal, Nadine Colpo, François Bénard
It is estimated that melanoma accounted for 76,380 new cases and 10,130 deaths in the United States in 2016. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is highly expressed in the vast majority of melanomas, which makes it an attractive target for molecular imaging and radionuclide therapy. Lactam bridge-cyclized α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (Ac-Nle(4)-cyclo[Asp(5)-His-D-Phe(7)-Arg-Trp-Lys(10)]-NH2, or Nle-CycMSHhex) analogues have been successfully developed and studied for MC1R-targeted imaging, predominantly with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378841/%C3%AE-msh-and-melanocortin-receptors-at-early-ontogeny-in-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-l
#5
A Tsalafouta, M Gorissen, T N M Pelgrim, N Papandroulakis, G Flik, M Pavlidis
Temporal patterns of whole-body α-MSH concentrations and of transcripts of melanocortin receptors during early development as well as the endocrine response (α-MSH, cortisol, MCR mRNAs) to stress at the end of the larval period were characterized in Dicentrarchus labrax. Immunohistochemistry showed α-MSH positive cells in the pituitary pars intermedia in all stages examined. As development proceeds, α-MSH content gradually increases; mRNA levels of mc2r and mc4r remain low until first feeding where peak values are observed...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370617/genomic-evidence-for-convergent-evolution-of-a-key-trait-underlying-divergence-in-island-birds
#6
Elizabeth A Cooper, J Albert C Uy
Reproductive isolation can be initiated by changes in one or a few key traits that prevent random mating among individuals in a population. During the early stages of speciation, when isolation is often incomplete, there will be a heterogeneous pattern of differentiation across regions of the genome between diverging populations, with loci controlling these key traits appearing the most distinct as a result of strong diversifying selection. In this study, we used Illumina-sequenced ddRAD tags to identify genome-wide patterns of differentiation in three recently-diverged island populations of the Monarcha castaneiventris ycatcher of the Solomon Islands...
March 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360400/cdkn2a-and-mc1r-variants-found-in-cypriot-patients-diagnosed-with-cutaneous-melanoma
#7
Georgia Koulermou, Christos Shammas, Andreas Vassiliou, Tassos C Kyriakides, Constantina Costi, Vassos Neocleous, Leonidas A Phylactou, Maria Pantelidou
The prevalence of genetic variants associated to cutaneous melanoma (CM) has never been determined within Cypriot melanomas. This study evaluates the frequency of variants in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) and melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) in 32 patients diagnosed with CM. Other characteristics and risk factors were also assessed. CDKN2A p.Ala148Thr was detected in three of 32 patients, while the control group revealed no variations within CDKN2A. MC1R screening in 32 patients revealed the following variations: p...
March 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356453/the-melanocortin-system-regulates-body-pigmentation-and-social-behaviour-in-a-colour-polymorphic-cichlid-fish
#8
Peter D Dijkstra, Sean M Maguire, Rayna M Harris, Agosto A Rodriguez, Ross S DeAngelis, Stephanie A Flores, Hans A Hofmann
The melanocortin system is a neuroendocrine system that regulates a range of physiological and behavioural processes. We examined the extent to which the melanocortin system simultaneously regulates colour and behaviour in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni We found that yellow males are more aggressive than blue males, in line with previous studies. We then found that exogenous α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increases yellowness of the body and dispersal of xanthophore pigments in both morphs...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355309/the-differential-expression-of-mc1r-regulators-in-dorsal-and-ventral-quail-plumages-during-embryogenesis-implications-for-plumage-pattern-formation
#9
Thanh-Lan Gluckman, Nicholas I Mundy
Melanin pigmentation patterns are ubiquitous in animals and function in crypsis, physical protection, thermoregulation and signalling. In vertebrates, pigmentation patterns formed over large body regions as well as within appendages (hair/feathers) may be due to the differential distribution of pigment producing cells (melanocytes) and/or regulation of the melanin synthesis pathway. We took advantage of the pigmentation patterns of Japanese quail embryos (pale ventrum and patterned feathers dorsally) to explore the role of genes and their transcripts in regulating the function of the melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) via 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323301/genetic-variation-of-the-bronze-locus-mc1r-in-turkeys-from-southern-brazil
#10
Josmael Corso, Diego Hepp, Mônica C Ledur, Jane O Peixoto, Nelson J R Fagundes, Thales R O Freitas
Domestic turkeys present several color phenotypes controlled by at least five genetic loci, but only one of these has been identified precisely: the bronze locus, which turned out to be the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene. MC1R variation is important for breeders interested in maintaining or developing different color varieties. In this study, we sequenced most of the MC1R gene from 16 White Holland (the main commercial turkey variety) and 19 pigmented turkeys from southern Brazil with two purposes. The first was to describe the MC1R diversity in White Holland turkeys, which may serve as reservoirs of genetic diversity at this locus...
March 20, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292562/a-quantitative-analysis-of-multilineage-differentiating-stress-enduring-muse-cells-in-human-adipose-tissue-and-efficacy-of-melanocytes-induction
#11
Takeshi Yamauchi, Kenshi Yamasaki, Kenichiro Tsuchiyama, Saaya Koike, Setsuya Aiba
We have shown previously that multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells in neonatal fibroblasts can differentiate into functional melanocytes. In this study, we quantitate Muse cells in adipose-mesenchymal stem cells (adipose-MSCs) of human subcutaneous tissue obtained from 11 subjects of various ages, and measured efficacy of melanocytes induction from Adipose-MSC-derived Muse cells (hASC-Muse cells). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between the age of donors and the numbers of adipose-MSCs recovered per g fat as well as the percentage of SSEA3+ cells in the adipose-MSC populations, but isolated hASC-Muse cells showed pluripotency and growth curves equally regardless the age of donors...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275654/red-hair-mc1r-variants-and-risk-for-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis
#12
Xiqun Chen, Danielle Feng, Michael A Schwarzschild, Xiang Gao
Several studies have been conducted with mixed results since our initial report of increased Parkinson's disease risk in individuals with red hair and/or red hair-associated p.R151C variant of the MC1R gene, both of which confer high melanoma risk. We performed a meta-analysis of six publications on red hair, MC1R, and Parkinson's disease. We found that red hair (pooled odds ratios = 1.68, 95% confidence intervals: 1.07, 2.64) and p.R151C (pooled odds ratios = 1.10, 95% confidence intervals: 1.00, 1.21), but not p...
March 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270253/genomic-differentiation-between-asturiana-de-los-valles-avile%C3%A3-a-negra-ib%C3%A3-rica-bruna-dels-pirineus-morucha-pirenaica-retinta-and-rubia-gallega-cattle-breeds
#13
A González-Rodríguez, S Munilla, E F Mouresan, J J Cañas-Álvarez, J A Baro, A Molina, C Díaz, J Altarriba, J Piedrafita, L Varona
The Spanish local beef cattle breeds have most likely common origin followed by a process of differentiation. This particular historical evolution has most probably left detectable signatures in the genome. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions associated with differentiation processes in seven Spanish autochthonous populations (Asturiana de los Valles (AV), Avileña-Negra Ibérica (ANI), Bruna dels Pirineus (BP), Morucha (Mo), Pirenaica (Pi), Retinta (Re) and Rubia Gallega (RG)). The BovineHD 777K BeadChip was used on 342 individuals (AV, n=50; ANI, n=48; BP, n=50; Mo, n=50; Pi, n=48; Re, n=48; RG, n=48) chosen to be as unrelated as possible...
March 8, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259754/mc1r-signaling-intracellular-partners-and-pathophysiological-implications
#14
REVIEW
Cecilia Herraiz, Jose C Garcia-Borron, Celia Jiménez-Cervantes, Conchi Olivares
The melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) preferentially expressed in melanocytes is best known as a key regulator of the synthesis of epidermal melanin pigments. Its paracrine stimulation by keratinocyte-derived melanocortins also activates DNA repair pathways and antioxidant defenses to build a complex, multifaceted photoprotective response. Many MC1R actions rely on cAMP-dependent activation of two transcription factors, MITF and PGC1α, but pleiotropic MC1R signaling also involves activation of mitogen-activated kinases and AKT...
March 1, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253846/digging-up-the-roots-of-an-insular-hotspot-of-genetic-diversity-decoupled-mito-nuclear-histories-in-the-evolution-of-the-corsican-sardinian-endemic-lizard-podarcis-tiliguerta
#15
Daniele Salvi, Catarina Pinho, D James Harris
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean islands host a disproportionately high level of biodiversity and endemisms. Growing phylogeographic evidence on island endemics has unveiled unexpectedly complex patterns of intra-island diversification, which originated at diverse spatial and temporal scales. We investigated multilocus genetic variation of the Corsican-Sardinian endemic lizard Podarcis tiliguerta with the aim of shedding more light on the evolutionary processes underlying the origin of Mediterranean island biodiversity...
March 2, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249010/tfap2-paralogs-regulate-melanocyte-differentiation-in-parallel-with-mitf
#16
Hannah E Seberg, Eric Van Otterloo, Stacie K Loftus, Huan Liu, Greg Bonde, Ramakrishna Sompallae, Derek E Gildea, Juan F Santana, J Robert Manak, William J Pavan, Trevor Williams, Robert A Cornell
Mutations in the gene encoding transcription factor TFAP2A result in pigmentation anomalies in model organisms and premature hair graying in humans. However, the pleiotropic functions of TFAP2A and its redundantly-acting paralogs have made the precise contribution of TFAP2-type activity to melanocyte differentiation unclear. Defining this contribution may help to explain why TFAP2A expression is reduced in advanced-stage melanoma compared to benign nevi. To identify genes with TFAP2A-dependent expression in melanocytes, we profile zebrafish tissue and mouse melanocytes deficient in Tfap2a, and find that expression of a small subset of genes underlying pigmentation phenotypes is TFAP2A-dependent, including Dct, Mc1r, Mlph, and Pmel...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242083/association-of-five-snps-with-human-hair-colour-in-the-polish-population
#17
A Siewierska-Górska, A Sitek, E Żądzińska, G Bartosz, D Strapagiel
Twenty-two variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms - SNPs) of the genes involved in hair pigmentation (OCA2, HERC2, MC1R, SLC24A5, SLC45A2, TPCN2, TYR, TYRP1) were genotyped in a group of 186 Polish participants, representing a range of hair colours (45 red, 64 blond, 77 dark). A genotype-phenotype association analysis was performed. Using z-statistics we identified three variants highly associated with different hair colour categories (rs12913832:A>G in HERC2, rs1805007:T>C and rs1805008:C>T in MC1R)...
February 4, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241436/gomisin-n-inhibits-melanogenesis-through-regulating-the-pi3k-akt-and-mapk-erk-signaling-pathways-in-melanocytes
#18
Jae Kyoung Chae, Lalita Subedi, Minsun Jeong, Yong Un Park, Chul Young Kim, Hakwon Kim, Sun Yeou Kim
Gomisin N, one of the lignan compounds found in Schisandra chinensis has been shown to possess anti-oxidative, anti-tumorigenic, and anti-inflammatory activities in various studies. Here we report, for the first time, the anti-melenogenic efficacy of Gomisin N in mammalian cells as well as in zebrafish embryos. Gomisin N significantly reduced the melanin content without cellular toxicity. Although it was not capable of modulating the catalytic activity of mushroom tyrosinase in vitro, Gomisin N downregulated the expression levels of key proteins that function in melanogenesis...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219344/origin-and-phylogenetic-status-of-the-local-ashanti-dwarf-pig-adp-of-ghana-based-on-genetic-analysis
#19
Richard Osei-Amponsah, Benjamin M Skinner, Dennis O Adjei, Julien Bauer, Greger Larson, Nabeel A Affara, Carole A Sargent
BACKGROUND: The Ashanti Dwarf Pig (ADP) of Ghana is an endangered pig breed with hardy and disease resistant traits. Characterisation of animal genetic resources provides relevant data for their conservation and sustainable use for food security and economic development. We investigated the origin and phylogenetic status of the local ADP of Ghana and their crosses with modern commercial breeds based on mtDNA, MC1R, Y-chromosome sequence polymorphisms, and genome-wide SNP genotyping. RESULTS: The study involved 164 local pigs sampled from the three agro-ecological zones of Ghana...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217548/polygonum-multiflorum-root-extract-as-a-potential-candidate-for-treatment-of-early-graying-hair
#20
Nguyen Dinh Thang, Pham Ngoc Diep, Pham Thi Huong Lien, Le Thi Lien
Despite Polygonum multiflorum (PM) has been experiencely used as a drug to treat early graying hair phenomenon in Asian countries for a long time, there is limited study examined the real biological effects of PM on hair graying in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of PM root extract (PM-RE) on melanin synthesis in human melanoma SKMEL-28 cells and embryos/larvae of wild-type strain AB zebrafish. We also preliminary revealed the molecular mechanism of early hair graying phenomenon in both in vitro and in vivo models...
January 2017: Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology & Research
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