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Fabrizio Damiano, Alessio Rochira, Antonio Gnoni, Luisa Siculella
The thyroid hormones (THs) 3,3',5,5'-tetraiodo-l-thyronine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) influence many metabolic pathways. The major physiological function of THs is to sustain basal energy expenditure, by acting primarily on carbohydrate and lipid catabolism. Beyond the mobilization and degradation of lipids, at the hepatic level THs stimulate the de novo fatty acid synthesis (de novo lipogenesis, DNL), through both the modulation of gene expression and the rapid activation of cell signalling pathways...
March 31, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shunsuke Suzuki, Kentaro Kasai, Norihito Nishiyama, Akinori Ishihara, Kiyoshi Yamauchi
Transthyretin (TTR) is a vertebrate-specific protein involved in thyroid hormone distribution in plasma, and its gene is thought to have emerged by gene duplication from the gene for the ancient TTR-related protein, 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase, at some early stage of chordate evolution. We investigated the molecular and hormone-binding properties of the brown hagfish Paramyxine atami TTR. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cloned hagfish TTR cDNA shared 33-50% identities with those of other vertebrate TTRs but less than 24% identities with those of vertebrate and deuterostome invertebrate 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolases...
February 24, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Keith Richards, Eddy Rijntjes, Daniel Rathmann, Josef Köhrle
This short review aims to assess the application of basic quality assurance (QA) principles in published thyroid hormone bioanalytical methods using mass spectrometry (MS). The use of tandem MS, in particular linked to liquid chromatography has become an essential bioanalytical tool for the thyroid hormone research community. Although basic research laboratories do not usually work within the constraints of a quality management system and regulated environment, all of the reviewed publications, to a lesser or greater extent, document the application of QA principles to the MS methods described...
January 31, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Ugo Bussy, Yu-Wen Chung-Davidson, Ke Li, Skye D Fissette, Ethan G Buchinger, Weiming Li
A UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to provide a reproducible, sensitive and quantitative assay to determine thyroid hormones in sea lamprey tissues and plasma. l-Thyroxine (T4) and its two triiodo-thyronine isomers have been simultaneously quantified and validated for plasma, gill, liver, and kidney matrices. Multiple sample preparation techniques were investigated to achieve optimal sample matrix digestion and clean-up. Enzymatic digestion followed by protein precipitation was selected to process the samples...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Maria Moreno, Elena Silvestri, Maria Coppola, Ira J Goldberg, Li-Shin Huang, Anna M Salzano, Fulvio D'Angelo, Joel R Ehrenkranz, Fernando Goglia
3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) and 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), when administered to a model of familial hypercholesterolemia, i.e., low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice fed with a Western type diet (WTD), dramatically reduce circulating total and very low-density lipoprotein/LDL cholesterol with decreased liver apolipoprotein B (ApoB) production. The aim of the study was to highlight putative molecular mechanisms to manage cholesterol levels in the absence of LDLr. A comprehensive comparative profiling of changes in expression of soluble proteins in livers from Ldlr(-/-) mice treated with either T3 or T2 was performed...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Alessandro Cavallo, Federica Taurino, Fabrizio Damiano, Luisa Siculella, Anna Maria Sardanelli, Antonio Gnoni
The role of 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T2), initially considered only a 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) catabolite, in the bioenergetic metabolism is of growing interest. In this study we investigated the acute effects (within 1 h) of T2 administration to hypothyroid rats on liver mitochondria fatty acid uptake and β-oxidation rate, mitochondrial efficiency (by measuring proton leak) and mitochondrial oxidative damage (by determining H2O2 release). Fatty acid uptake into mitochondria was measured assaying carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) I and II activities, and fatty acid β-oxidation using palmitoyl-CoA as a respiratory substrate...
October 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Ebtihal A Abd El-Aziz
Hyperthyroidism is associated with abnormalities of the liver. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially their long-chain forms: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have beneficial health effects. The objectives of the present study were to assess hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction in adult male rats and to evaluate the ameliorative effects of omega-3 on hyperthyroidism-induced hepatic dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms. Twenty four adult male rats were randomly divided into three equal groups; control group which received water for 6 weeks, hyperthyroid group which received L-thyroxine orally for 6 weeks and hyperthyroid omega-3 treated group which received L-thyroxine for 2 weeks and then co-treated with L-thyroxine and omega-3 oral compound containing 18% of EPA and 12% of DHA for 4 weeks...
December 2016: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
Yufeng Gong, Hua Tian, Xiaona Zhang, Yifei Dong, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru
To elucidate the potential thyroid disrupting effects of refuse leachate on females, female goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 0.5% diluted leachates from each step of a leachate treatment process (i.e. raw leachate before treatment, after membrane bioreactor treatment, and the final treated leachate) for 21days. Raw leachate exposure caused disturbances in the thyroid cascade of female fish, as evidenced by the elevated plasma 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (p<0.05) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (p<0...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sairi Miyata, Tomotaka Yada, Natsuko Ishikawa, Kazi Taheruzzaman, Ryohei Hara, Takashi Matsuzaki, Akio Nishikawa
To understand the mechanism of muscle remodeling during Xenopus laevis metamorphosis, we examined the in vitro effect of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on growth and differentiation of three different-fate myogenic cell populations: tadpole tail, tadpole dorsal, and young adult leg muscle. IGF-1 promoted growth and differentiation of both tail and leg myogenic cells only under conditions where these cells could proliferate. Inhibition of cell proliferation by DNA synthesis inhibitor cytosine arabinoside completely canceled the IGF-1's cell differentiation promotion, suggesting the possibility that IGF-1's differentiation-promotion effect is an indirect effect via IGF-1's cell proliferation promotion...
March 2017: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Aleck Hercbergs, Paul J Davis, Hung-Yun Lin, Shaker A Mousa
l-Thyroxine (T4) is the principal replacement hormone for patients who have hypothyroidism. Some preclinical and clinical evidence supports the possibility that T4 can at least permissively affect certain features of established cancers and cancer-relevant angiogenesis. Thus, in the occasional patient with hypothyroidism and concomitant cancer, it appears reasonable to consider thyroid hormone replacement exclusively with 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3). This use of T3 has been shown to be effective and safe in early experience with medical induction of euthyroid hypothyroxinemia in patients with advanced solid tumors...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Meri De Angelis, Florian Giesert, Brian Finan, Christoffer Clemmensen, Timo D Müller, Daniela Vogt-Weisenhorn, Matthias H Tschöp, Karl-Werner Schramm
Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the regulation of many biological processes such as growth, metabolism and development both in humans and wildlife. In general, TH levels are measured by immunoassay (IA) methods but the specificity of the antibodies used in these assays limits selectivity. In the last decade, several analytical methods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have been developed to measure THs. These new techniques proved to be more accurate than the IA analysis and they were widely used for the determination of TH level in different human and animal tissues...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Manne Mudhu Sunitha, Lokanathan Srikanth, Pasupuleti Santhosh Kumar, Chodimella Chandrasekhar, Potukuchi Venkata Gurunadha Krishna Sarma
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess multipotent ability to differentiate into various types of cells on providing appropriate niche. In the present study, the differentiating potential of human HSCs into β-cells of islets of langerhans was explored. Human HSCs were apheretically isolated from a donor and cultured. Phenotypic characterization of CD34 glycoprotein in the growing monolayer HSCs was confirmed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry techniques. HSCs were induced by selection with beta cell differentiating medium (BDM), which consists of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), transferrin, Triiodo-l-Tyronine, nicotinamide and activin A...
October 2016: Cell Biology International
Paul J Davis, Gennadi V Glinsky, Hung-Yun Lin, Shaker A Mousa
The extracellular domain of plasma membrane integrin αvβ3 contains a receptor for thyroid hormone (L-thyroxine, T4; 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine, T3); this receptor also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of T4. Tetrac inhibits the binding of T4 and T3 to the integrin. Fractalkine (CX3CL1) is a chemokine relevant to inflammatory processes in the CNS that are microglia-dependent but also important to normal brain development. Expression of the CX3CL1 gene is downregulated by tetrac, suggesting that T4 and T3 may stimulate fractalkine expression...
2016: Journal of Immunology Research
Teruki Miyake, Bunzo Matsuura, Shinya Furukawa, Yasuhiko Todo, Shin Yamamoto, Osamu Yoshida, Yusuke Imai, Takao Watanabe, Yasunori Yamamoto, Masashi Hirooka, Yoshio Tokumoto, Teru Kumagi, Masanori Abe, Hirotaka Seike, Shozo Miyauchi, Yoichi Hiasa
3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine regulates the glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and hepatic steatosis. Several groups have shown the relationships between hypothyroidism and nonalcoholic fatty liver and hypothyroidism and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the effect of hyperthyroidism on NASH has not yet been investigated. We herein report effects of thyroid hormone on the pathological condition of NASH in a patient with NASH complicated by Graves' disease. In our case, the liver enzyme level improved with the increasing thyroid hormone level; however, the liver enzyme level was aggravated with the improving thyroid hormone level...
2016: Internal Medicine
Meng-Ti Hsieh, Le-Ming Wang, Chun A Changou, Yu-Tang Chin, Yu-Chen S H Yang, Hsuan-Yu Lai, Sheng-Yang Lee, Yung-Ning Yang, Jacqueline Whang-Peng, Leroy F Liu, Hung-Yun Lin, Shaker A Mousa, Paul J Davis
Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in gynecological diseases. Thyroid hormone promotes proliferation of ovarian cancer cells via cell surface receptor integrin αvβ3 that activates extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2). However, the mechanisms are still not fully understood. Thyroxine (T4) at a physiologic total hormone concentration (10-7 M) significantly increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) abundance in these cell lines, as did 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) at a supraphysiologic concentration...
July 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Mehdi Rajabi, Thangirala Sudha, Noureldien H E Darwish, Paul J Davis, Shaker A Mousa
The tyrosine-based hormones 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (l-T3) and l-thyroxine (l-T4) that are produced by the thyroid gland control metabolic functions. Iodothyronine deiodinase enzymes convert l-T4 to l-T3, the form of thyroid hormone critical to genomic actions within cells and regulation of metabolism, and to reverse-l-T3, a hormone isoform that is largely inactive. We used tertiary amines in a study of deiodination based on derivatives of tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac)-a naturally occurring derivative of l-T4-to mimic the action of the iodothyronine deiodinases and deiodination of the outer ring iodines...
August 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Mario Bakardjiev, Bohumil Štíbr, Josef Holub, Oleg L Tok, Petr Švec, Zdeňka Růžičková, Aleš Růžička
Sequential methylation of arachno-6,9-C2B8H14 (1) led to a series of methyl derivatives and finally to the camouflaging of all boron positions by mixed persubstitution. Thus, deprotonation of 1 produced the [arachno-6,9-C2B8H13] anion (1(-)), the methylation of which with MeI in tetrahydrofuran proceeded on the open-face boron vertexes with the formation of 5-Me-arachno-6,9-C2B8H13 (2; yield 28%) and 5,8-Me2-arachno-6,9-C2B8H12 (3; yield 36%). Observed in this reaction was also a side formation of 2-Me-closo-1,6-C2B8H9 (4; yield 6%)...
July 18, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Gergely Jocsak, David Sandor Kiss, Istvan Toth, Greta Goszleth, Tibor Bartha, Laszlo V Frenyo, Tamas L Horvath, Attila Zsarnovszky
BACKGROUND: Humans and animals are continuously exposed to a number of environmental substances that act as endocrine disruptors (EDs). While a growing body of evidence is available to prove their adverse health effects, very little is known about the consequences of simultaneous exposure to a combination of such chemicals; METHODS: Here, we used an in vitro model to demonstrate how exposure to bisphenol A, zearalenone, arsenic, and 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, alone or in combination, affect estrogen receptor β (ERβ) mRNA expression in primary cerebellar cell cultures...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shaohong Cheng, Weirong Xing, Sheila Pourteymoor, Subburaman Mohan
Studies involving human genetic mutations and mutant mouse models have provided irrevocable evidence for a key role for thyroid hormones (THs) in the regulation of skeletal growth. While T3 binds to TH receptors with higher affinity than T4, T4 occupied TH receptors have also been reported in the nucleus under euthyroid conditions raising the possibility that T4 bound nuclear receptors may be biologically relevant in thyroid syndromes with elevated free T4 and reduced T3 levels. We, therefore, evaluated the direct effects of T4, T3, and their metabolites (rT3 and T2) in stimulating osteoblast differentiation using MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts which do not produce detectable levels of deiodinases...
October 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Jason P Breves, Silas K Phipps-Costin, Chelsea K Fujimoto, Ingibjörg E Einarsdottir, Amy M Regish, Björn Thrandur Björnsson, Stephen D McCormick
The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) system plays a central role in the regulation of growth in fishes. However, the roles of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) in coordinating responses to food availability are unresolved, especially in anadromous fishes preparing for seaward migration. We assayed plasma Gh, Igf1, thyroid hormones and cortisol along with igfbp mRNA levels in fasted and fed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish were fasted for 3 or 10days near the peak of smoltification (late April to early May)...
July 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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