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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156617/optimum-thermal-processing-for-extended-shelf-life-esl-milk
#1
REVIEW
Hilton Deeth
Extended shelf-life (ESL) or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT) sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics...
November 20, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156568/assessing-crop-coefficients-for-natural-vegetated-areas-using-satellite-data-and-eddy-covariance-stations
#2
Chiara Corbari, Giovanni Ravazzani, Marta Galvagno, Edoardo Cremonese, Marco Mancini
The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) method for potential evapotranspiration assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration. Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156551/is-all-urban-green-space-the-same-a-comparison-of-the-health-benefits-of-trees-and-grass-in-new-york-city
#3
Colleen E Reid, Jane E Clougherty, Jessie L C Shmool, Laura D Kubzansky
Living near vegetation, often called "green space" or "greenness", has been associated with numerous health benefits. We hypothesized that the two key components of urban vegetation, trees and grass, may differentially affect health. We estimated the association between near-residence trees, grass, and total vegetation (from the 2010 High Resolution Land Cover dataset for New York City (NYC)) with self-reported health from a survey of NYC adults (n = 1281). We found higher reporting of "very good" or "excellent" health for respondents with the highest, compared to the lowest, quartiles of tree (RR = 1...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156437/home-composting-using-different-ratios-of-bulking-agent-to-food-waste
#4
Lucas Lourenço Castiglioni Guidoni, Roger Vasques Marques, Rodrigo Bilhalva Moncks, Fabiana Torma Botelho, Matheus Francisco da Paz, Luciara Bilhalva Corrêa, Érico Kunde Corrêa
The negative environmental impacts associated with home composting may be due to the absence of a defined operation criteria for the degradation process. In addition to the potentially low environmental impact in terms of energy and water usage, which is minimal to the manufacture of the composting unit and avoiding the processing and transportation of waste or byproduct, composting at home can also promote a reduction in the emission of unpleasant gases. The proportion of the food waste and bulking agents in the composting mixture may be decisive to fulfill good practices of waste stabilization...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156435/more-than-a-to-b-understanding-and-managing-visitor-spatial-behaviour-in-urban-forests-using-public-participation-gis
#5
Silviya Korpilo, Tarmo Virtanen, Tiina Saukkonen, Susanna Lehvävirta
Planning and management needs up-to-date, easily-obtainable and accurate information on the spatial and social aspects of visitor behaviour in order to balance human use and impacts, and protection of natural resources in public parks. We used a web-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) approach to gather citizen data on visitor behaviour in Helsinki's Central Park in order to aid collaborative spatial decision-making. The study combined smartphone GPS tracking, route drawing and a questionnaire to examine differences between user groups in their use of formal trails, off-trail behaviour and the motivations that affect it...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156372/psychometric-properties-of-the-intuitive-eating-scale-2-ies-2-in-a-culturally-diverse-hispanic-american-sample
#6
Jessica F Saunders, Kristin A Nichols-Lopez, Leslie D Frazier
BACKGROUND: Intuitive eating is an adaptive eating tendency consistently associated with positive physical and mental health outcomes, including lower risk for obesity and eating disorders (EDs). Obesity rates are disproportionately high in Hispanic American populations, yet the properties of intuitive eating remain to be examined in such samples. METHOD: The current study examined the psychometric properties of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 (IES-2) in a Hispanic American sample of adult college students (N=482), and related IES-2 scores to levels of disordered eating, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetable consumption, and body shape satisfaction...
November 14, 2017: Eating Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156331/may-humic-acids-or-mineral-fertilisation-mitigate-arsenic-mobility-and-availability-to-carrot-plants-daucus-carota-l-in-a-volcanic-soil-polluted-by-as-from-irrigation-water
#7
Antonio G Caporale, Paola Adamo, Shah M G G Azam, Maria A Rao, Massimo Pigna
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is a widely consumed root vegetable, whose growth and safety might be threatened by growing-medium arsenic (As) contamination. By this work, we evaluated the effects of humic acids from Leonardite and NPK mineral fertilisation on As mobility and availability to carrot plants grown for 60 days in a volcanic soil irrigated with As-contaminated water - representing the most common scenario occurring in As-affected Italian areas. As expected, the irrigation with As-contaminated water caused a serious toxic effect on plant growth and photosynthetic rate; the highest rate of As also inhibited soil enzymatic activity...
November 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156288/determination-and-validation-of-soil-thresholds-for-cadmium-based-on-food-quality-standard-and-health-risk-assessment
#8
Changfeng Ding, Yibing Ma, Xiaogang Li, Taolin Zhang, Xingxiang Wang
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant with high rates of soil-plant transfer. It is essential to establish an accurate soil threshold for the implementation of soil management practices. This study takes root vegetable as an example to derive soil thresholds for Cd based on the food quality standard as well as health risk assessment using species sensitivity distribution (SSD). A soil type-specific bioconcentration factor (BCF, ratio of Cd concentration in plant to that in soil) generated from soil with a proper Cd concentration gradient was calculated and applied in the derivation of soil thresholds instead of a generic BCF value to minimize the uncertainty...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156282/pesticides-in-agricultural-headwater-streams-in-southwestern-germany-and-effects-on-macroinvertebrate-populations
#9
Gero Weber, Nicole Christmann, Ann-Cathrin Thiery, Dieter Martens, Jochen Kubiniok
Pesticides are a major burden for stream ecosystems in the central European cultivated landscape. The objective of the present study was to investigate the applicability of ecological indicator methods in relation to toxicity of pesticides under the specific hydro-morphological conditions in small water bodies. Thus, an association of toxicity evaluating methods with different ecological indicators was to be attempted. Based on three random samples taken within the 2016 vegetation period, 23 headwater areas in the Saarland were investigated to test for pesticides and their metabolites...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156279/the-stocks-and-flows-of-nitrogen-phosphorus-and-potassium-across-a-30-year-time-series-for-agriculture-in-huantai-county-china
#10
Jessica Bellarby, Ben W J Surridge, Philip M Haygarth, Kun Liu, Giuseppina Siciliano, Laurence Smith, Clive Rahn, Fanqiao Meng
In order to improve the efficiency of nutrient use whilst also meeting projected changes in the demand for food within China, new nutrient management frameworks comprised of policy, practice and the means of delivering change are required. These frameworks should be underpinned by systemic analyses of the stocks and flows of nutrients within agricultural production. In this paper, a 30-year time series of the stocks and flows of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) are reported for Huantai county, an exemplar area of intensive agricultural production in the North China Plain...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156263/application-of-biochar-from-food-and-wood-waste-as-green-admixture-for-cement-mortar
#11
Souradeep Gupta, Harn Wei Kua, Hui Jun Koh
Landfilling of food waste due to its low recycling rate is raising serious concerns because of associated soil and water contamination, and emission of methane and other greenhouse gases during the degradation process. This paper explores feasibility of using biochar derived from mixed food waste (FWBC), rice waste (RWBC) and wood waste (mixed wood saw dust, MWBC) as carbon sequestering additive in mortar. RWBC is prepared from boiled plain rice, while FWBC is prepared from combination of rice, meat, and vegetables in fixed proportion...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156257/surrounding-land-cover-types-as-predictors-of-palustrine-wetland-vegetation-quality-in-conterminous-usa
#12
Martin A Stapanian, Brian Gara, William Schumacher
The loss of wetland habitats and their often-unique biological communities is a major environmental concern. We examined vegetation data obtained from 380 wetlands sampled in a statistical survey of wetlands in the USA. Our goal was to identify which surrounding land cover types best predict two indices of vegetation quality in wetlands at the regional scale. We considered palustrine wetlands in four regions (Coastal Plains, North Central East, Interior Plains, and West) in which the dominant vegetation was emergent, forested, or scrub-shrub...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155570/chemistry-antimicrobial-mechanisms-and-antibiotic-activities-of-cinnamaldehyde-against-pathogenic-bacteria-in-animal-feeds-and-human-foods
#13
Mendel Friedman
Cinnamaldehyde is a major constituent of cinnamon essential oils produced by aromatic cinnamon plants. This compound has been reported to exhibit antimicrobial properties in vitro in laboratory media and in animal feeds and human foods contaminated with disease-causing bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica. This integrated review surveys and interprets our current knowledge of the chemistry, analysis, safety, mechanism of action, and antibiotic activities of cinnamaldehyde in food animal (cattle, lambs, calves, pigs, poultry) diets and in widely consumed liquid (apple, carrot, tomato, and watermelon juices, milk) and solid foods...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155553/thiyl-radical-based-charge-tagging-enables-rapid-sterol-quantitation-via-mass-spectrometry
#14
Sarju Adhikari Adhikari, Yu Xia
Inspired by the high reactivity and specificity of thiyl radicals toward alkenes, we have developed a new charge derivatization meth-od to enable fast and quantitative analysis of sterols via electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Thioglycolic acid (TGA), a commercially available compound, has been established as a highly efficient tagging reagent. Initiated from photochemical reactions, the thiyl radical derived from TGA abstracts an allylic hydrogen in the B ring of sterols, forming a radical intermediate which rapidly recombines with a second thiyl radical to produce the final tagged product...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155446/the-china-plant-trait-database-towards-a-comprehensive-regional-compilation-of-functional-traits-for-land-plants
#15
Han Wang, Sandy P Harrison, I Colin Prentice, Yanzheng Yang, Fan Bai, Henrique Furstenau Togashi, Meng Wang, Shuangxi Zhou, Jian Ni
Plant functional traits provide information about adaptations to climate and environmental conditions, and can be used to explore the existence of alternative plant strategies within ecosystems. Trait data are also increasingly being used to provide parameter estimates for vegetation models. Here we present a new database of plant functional traits from China. Most global climate and vegetation types can be found in China, and thus the database is relevant for global modelling. The China Plant Trait Database contains information on morphometric, physical, chemical and photosynthetic traits from 122 sites spanning the range from boreal to tropical, and from deserts and steppes through woodlands and forests, including montane vegetation...
November 20, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155246/relatively-enriched-housing-conditions-delay-binge-onset-but-do-not-attenuate-binge-size
#16
Kerry E Preston, Rebecca L Corwin, Julia O Bader, Stephen L Crimmins
Housing and enrichment conditions are essential factors to consider when using animal models of behavior, as they can alter the behavior that is under investigation. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of the relatively enriched environment recommended by current animal care guidelines on development and maintenance of binge-type behavior in rats, using the limited access (LA) binge model. Non-food-deprived rats were divided into two groups, enriched and nonenriched, with all rats housed in shoebox cages...
November 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154747/disseminated-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#17
David R Perkins, James A Hall, Lisa M Lopez, Lizbeth Janice Cahuayme-Zuniga
INTRODUCTION: When clinicians think about Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, what comes to the mind of most is the dreaded methicillin-resistant form. However, clinicians should not forget the methicillin-susceptible type, which is just as virulent. CASE PRESENTATION: The authors present the case of a 20-year-old woman who was admitted with septic shock and multi-organ failure and was found to have disseminated methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153871/revisiting-the-impact-of-macroeconomic-conditions-on-health-behaviours
#18
Giorgio Di Pietro
This paper estimates the average population effect of macroeconomic conditions on health behaviours accounting for the heterogeneous impact of the business cycle on individuals. While previous studies use models relying on area-specific unemployment rates to estimate this average effect, this paper employs a model based on area-specific unemployment rates by gender and age group. The rationale for breaking down unemployment rates is that the severity of cyclical upturns and downturns does not only significantly vary across geographical areas, but also across gender and age...
November 7, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153066/-age-related-prevalence-of-toxoplasmosis-among-pregnant-women-in-hatay-estimation-depending-on-model
#19
Meryem Çetin, Şirin Çetin
Toxoplasmosis, caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, is a common parasitic infection affecting approximately one-third of the world population. T.gondii infections are usually acquired by ingesting raw or insufficiently cooked meat and from unwashed fruits and vegetables contaminated with soil or water with cat feces. Primary infection acquired during pregnancy can cause severe congenital abnormalities in the fetus such as neurologic and ocular malformations, abortion, or stillbirth according to the degree of infection...
October 2017: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152632/a-combination-of-quercetin-and-resveratrol-reduces-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats-by-modulation-of-gut-microbiota
#20
Le Zhao, Qi Zhang, Weini Ma, Feng Tian, Hongyi Shen, Mingmei Zhou
Resveratrol and quercetin, widely found in foods and vegetables, are plant polyphenols reported to have a wide range of biological activities. Despite their limited bioavailabilities, both resveratrol and quercetin are known to exhibit anti-inflammation and anti-obesity effects. We hypothesized that gut microbiota may be a potential target for resveratrol and quercetin to prevent the development of obesity. The aim of this research was to confirm whether a combination of quercetin and resveratrol (CQR) could restore the gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by a high-fat diet (HFD)...
November 20, 2017: Food & Function
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