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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044574/context-specific-inhibition-is-related-to-craving-in-alcohol-use-disorders-a-dangerous-imbalance
#1
Maria Stein, Werner Fey, Thomas Koenig, Jacqueline Oehy, Franz Moggi
BACKGROUND: Most contemporary neuroscientific models of alcohol use disorders (AUD) incorporate an imbalance between enhanced cue reactivity, which results in a strong urge to consume, and the impaired inhibitory control of that urge. While these phenomena have been frequently investigated separately, studies involving both aspects and thus precisely investigating the postulated imbalance are rare. In this study, inhibition was investigated in an addiction-specific context and individual craving levels were also examined...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043535/towards-multilevel-mental-stress-assessment-using-svm-with-ecoc-an-eeg-approach
#2
Fares Al-Shargie, Tong Boon Tang, Nasreen Badruddin, Masashi Kiguchi
Mental stress has been identified as one of the major contributing factors that leads to various diseases such as heart attack, depression, and stroke. To avoid this, stress quantification is important for clinical intervention and disease prevention. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of exploiting electroencephalography (EEG) signals to discriminate between different stress levels. We propose a new assessment protocol whereby the stress level is represented by the complexity of mental arithmetic (MA) task for example, at three levels of difficulty, and the stressors are time pressure and negative feedback...
October 18, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042900/regional-beta-index-of-electroencephalography-may-differentiate-alzheimer-s-disease-from-depression
#3
Kanghee Lee, Ji Won Han, Ki Woong Kim
Differentiating early Alzheimer's disease (AD) from depression with cognitive impairment is challenging in the elderly. To develop a model for differentiating these two conditions using electroencephalography (EEG), we enrolled 11 patients with early probable AD and 11 age- and cognitive function-matched patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and compared the EEG relative powers of 9 scalp regions. Compared to the MDD group, the AD group had a higher global theta relative power (p=0.021). In the MDD group, beta relative power was higher in the mid-central region than in the left or right central regions (p<0...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042782/letter-to-the-editor-regarding-the-article-the-use-of-psychiatric-electroencephalography-evaluations-registry-peer-to-personalize-pharmacotherapy
#4
COMMENT
Peter J Weina, Sanjur Brooks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042188/network-based-brain-stimulation-selectively-impairs-spatial-retrieval
#5
Kamin Kim, Amber Schedlbauer, Matthew Rollo, Suganya Karunakaran, Arne D Ekstrom, Nitin Tandon
BACKGROUND: Direct brain stimulation via electrodes implanted for intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) permits the modulation of endogenous electrical signals with significantly greater spatial and temporal specificity than non-invasive approaches. It also allows for the stimulation of deep brain structures important to memory, such as the hippocampus, that are difficult, if not impossible, to target non-invasively. Direct stimulation studies of these deep memory structures, though, have produced mixed results, with some reporting improvement, some impairment, and others, no consistent changes...
October 5, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040750/cool-callous-and-in-control-superior-inhibitory-control-in-frequent-players-of-video-games-with-violent-content
#6
Laura Stockdale, Robert G Morrison, Robert Palumbo, James Garbarino, Rebecca L Silton
Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or non-players, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040672/unsupervised-learning-of-spatiotemporal-interictal-discharges-in-focal-epilepsy
#7
Maxime O Baud, Jonathan K Kleen, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Liberty S Hamilton, Yee-Leng Tan, Robert Knowlton, Edward F Chang
BACKGROUND: Interictal epileptiform discharges are an important biomarker for localization of focal epilepsy, especially in patients who undergo chronic intracranial monitoring. Manual detection of these pathophysiological events is cumbersome, but is still superior to current rule-based approaches in most automated algorithms. OBJECTIVE: To develop an unsupervised machine-learning algorithm for the improved, automated detection and localization of interictal epileptiform discharges based on spatiotemporal pattern recognition...
October 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039074/the-usefulness-of-stereo-electroencephalography-seeg-in-the-surgical-management-of-focal-epilepsy-associated-with-hidden-temporal-pole-encephalocele-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#8
João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Jeff Mullin, Connor Wathen, Juan Bulacio, Patrick Chauvel, Lara Jehi, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez
The authors report a case of 18-year-old woman with partial complex seizures compatible with temporal epilepsy by semiology. Due to medical refractoriness, she was referred to pre-surgical evaluation. Initially, MRI showed no significant structural abnormality and superficial scalp EEG demonstrated epileptiform activity in the frontotemporal areas. Due to the lack of clear MRI abnormalities and the potential involvement of dominant mesial temporal structures by seizure semiology and non-invasive data, extra-operative invasive evaluation using stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) methodology was indicated...
October 16, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038847/touching-lips-and-hearing-fingers-effector-specific-congruency-between-tactile-and-auditory-stimulation-modulates-n1-amplitude-and-alpha-desynchronization
#9
Guannan Shen, Andrew N Meltzoff, Peter J Marshall
Understanding the interactions between audition and sensorimotor processes is of theoretical importance, particularly in relation to speech processing. Although one current focus in this area is on interactions between auditory perception and the motor system, there has been less research on connections between the auditory and somatosensory modalities. The current study takes a novel approach to this omission by examining specific auditory-tactile interactions in the context of speech and non-speech sound production...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038516/eeg-topographies-provide-subject-specific-correlates-of-motor-control
#10
Elvira Pirondini, Martina Coscia, Jesus Minguillon, José Del R Millán, Dimitri Van De Ville, Silvestro Micera
Electroencephalography (EEG) of brain activity can be represented in terms of dynamically changing topographies (microstates). Notably, spontaneous brain activity recorded at rest can be characterized by four distinctive topographies. Despite their well-established role during resting state, their implication in the generation of motor behavior is debated. Evidence of such a functional role of spontaneous brain activity would provide support for the design of novel and sensitive biomarkers in neurological disorders...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036764/hippotherapy-and-neurofeedback-training-effect-on-the-brain-function-and-serum-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-level-changes-in-children-with-attention-deficit-or-and-hyperactivity-disorder
#11
Namju Lee, Sok Park, Jongkyu Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of hippotherapy and electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback on brain function and blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in children with attention-deficit or/and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Sixteen children with ADHD participated in this study and were randomly divided into 2 groups, a 1-time hippotherapy group (W1G, n = 8) and a 2-time hippotherapy group (W2G, n = 8)...
September 30, 2017: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036732/predictors-of-poor-outcome-in-neonates-with-pyogenic-meningitis-in-a-level-three-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-of-developing-country
#12
Mala Kumar, Shalini Tripathi, Himanshu Kumar, S N Singh
Background: The mortality of neonatal pyogenic meningitis is reduced to 10-15%, but morbidity is unchanged. Methods: Primary objective is to determine the outcome, i.e. death or abnormal neurological examination (NE) at discharge and abnormal developmental quotient (DQ) at 3 months. Secondary objective is to find predictors of poor outcome. Results: In all, 89 neonates enrolled, 10 expired and 24 neonates had abnormal NE at discharge. A total of 59 neonates came for follow up, 13 had DQ < 70...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034618/altered-electroencephalography-spectral-profiles-in-rats-with-different-patterns-of-experimental-brain-dysplasia
#13
Michal Kielbinski, Zuzanna Setkowicz, Kinga Gzielo, Władysław Węglarz, Krzysztof Janeczko
BACKGROUND: Malformations of cortical development, such as focal cortical dysplasia, are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy. Multiple animal models were created in attempts to recapitulate features of human malformations of cortical development. These manipulations give rise to various focal or diffuse anatomical abnormalities, accompanied by altered susceptibility to epileptic seizures. Both in humans and in models of dysplasia, the question of timing of the initiating insult is important...
October 16, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034507/screening-for-sturge-weber-syndrome-a-state-of-the-art-review
#14
REVIEW
Michaela Zallmann, Richard J Leventer, Mark T Mackay, Michael Ditchfield, Philip S Bekhor, John C Su
Infants with a high-risk distribution of port-wine stains are commonly screened for Sturge-Weber syndrome using brain magnetic resonance imaging. There is no consensus about which port-wine stain phenotypes to screen, optimal timing, screening sensitivity, or whether presymptomatic diagnosis improves neurodevelopmental outcomes. This state-of-the-art review examines the evidence in favor of screening for Sturge-Weber syndrome, based on its effect on neurodevelopmental outcomes, against the risks and limitations of screening magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography...
October 16, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033809/characterizing-neural-entrainment-to-hierarchical-linguistic-units-using-electroencephalography-eeg
#15
Nai Ding, Lucia Melloni, Aotian Yang, Yu Wang, Wen Zhang, David Poeppel
To understand speech, listeners have to combine the words they hear into phrases and sentences. Recent magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electrocorticography (ECoG) studies show that cortical activity is concurrently entrained/synchronized to the rhythms of multiple levels of linguistic units including words, phrases, and sentences. Here we investigate whether this phenomenon can be observed using electroencephalography (EEG), a technique that is more widely available than MEG and ECoG. We show that the EEG responses concurrently track the rhythms of hierarchical linguistic units such as syllables/words, phrases, and sentences...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033632/review-of-viral-encephalitis-cases-seen-at-a-tertiary-care-center-in-turkey-focus-on-herpes-simplex-type-1
#16
Beyza Çiftçi Kavaklioğlu, Eda Çoban, Aysu Şen, Elif Söylemezoğlu, Mehmet Ali Aldan, Dilek Atakli, Aysun Soysal
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), known as the most common, potentially mortal, and treatable cause of sporadic encephalitis, in a sample Turkish population. METHODS: The demographic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, electrophysiology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA results of patients examined with a pre-diagnosis of encephalitis were retrospectively examined. RESULTS: A total of 68 patients were included in the study...
September 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033429/cowden-syndrome-with-a-novel-pten-mutation-presenting-with-partial-epilepsy-related-to-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#17
Tadashi Adachi, Hiroshi Takigawa, Takashi Nomura, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Hisanori Kowa
Cowden syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple hamartomas of the ectoderm and brain. A 36-year-old Japanese man presented with right facial seizure during sleep and was admitted to our hospital. He showed cobblestoning over the tongue and palmar pitting but no neurological abnormalities while he was not having a seizure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed focal cortical dysplasia in the left frontal lobe. Electroencephalography showed sharp waves over the left frontal lesion...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031758/the-association-of-mothers-and-fathers-insomnia-symptoms-with-school-aged-children-s-sleep-assessed-by-parent-report-and-in-home-sleep-electroencephalography
#18
Natalie Urfer-Maurer, Rebekka Weidmann, Serge Brand, Edith Holsboer-Trachsler, Alexander Grob, Peter Weber, Sakari Lemola
OBJECTIVE: Sleep plays an essential role for children's well-being. Because children's sleep is associated with parental sleep patterns, it must be considered in the family context. As a first aim of the present study, we test whether parental insomnia symptoms are related to children's in-home sleep-electroencephalography (EEG). Second, we examine the association between parental insomnia symptoms and maternal and paternal perception of children's sleep using actor-partner interdependence models...
October 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031466/discerning-measures-of-conscious-brain-processes-associated-with-superior-early-motor-performance-capacity-coactivation-and-character
#19
Tina van Duijn, Tim Buszard, Merel C J Hoskens, Rich S W Masters
This study explored the relationship between working memory (WM) capacity, corticocortical communication (EEG coherence), and propensity for conscious control of movement during the performance of a complex far-aiming task. We were specifically interested in the role of these variables in predicting motor performance by novices. Forty-eight participants completed (a) an assessment of WM capacity (an adapted Rotation Span task), (b) a questionnaire that assessed the propensity to consciously control movement (the Movement Specific Reinvestment Scale), and (c) a hockey push-pass task...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029305/large-scale-automated-sleep-staging
#20
Haoqi Sun, Jian Jia, Balaji Goparaju, Guang-Bin Huang, Olga Sourina, Matt Travis Bianchi, M Brandon Westover
Study Objectives: Automated sleep staging has been previously limited by a combination of clinical and physiological heterogeneity. Both factors are in principle addressable with large data sets that enable robust calibration. However, the impact of sample size remains uncertain. The objectives are to investigate the extent to which machine learning methods can approximate the performance of human scorers when supplied with sufficient training cases and to investigate how staging performance depends on the number of training patients, contextual information, model complexity, and imbalance between sleep stage proportions...
September 26, 2017: Sleep
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