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Risk scores chest pain

Robert F Riley, Chadwick D Miller, Gregory B Russell, Erin N Harper, Brian C Hiestand, James W Hoekstra, Cedric W Lefebvre, Bret A Nicks, David M Cline, Kim L Askew, Simon A Mahler
INTRODUCTION: The HEART Pathway is a diagnostic protocol designed to identify low-risk patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain that are safe for early discharge. This protocol has been shown to significantly decrease health care resource utilization compared with usual care. However, the impact of the HEART Pathway on the cost of care has yet to be reported. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cost analysis of patients enrolled in the HEART Pathway trial, which randomized participants to either usual care or the HEART Pathway protocol...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kongkiat Chaikriangkrai, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha, Hye Yeon Jhun, Patompong Ungprasert, Gardar Sigurdsson, Faisal Nabi, John J Mahmarian, Su Min Chang
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a well-established test for risk stratifying asymptomatic patients. Recent studies also indicate that CACS may accurately risk stratify stable patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute chest pain; however, many were underpowered. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the prognostic value and accuracy of a zero (normal) CACS for identifying patients at acceptable low risk for future cardiovascular events who might be safely discharged home from the ED...
October 10, 2016: Annals of Emergency Medicine
William R Fox, Deborah B Diercks
Troponins are proteins commonly found in cardiac tissue that are released during myocardial ischemia or necrosis. These troponins can be detected by assays that can then be used to guide clinical decision-making and disposition, especially if the suspected insult is related to acute coronary syndrome. Timing of troponin measurement can be important as elevations may not be detectible immediately after an insult. New assays have been designed to detect troponin con-centrations previously too low to be detected by conventional assays...
March 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
W Kelly Wu, Maame Yaa A B Yiadom, Sean P Collins, Wesley H Self, Ken Monahan
INTRODUCTION: A triage cardiology program, in which cardiologists provide consultation to the Emergency Department (ED), may safely reduce admissions. For patients with chest pain, the HEART Pathway may obviate the need for cardiology involvement, unless there is a difference between ED and cardiology assessments. Therefore, in a cohort concurrently evaluated by both specialties, we analyzed discordance between ED and cardiology HEART scores. METHODS: We performed a single-center, cross-sectional, retrospective study of adults presenting to the ED with chest pain who had a documented bedside evaluation by a triage cardiologist...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Chest pain accounts for 10% of emergency department (ED) visits annually, and many of these patients are admitted because of potentially life-threatening conditions. A substantial percentage of patients with chest pain are at low risk for a major cardiac adverse event (MACE). OBJECTIVE: We investigated controversies in the evaluation of patients with low-risk chest pain, including clinical scores, decision pathways, and shared decision-making. DISCUSSION: ED patients with chest pain who have negative biomarker results and nonischemic electrocardiograms are at low risk for MACE...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Troy Madsen, Cameron Smyres, Talmage Wood, Tamara Moores, Matthew Fuller, Virgil Davis, Kurt Bernhisel
BACKGROUND: In evaluating patients with chest pain, emergency department observation units (EDOUs) may use a staffing model in which emergency physicians determine patient testing (EP model) or a model similar to a chest pain unit (CPU) in which cardiologists determine provocative testing (CPU model). METHODS: We performed a prospective study with 30-day telephone follow-up for all chest pain patients placed in our EDOU. Halfway through the study period, our EDOU transitioned from an EP model to a CPU model...
September 17, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Juan Sanchis, Sergio García-Blas, Arturo Carratalá, Ernesto Valero, Anna Mollar, Gema Miñana, Vicente Ruiz, Jose Vicente Balaguer, Mercé Roqué, Xavier Bosch, Julio Núñez
Decision-making in acute chest pain remains challenging despite normal (below ninety-ninth percentile) high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn). Some studies suggest that undetectable hs-cTn, far below the ninety-ninth percentile, might rule out acute coronary syndrome. We investigated clinical data in comparison to undetectable hs-cTnT. The study comprised 682 patients (November 2010 to September 2011) presenting at the emergency department with chest pain and normal hs-cTnT (<14 ng/l). The main end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACE: death, myocardial infarction, readmission for unstable angina, or revascularization) at a 4-year median follow-up; secondary end point was 30-day MACE...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Philippe J van Rosendael, Vasileios Kamperidis, William K F Kong, Alexander R van Rosendael, Nina A Marsan, Jeroen J Bax, Victoria Delgado
The aim of this study was to compare the calcium burden of the aortic valve and coronary arteries with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in a propensity score-matched population of patients with a bicuspid versus a tricuspid aortic valve. From an ongoing clinical registry of patients who underwent MDCT, 70 patients with bicuspid aortic valve and 210 patients with tricuspid aortic valve were matched based on age, gender, cardiovascular risk factors, chest pain symptoms, and MDCT indication. Aortic valve calcium and the presence and severity of coronary artery disease were analyzed...
August 23, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
Poul Henning Madsen, Søren Hess
Basic knowledge of pulmonary embolism is relevant to most practicing physicians. Many medical specialties care for patients with increased risk of pulmonary embolism, why recognition of relevant symptoms, a thorough medical history, assessment of the clinical condition of the patient and possibly referral to a relevant facility should be a part of the skills of all clinicians. Sudden onset dyspnea, chest pain, syncope and hemoptysis are essential symptoms of pulmonary embolism, and in most of these patients basic investigations like arterial blood gas analysis, electrocardiogram, chest x-ray and biochemical analyses are appropriate...
September 13, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alberto García-Lledó, José L Moya-Mur, Virginia Ponz-Mir, Susana Novo-Aparicio, Azucena Sanz-Barrio, Concepción Álvarez-Sanz, Ana de Santiago-Nocito
BACKGROUND: Risk score systems (RSS) were designed to estimate the risk of cardiac events. Their ability to predict coronary atherosclerosis (CA) has not been established. HYPOTHESIS: Risk score systems can predict presence of CA in patients without typical symptoms or ischemia. Because design of each RSS is different, their predictive value could also differ. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was done on patients from a low-risk region referred for cardiac multislice computed tomography (MSCT)...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
M O Versteylen, M Manca, I A Joosen, D E Schmidt, M Das, L Hofstra, H J Crijns, E A Biessen, B L Kietselaer
BACKGROUND: CC chemokine ligands (CCLs) are elevated during acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and correlate with secondary events. Their involvement in plaque inflammation led us to investigate whether CCL3-5-18 are linked to the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and prognostic for primary events during follow-up. METHODS: We measured CCL3-5-18 serum concentrations in 712 patients with chest discomfort referred for cardiac CT angiography. Obstructive CAD was defined as ≥50 % stenosis...
August 29, 2016: Netherlands Heart Journal
Arturo J Martí-Carvajal, Ivan Solà, Luis H Agreda-Pérez
BACKGROUND: Avascular necrosis of bone is a frequent and severe complication of sickle cell disease and its treatment is not standardised. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of any surgical procedure compared with other surgical interventions or non-surgical procedures, on avascular necrosis of bone in people with sickle cell disease in terms of efficacy and safety. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
António Miguel Ferreira, Hugo Marques, António Tralhão, Miguel Borges Santos, Ana Rita Santos, Gonçalo Cardoso, Hélder Dores, Maria Salomé Carvalho, Sérgio Madeira, Francisco Pereira Machado, Nuno Cardim, Pedro de Araújo Gonçalves
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend the use of the Modified Diamond-Forrester (MDF) method to assess the pre-test likelihood of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to compare the performance of the MDF method with two contemporary algorithms derived from multicenter trials that additionally incorporate cardiovascular risk factors: the calculator-based 'CAD Consortium 2' method, and the integer-based CONFIRM score. METHODS: We assessed 1069 consecutive patients without known CAD undergoing coronary CT angiography (CCTA) for stable chest pain...
November 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Fay Crawford, Alina Andras, Karen Welch, Karen Sheares, David Keeling, Francesca M Chappell
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary embolism (PE) can occur when a thrombus (blood clot) travels through the veins and lodges in the arteries of the lungs, producing an obstruction. People who are thought to be at risk include those with cancer, people who have had a recent surgical procedure or have experienced long periods of immobilisation and women who are pregnant. The clinical presentation can vary, but unexplained respiratory symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain and an increased respiratory rate are common...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Servet Altay, Hüseyin Altuğ Çakmak, Tuğba Kemaloğlu Öz, Fatma Özpamuk Karadeniz, Ayça Türer, Hatice Betül Erer, Gülen Feyzan Kılıç, İbrahim Keleş, Günay Can, Mehmet Eren
OBJECTIVE: A predictive role of serum Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) for short-term adverse cardiovascular events including mortality in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was reported in recent studies. The aim of the study was to investigate long-term prognostic significance of serum PTX3 in an AMI with 5-year follow-up period in this study. METHODS: In this prospective study, 140 patients, who were admitted to the emergency department between January 2011 and December 2011 with acute chest pain and/or dyspnea and diagnosed with AMI and 60 healthy controls were included...
August 2, 2016: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Tina Roche, Natasha Jennings, Stuart Clifford, Jane O'connell, Matthew Lutze, Edward Gosden, N Fionna Hadden, Glenn Gardner
Risk stratification tools for patients presenting to rural EDs with undifferentiated chest pain enable early definitive treatment in high-risk patients. This systematic review compares the most commonly used risk stratification tools used to predict the risk of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) for patients presenting to rural EDs with chest pain. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE and Embase for studies published between January 2011 and January 2015 was undertaken. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2 criteria and the PRISMA guidelines...
October 2016: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
Jeffrey Tadashi Sakamoto, Nan Liu, Zhi Xiong Koh, Nicholas Xue Jin Fung, Micah Liam Arthur Heldeweg, Janson Cheng Ji Ng, Marcus Eng Hock Ong
BACKGROUND: The HEART, TIMI, and GRACE scores have been applied in the Emergency Department (ED) to risk stratify patients with undifferentiated chest pain. This study aims to compare the accuracy of HEART, TIMI, and GRACE for the prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in high acuity chest pain patients. METHODS: Adult patients who presented with chest pain suggestive of cardiac origin in the most acute triage category at an academic ED from September 2010 to October 2015 were included...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Pablo Bartolucci, Anoosha Habibi, Mehdi Khellaf, Françoise Roudot-Thoraval, Giovanna Melica, Anne-Sophie Lascaux, Stéphane Moutereau, Sylvain Loric, Orianne Wagner-Ballon, Jugurtha Berkenou, Aline Santin, Marc Michel, Bertrand Renaud, Yves Lévy, Frédéric Galactéros, Bertrand Godeau
BACKGROUND: Vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC), hallmark of sickle-cell disease (SCD), is the first cause of patients' Emergency-Room admissions and hospitalizations. Acute chest syndrome (ACS), a life-threatening complication, can occur during VOC, be fatal and prolong hospitalization. No predictive factor identifies VOC patients who will develop secondary ACS. METHODS: This prospective, monocenter, observational study on SS/S-β0thalassemia SCD adults aimed to identify parameters predicting ACS at Emergency-Department arrival...
August 2016: EBioMedicine
Dylan Flaws, Martin Than, Frank Xavier Scheuermeyer, James Christenson, Barbara Boychuk, Jaimi H Greenslade, Sally Aldous, Christopher J Hammett, William A Parsonage, Joanne M Deely, John W Pickering, Louise Cullen
OBJECTIVE: The emergency department assessment of chest pain score accelerated diagnostic pathway (EDACS-ADP) facilitates low-risk ED chest pain patients early to outpatient investigation. We aimed to validate this rule in a North American population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective validation of the EDACS-ADP using 763 chest pain patients who presented to St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, Canada, between June 2000 and January 2003. Patients were classified as low risk if they had an EDACS <16, no new ischaemia on ECG and non-elevated serial 0-hour and 2-hour cardiac troponin concentrations...
September 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
T H Rainer, Y K Leung, A Lee, P Y Chan, N M Cheng, J K Wong, B P Yan, A T Ahuja, C A Graham
BACKGROUND: Chest pain patients commonly present to emergency departments (ED), and require either hospital admission and/or lengthy diagnostic protocols to rule-out myocardial infarction. We aimed to identify the best combination of add-on tests to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTnT) for predicting 30-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in adult chest pain patients presenting to an ED with suspected acute coronary syndrome. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in the ED of a tertiary university hospital in Hong Kong, recruiting adult patients with chest pain of less than 24h duration, suspected with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and had no history of coronary artery bypass grafting or stent insertion...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
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