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Sue Rodway-Dyer, Nicola Ellis
Footpaths are a prominent consequence of natural area tourism and reflect damage caused to valuable, sensitive habitats by people pressure. Degradation impacts on vegetation, wildlife, on and off-site soil movement and loss, creation of additional informal off-path footpaths (desire lines), and visual destruction of landscapes. Impacts need to be measured and monitored on a large temporal and spatial scale to aid in land management to maintain access and preserve natural environments. This study combined remote sensing (Light Detection and Ranging [LiDAR] and aerial photography) with on-site measurement of footpaths within a sensitive heathland habitat (Land's End, Cornwall, UK)...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Roberto Pizzolotto, Antonio Mazzei, Teresa Bonacci, Stefano Scalercio, Nino Iannotta, Pietro Brandmayr
The impact of agricultural practices and soil management on the communities of arthropods living in the agricultural landscape is acknowledged as a critical issue by the literature, and it needs to be better investigated to improve the ecological sustainability of agriculture. In the present study, we aimed to study how soil management affect carabid species distribution in one of the most typical agroecosystem of the Mediterranean region, i.e. the olive grove. In South Italy olive plantations feature different types of soil management, from tillage to half- or full-cover cropping...
2018: PloS One
Weiwei Zhang, Yungang Liu, Yufei Liu, Boheng Liang, Hongwei Zhou, Yingyue Li, Yuhua Zhang, Jie Huang, Chao Yu, Kuncai Chen
Cadmium and its compounds are human carcinogens with severe organ toxicity, and their contamination of agricultural soil in China has been frequently reported; however, the dietary exposure to cadmium in residents and the relevant health risk have seldom been reported. In this study, the concentration of cadmium in various types of food collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and the dietary exposure to cadmium assessed based on a dietary survey in 2976 Guangzhou residents...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Carlos Lahoz, Elisa Castillo, Jose M Mostaza, Olaya de Dios, Miguel A Salinero-Fort, Teresa González-Alegre, Francisca García-Iglesias, Eva Estirado, Fernando Laguna, Vanesa Sanchez, Concesa Sabín, Silvia López, Victor Cornejo, Carmen de Burgos, Carmen Garcés
Background: Adherence to a Mediterranean diet seems to be inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration. A 14-point Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) has been developed to assess dietary compliance. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether each of the MEDAS questions as well as their final score were associated with the levels of CRP in general Spanish population. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 1411 subjects (mean age 61 years, 43.0% males) randomly selected from the general population...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Zewdu Hora, Solomon Zewdu Altaye, Abebe Jenberie Wubie, Jianke Li
The honeybee is one of the most valuable insect pollinators, which plays a key role in pollinating wild vegetation and agricultural crops, with significant contribution to world food production. Although honeybees have long been studied as model for social evolution, the molecular level of honeybee biology remained poorly understood until the year 2006. With the available honeybee genome sequence, technological advancements in protein separation, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, wide ranges of honeybee biology such as developmental biology, physiology, behavior, neurobiology, and immunology are explored to a new depth at molecular and biochemical levels...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Dunja Šamec, Branimir Urlić, Branka Salopek-Sondi
Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a cruciferous vegetable, characterized by leaves along the stem, which, in recent years, have gained a great popularity as a ´superfood´. Consequently, in a popular culture it is listed in many ´lists of the healthiest vegetables´. Without the doubt, a scientific evidence support the fact that cruciferous vegetables included in human diet can positively affect health and well-being, but remains unclear why kale is declared superior in comparison with other cruciferous...
March 20, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Georgios Samiotis, Eleni Trikoilidou, Lazaros Tsikritzis, Elisavet Amanatidou
In this work, a comparative study on the water quality characteristics of two in-line water reservoirs (artificial lakes) in Aliakmon River (Western Macedonia, Greece) is performed. Polyfytos Reservoir and Ilarion Reservoir were created in 1975 and 2012 respectively, in order to serve the homonymous hydroelectric stations. In young artificial lakes, severe deterioration of water quality may occur; thus, the monitoring and assessment of their water quality characteristics and their statistical interpretation are of great importance...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Jun Yang, Silu Ma, Jingcheng Zhou, Yongwei Song, Fei Li
Objective This study was performed to evaluate the state of heavy metal contamination in soil and vegetables and assess the health risk of inhabitants in the mine-affected area and area far from the mine (reference area) in Daye, China. Methods The heavy metal concentrations in soil and vegetable samples were detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Residents' exposure parameters were obtained through a questionnaire survey. A health risk assessment model recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency was used to evaluate the residents' risk of oral exposure...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Antonella Sorrentino, Silvia Trotta, Anna Pia Colucci, Lucia Aventaggiato, Andrea Marzullo, Biagio Solarino
"Krokodil" is a home-made opioid drug obtained by synthesizing desomorphine from codeine and combining it with other low-cost additives. Initially introduced in the former Soviet countries, it was then imported to Western Europe as a heroin substitute. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an Italian case of lethal krokodil abuse, that occurred in a 39-year-old man, who died suddenly after transportation to the Emergency Department (ED) for hyperthermia associated with sweating, dyspnoea and tachycardia...
March 19, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
J K Dubey, S K Patyal, Ajay Sharma
In the present day scenario of increasing awareness and concern about the pesticides, it is very important to ensure the quality of data being generated in pesticide residue analysis. To impart confidence in the products, terms like quality assurance and quality control are used as an integral part of quality management. In order to ensure better quality of results in pesticide residue analysis, validation of analytical methods to be used is extremely important. Keeping in view the importance of validation of method, the validation of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) a multiresidue method for extraction of 13 organochlorines and seven synthetic pyrethroids in fruits and vegetables followed by GC ECD for quantification was done so as to use this method for analysis of samples received in the laboratory...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Syed M Tareq, M Tauhid Ur Rahman, A Z M Zahedul Islam, A B M Baddruzzaman, M Ashraf Ali
Climate-induced waterlogging has been significantly affecting the lives and livelihood of people in the south-west coastal region of Bangladesh for a couple of decades. The objective of this study is to investigate the waterlogging hazards of Tala, a south-western coastal Upazila of Bangladesh by analyzing satellite image. An empirical model based on velocity of flow, depth of flow, and inundation depth has been proposed to assess waterlogging hazard in pre monsoon, monsoon, and post monsoon period. Landsat TM images for the years 1989, 2000, and 2011 were analyzed by using Geoinformatics including GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify the water hazard...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Nicolas Palaskas, Kara Thompson, Gregory Gladish, Ali M Agha, Saamir Hassan, Cezar Iliescu, Peter Kim, Jean B Durand, Juan C Lopez-Mattei
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose is to discuss the importance of multimodality imaging in the assessment of cardiac tumors and management. We have compiled a recent review of the scientific literature and embedded our clinical pathways and recommendations based on data and clinical experience. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of contrast echocardiography in the assessment of cardiac masses has been shown to be helpful in distinguishing tumor from thrombus. Deformation imaging of cardiac tumors has been shown to differentiate better rhabdomyomas from fibromas in pediatric patients...
March 20, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Erika Viljoen, Damaris A Odeny, Martin P A Coetzee, Dave K Berger, David J G Rees
Amaranthus species are an emerging and promising nutritious traditional vegetable food source. Morphological plasticity and poorly resolved dendrograms have led to the need for well resolved species phylogenies. We hypothesized that whole chloroplast phylogenomics would result in more reliable differentiation between closely related amaranth species. The aims of the study were therefore: to construct a fully assembled, annotated chloroplast genome sequence of Amaranthus tricolor; to characterize Amaranthus accessions phylogenetically by comparing barcoding genes (matK, rbcL, ITS) with whole chloroplast sequencing; and to use whole chloroplast phylogenomics to resolve deeper phylogenetic relationships...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Justine Ngoma, Eddy Moors, Bart Kruijt, James H Speer, Royd Vinya, Emmanuel N Chidumayo, Rik Leemans
This paper presents data on carbon stocks of tropical tree species along a rainfall gradient. The data was generated from the Sesheke, Namwala, and Kabompo sites in Zambia. Though above-ground data was generated for all these three sites, we uprooted trees to determine below-ground biomass from the Sesheke site only. The vegetation was assessed in all three sites. The data includes tree diameter at breast height (DBH), total tree height, wood density, wood dry weight and root dry weight for large (≥ 5 cm DBH) and small (< 5 cm DBH) trees...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Carmen Losasso, Ester M Eckert, Eleonora Mastrorilli, Jorg Villiger, Marzia Mancin, Ilaria Patuzzi, Andrea Di Cesare, Veronica Cibin, Federica Barrucci, Jakob Pernthaler, Gianluca Corno, Antonia Ricci
Diet and lifestyle have a strong influence on gut microbiota, which in turn has important implications on a variety of health-related aspects. Despite great advances in the field, it remains unclear to which extent the composition of the gut microbiota is modulated by the intake of animal derived products, compared to a vegetable based diet. Here the specific impact of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore feeding type on the composition of gut microbiota of 101 adults was investigated among groups homogeneous for variables known to have a role in modulating gut microbial composition such as age, anthropometric variables, ethnicity, and geographic area...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yu Peng, Min Fan, Jingyi Song, Tiantian Cui, Rui Li
Fast and nondestructive approaches of measuring plant species diversity have been a subject of excessive scientific curiosity and disquiet to environmentalists and field ecologists worldwide. In this study, we measured the hyperspectral reflectances and plant species diversity indices at a fine scale (0.8 meter) in central Hunshandak Sandland of Inner Mongolia, China. The first-order derivative value (FD) at each waveband and 37 hyperspectral indices were used to assess plant species diversity. Results demonstrated that the stepwise linear regression of FD can accurately estimate the Simpson (R2  = 0...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
In-Cheol Kim, Suyon Chang, Geu-Ru Hong, Seung Hyun Lee, Sak Lee, Jong-Won Ha, Byung-Chul Chang, Young Jin Kim, Chi Young Shim
BACKGROUND: Recent evolution of cardiac computed tomography (CT) provides useful information about valvular and perivalvular structures. We compared the diagnostic performance of CT and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with applications of 3-dimensional reconstruction in detecting vegetation and intracardiac complications in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (53 men; age, 58±15 years) with definite IE who underwent TEE and CT with 3-dimensional reconstruction within 3 days were analyzed...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
Qiang Guo, Ian T Major, Gregg A Howe
Induced plant resistance depends on the production of specialized metabolites that repel attack by biotic aggressors and is often associated with reduced growth of vegetative tissues. Despite progress in understanding the signal transduction networks that control growth-defense tradeoffs, much remains to be learned about how growth rate is coordinated with changes in metabolism during growth-to-defense transitions. Here, we highlight recent advances in jasmonate research to suggest how a major branch of plant immunity is dynamically regulated to calibrate growth-defense balance with shifts in carbon availability...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Lauren E Au, Klara Gurzo, Wendi Gosliner, Karen L Webb, Patricia B Crawford, Lorrene D Ritchie
BACKGROUND: Research on the association between school meal consumption and overall dietary intake post-Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act implementation is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the association between frequency of participating in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs and children's dietary intakes. DESIGN: The Healthy Communities Study was a cross-sectional observational study conducted between 2013 and 2015...
March 16, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Natalia M Pukhovskaya, Olga V Morozova, Nelya P Vysochina, Nadejda B Belozerova, Svetlana V Bakhmetyeva, Nina I Zdanovskaya, Stephen J Seligman, Leonid I Ivanov
Isolates of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) from arthropod vectors (ticks and mosquitoes) in the Amur, the Jewish Autonomous and the Sakhalin regions as well as on the Khabarovsk territory of the Far East of Russia were studied. Different proportions of four main tick species of the family Ixodidae: Ixodes persulcatus P. Schulze, 1930; Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844; Haemaphysalis japonica douglasi Nuttall et Warburton, 1915 and Dermacentor silvarum Olenev, 1932 were found in forests and near settlements...
February 8, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
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