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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468721/measurements-and-simulation-of-rf-heating-of-implanted-stereo-electroencephalography-electrodes-during-mr-scans
#1
Bhumi Bhusal, Pallab Bhattacharyya, Tanvir Baig, Stephen Jones, Michael Martens
PURPOSE: To assess RF-induced heating during MRI of patients with implanted stereo-electroencephalography electrodes. METHODS: Simulations and experimental measurements using phantom and a head-only transmit/receive coil on a 3T MR system were performed to evaluate temperature increases at the tip of an 8-contact stereo-electroencephalography electrode and an insulated wire partially immersed into the phantom. The lengths of wire producing maximum (resonant condition) and minimum (anti-resonant condition) heating were evaluated for different entry modes and penetration depths...
February 21, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467638/a-reinforcement-based-learning-paradigm-increases-anatomical-learning-and-retention-a-neuroeducation-study
#2
Sarah J Anderson, Kent G Hecker, Olave E Krigolson, Heather A Jamniczky
In anatomy education, a key hurdle to engaging in higher-level discussion in the classroom is recognizing and understanding the extensive terminology used to identify and describe anatomical structures. Given the time-limited classroom environment, seeking methods to impart this foundational knowledge to students in an efficient manner is essential. Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) methods incorporate pre-class exercises (typically online) meant to establish foundational knowledge in novice learners so subsequent instructor-led sessions can focus on deeper, more complex concepts...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467634/eeg-informed-fmri-a-review-of-data-analysis-methods
#3
REVIEW
Rodolfo Abreu, Alberto Leal, Patrícia Figueiredo
The simultaneous acquisition of electroencephalography (EEG) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a very promising non-invasive technique for the study of human brain function. Despite continuous improvements, it remains a challenging technique, and a standard methodology for data analysis is yet to be established. Here we review the methodologies that are currently available to address the challenges at each step of the data analysis pipeline. We start by surveying methods for pre-processing both EEG and fMRI data...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467392/alcohol-impairs-n100-response-to-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation
#4
Genane Loheswaran, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Tarek K Rajji, Daniel M Blumberger, Bernard Le Foll, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Alcohol is thought to exert its effect by acting on gamma-aminobutyric (GABA) inhibitory neurotransmission. The N100, the negative peak on electroencephalography (EEG) that occurs approximately 100 ms following the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse, is believed to represent GABAB receptor mediated neurotransmission. However, no studies have examined the effect of alcohol on the N100 response to TMS stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In the present study, we aimed to explore the effect of alcohol on the DLPFC TMS-evoked N100 response...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466802/healthy-and-pathological-brain-aging-from-the-perspective-of-oscillations-functional-connectivity-and-signal-complexity
#5
Ryouhei Ishii, Leonides Canuet, Yasunori Aoki, Masahiro Hata, Masao Iwase, Shunichiro Ikeda, Keiichiro Nishida, Manabu Ikeda
Healthy aging is associated with impairment in cognitive information processing. Several neuroimaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and near-infrared spectroscopy have been used to explore healthy and pathological aging by relying on hemodynamic or metabolic changes that occur in response to brain activity. Since electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) are able to measure neural activity directly with a high temporal resolution of milliseconds, these neurophysiological techniques are particularly important to investigate the dynamics of brain activity underlying neurocognitive aging...
February 21, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465895/-clinical-neurophysiological-methods-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cerebrovascular-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Ildikó Nagy, Dániel Fabó
Neurophysiological methods are gaining ground in the diagnosis and therapy of cerebrovascular disease. While the role of the EEG (electroencephalography) in the diagnosis of post-stroke epilepsy is constant, quantitative EEG para-meters, as new indicators of early efficiency after thrombolysis or in prognosis of patient's condition have proved their effectiveness in several clinical studies. In intensive care units, continuous EEG monitoring of critically ill patients became part of neurointenzive care protocols...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465623/the-distinct-roles-of-insular-subareas-in-recognition-memory-a-stereo-electroencephalography-study
#7
Chengtian Zhao, Yuping Wang
Previous studies have reported that the insular cortex is involved in recognition memory, but it remains unclear which subarea of the insular cortex serves this function. To address this question, we examined 14 drug-resistant focal epilepsy patients implanted with stereotactic electrodes in the insular cortex. All participants performed a delayed match-to-sample task. Event-related potentials and spectrograms from each insular subarea were analyzed when the participants were exposed to identical (match condition) and different (mismatch condition) stimuli...
February 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464519/mri-verification-of-a-10-20-targeting-protocol-used-during-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-sessions-for-tinnitus
#8
Sarah M Theodoroff, Alexander A Stevens, Garnett McMillan, David R Pettersson, William Woodward, Robert L Folmer
Langguth et al. (2006) described a method for targeting primary auditory cortex (PAC) during transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) using the 10-20 electroencephalography system. Study aims were to measure the degree of accuracy in placing the TMS coil on the scalp overlying PAC using the 10-20 method and determine the extent to which accuracy depends on the hemisphere of the coil placement. Twelve participants underwent anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their head in a 3T scanner. Before imaging, a fiducial marker was placed on their scalp corresponding to the TMS coil position...
February 21, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464512/feasibility-of-continuous-sedation-monitoring-in-critically-ill-intensive-care-unit-patients-using-the-neurosense-wav-cns-index
#9
Nicholas West, Paul B McBeth, Sonia M Brodie, Klaske van Heusden, Sarah Sunderland, Guy A Dumont, Donald E G Griesdale, J Mark Ansermino, Matthias Görges
Sedation in the intensive care unit (ICU) is challenging, as both over- and under-sedation are detrimental. Current methods of assessment, such as the Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS), are measured intermittently and rely on patients' behavioral response to stimulation, which may interrupt sleep/rest. A non-stimulating method for continuous sedation monitoring may be beneficial and allow more frequent assessment. Processed electroencephalography (EEG) monitors have not been routinely adopted in the ICU...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464377/is-oral-feeding-compatible-with-an-unresponsive-wakefulness-syndrome
#10
Evelyne Mélotte, Audrey Maudoux, Sabrina Delhalle, Charlotte Martial, Georgios Antonopoulos, Stephen Karl Larroque, Sarah Wannez, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Jean-François Kaux, Steven Laureys, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to explore the possibility of oral feeding in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state (UWS/VS) patients. METHOD: We reviewed the clinical information of 68 UWS/VS patients (mean age 45 ± 11; range 16-79 years) searching for mention of oral feeding. UWS/VS diagnosis was made after repeated behavioural assessments using the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Patients also had complementary neuroimaging evaluations (positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography and diffusion tensor imaging)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464192/specific-relationship-between-the-shape-of-the-readiness-potential-subjective-decision-time-and-waiting-time-predicted-by-an-accumulator-model-with-temporally-autocorrelated-input-noise
#11
Aaron Schurger
Self-initiated movements are reliably preceded by a gradual buildup of neuronal activity known as the readiness potential (RP). Recent evidence suggests that the RP may reflect subthreshold stochastic fluctuations in neural activity that can be modeled as a process of accumulation to bound. One element of accumulator models that has been largely overlooked in the literature is the stochastic term, which is traditionally modeled as Gaussian white noise. While there may be practical reasons for this choice, we have long known that noise in neural systems is not white - it is long-term correlated with spectral density of the form 1/ f β (with roughly 1 < β < 3) across a broad range of spatial scales...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463181/spared-behavioral-repetition-effects-in-alzheimer-s-disease-linked-to-an-altered-neural-mechanism-at-posterior-cortex
#12
Lucas S Broster, Juan Li, Benjamin Wagner, Charles D Smith, Gregory A Jicha, Frederick A Schmitt, Nancy Munro, Ryan H Haney, Yang Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with dementia of the Alzheimer type (AD) classically show disproportionate impairment in measures of working memory, but repetition learning effects are relatively preserved. As AD affects brain regions implicated in both working memory and repetition effects, the neural basis of this discrepancy is poorly understood. We hypothesized that the posterior repetition effect could account for this discrepancy due to the milder effects of AD at visual cortex. METHOD: Participants with early AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy controls performed a working memory task with superimposed repetition effects while electroencephalography was collected to identify possible neural mechanisms of preserved repetition effects...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463157/comparing-recalibration-strategies-for-electroencephalography-based-decoders-of-movement-intention-in-neurological-patients-with-motor-disability
#13
Eduardo López-Larraz, Jaime Ibáñez, Fernando Trincado-Alonso, Esther Monge-Pereira, José Luis Pons, Luis Montesano
Motor rehabilitation based on the association of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity and proprioceptive feedback has been demonstrated as a feasible therapy for patients with paralysis. To promote long-lasting motor recovery, these interventions have to be carried out across several weeks or even months. The success of these therapies partly relies on the performance of the system decoding movement intentions, which normally has to be recalibrated to deal with the nonstationarities of the cortical activity...
December 17, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462411/radiofrequency-energy-and-electrode-proximity-influences-stereoelectroencephalography-guided-radiofrequency-thermocoagulation-lesion-size-an-in-vitro-study-with-clinical-correlation
#14
Michael D Staudt, Sarita Maturu, Jonathan P Miller
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency thermocoagulation of epileptogenic foci via stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) electrodes has been suggested as a treatment for medically intractable epilepsy, but reported outcomes have been suboptimal, possibly because lesions generated using conventional high-energy radiofrequency parameters are relatively small. OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique of delivering low energy across separate SEEG electrodes in order to create large confluent radiofrequency lesions...
February 16, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460904/-syndrome-of-autonomic-dysfunction-in-children-and-adolescents
#15
L S Chutko, T L Kornishina, S Yu Surushkina, E A Yakovenko, T I Anisimova, M B Volov
AIM: To study clinical and pathophysiological symptoms of autonomic dysfunction syndrome in children and adolescents and assess the efficacy of its treatment with nooclerin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients, aged from 10 to 15 years, with autonomic dysfunction syndrome were examined. All patients underwent neurological examination, assessment with the A.M. Vein's questionnaire of autonomic disorders, the 10 point Visual Analogous scale for headache and fatigue, the Spielberger-Khanin scale for anxiety, Kerdo index, Hildebrandt's coefficient, electrocardiography with clinoorthostatic test, electroencephalography, and TOVA psychophysiological test...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459372/detecting-unattended-stimuli-depends-on-the-phase-of-pre-stimulus-neural-oscillations
#16
Anthony M Harris, Paul E Dux, Jason B Mattingley
Neural oscillations appear important for perception and attention processes, as stimulus detection is dependent upon the phase of 7-11 Hz oscillations prior to stimulus onset. Previous work has examined stimulus detection at attended locations, but it is unknown whether unattended locations are also subject to phasic modulation by ongoing oscillatory activity, as would be predicted by theories proposing a role for neural oscillations in organizing general neural processing. Here we recorded brain activity with electroencephalography (EEG) while human participants of both sexes detected brief visual targets preceded by a spatial cue, and determined whether performance for cued (attended) and uncued (unattended) targets was influenced by oscillatory phase across a range of frequencies...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459252/multimodal-noninvasive-seizure-network-mapping-software-a-novel-tool-for-preoperative-epilepsy-evaluation
#17
Elliot G Neal, Stephanie Maciver, Fernando L Vale
BACKGROUND: Despite rigorous preoperative evaluation, epilepsy surgery achieves seizure freedom in only two-thirds of cases. Current preoperative evaluation does not include a detailed network analysis despite the association of network-level changes with epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to create a software algorithm to map individualized epilepsy networks by combining noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) source localization and nonconcurrent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI)...
February 17, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458742/preserved-sleep-microstructure-in-blind-individuals
#18
Sébrina Aubin, Julie A E Christensen, Poul Jennum, Tore Nielsen, Ron Kupers, Maurice Ptito
The loss of vision, particularly when it occurs early in life, is associated with compensatory cortical plasticity not only in the visual cortical areas, but throughout the entire brain. The absence of visual input to the retina can also induce changes in entrainment of the circadian rhythm, as light is the primary zeitgeber of the master biological clock found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. In addition, a greater number of sleep disturbances is often reported in blind individuals. Here, we examined various electroencephalographic microstructural components of sleep, both during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, between blind individuals, including both of early and late onset, and normal-sighted controls...
February 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457829/species-specific-susceptibility-to-cannabis-induced-convulsions
#19
Benjamin J Whalley, Hong Lin, Lynne Bell, Thomas Hill, Amesha Patel, Roy A Gray, C Elizabeth Roberts, Orrin Devinsky, Michael Bazelot, Claire M Williams, Gary J Stephens
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Numerous claims are made for cannabis' therapeutic utility upon human seizures, but concerns persist about risks. A potential confounder is the presence of both Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC), variously reported to be pro- and anti-convulsant, and cannabidiol (CBD), widely confirmed as anticonvulsant. Therefore, we investigated effects of prolonged exposure to different Δ9 -THC/CBD cannabis extracts on seizure activity and associated measures of endocannabinoid (eCB) system signalling...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454635/sleep-behavior-and-eeg-oscillations-in-aged-dp-16-1yey-mice-a-down-syndrome-model
#20
J Levenga, D J Peterson, P Cain, C A Hoeffer
Down syndrome (DS) results from the triplication of genes located on human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Though many cognitive and behavioral impairments are associated with DS, sleep disturbances remain poorly understood despite being a reported phenotype in approximately 60% of individuals diagnosed with DS. In this study, sleep and electroencephalography (EEG) oscillations were recorded from aged (12-14 mos.) Dp(16)1Yey/+ mice (Dp16), a mouse model of DS. We observed disrupted sleep demonstrated by increased activity during the dark phase and increased time awake at the expense of NREM sleep compared to wild-type mice...
February 15, 2018: Neuroscience
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