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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087285/apert-syndrome-a-consensus-on-the-management-of-apert-hands
#1
David A Pettitt, Zeeshaan Arshad, Anuj Mishra, Paul McArthur
INTRODUCTION: Apert Syndrome is a congenital condition characterised by primary craniosynostosis, midfacial malformations and complex symmetrical malformations of the hands and feet. The hands demonstrate one of the most complex collections of congenital upper limb deformities, posing a significant challenge for the paediatric hand surgeon. This study examines the extant literature and current practice of the four UK specialist craniofacial units regarding the management of Apert hands in order to provide a basis for guideline development...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078793/insights-into-nuclear-dynamics-using-live-cell-imaging-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Rachel B Bigley, Alexander Y Payumo, Jeffrey M Alexander, Guo N Huang
The nucleus contains the genetic blueprint of the cell and myriad interactions within this subcellular structure are required for gene regulation. In the current scientific era, characterization of these gene regulatory networks through biochemical techniques coupled with systems-wide 'omic' approaches has become commonplace. However, these strategies are limited because they represent a mere snapshot of the cellular state. To obtain a holistic understanding of nuclear dynamics, relevant molecules must be studied in their native contexts in living systems...
January 12, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077953/systematic-epistatic-mapping-of-cellular-processes
#3
EDITORIAL
Maximilian Billmann, Michael Boutros
Genetic screens have identified many novel components of various biological processes, such as components required for cell cycle and cell division. While forward genetic screens typically generate unstructured 'hit' lists, genetic interaction mapping approaches can identify functional relations in a systematic fashion. Here, we discuss a recent study by our group demonstrating a two-step approach to first screen for regulators of the mitotic cell cycle, and subsequently guide hypothesis generation by using genetic interaction analysis...
2017: Cell Division
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076817/elucidation-of-single-hydrogen-bonds-in-gtpases-via-experimental-and-theoretical-infrared-spectroscopy
#4
Daniel Mann, Udo Höweler, Carsten Kötting, Klaus Gerwert
Time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool to elucidate label-free the reaction mechanisms of proteins. After assignment of the absorption bands to individual groups of the protein, the order of events during the reaction mechanism can be monitored and rate constants can be obtained. Additionally, structural information is encoded into infrared spectra and can be decoded by combining the experimental data with biomolecular simulations. We have determined recently the infrared vibrations of GTP and guanosine diphosphate (GDP) bound to Gαi1, a ubiquitous GTPase...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076764/snapshot-non-coding-rnas-and-metabolism
#5
Roxana Simona Redis, George Adrian Calin
In recent years, understanding the crucial role played by cellular homeostasis in disease initiation and progression became the focus of scientists and clinicians. This SnapShot sketches the involvement of both short microRNAs and long ncRNAs in the major metabolic pathways altered in diseases. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073300/from-dynamics-to-function
#6
Thomas J Dishion
A vast majority of psychological science focuses on snapshots of individuals. Clinical outcome studies may integrate multiple snapshots, typically with yearly intervals. However, there is much to learn about psychological processes as they unfold over real time, including minutes, days, weeks, and months. This special issue contains several articles that make significant advances in real-time assessment of psychological processes using state-of-the-art measurement. This is a brief summary of the specific innovations of this special issue...
August 2016: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072523/snapshotting-the-excited-state-planarization-of-chemically-locked-n-n-disubstituted-dihydrodibenzo-a-c-phenazines
#7
Wei Chen, Chi-Lin Chen, Zhiyun Zhang, Yi-An Chen, Wei-Chih Chao, Jianhua Su, He Tian, Pi-Tai Chou
For deeper understanding of the coupling of electronic processes with conformational motions, we exploit a tailored strategy to harness the excited-state planarization of N,N'-disubstituted-dihydrodibenzo[a,c]phenazines by chemically halting during the structural evolution via macrocyclization process. In this new approach, 9,14-diphenyl-9,14-dihydrodibenzo[a,c]phenazine (DPAC) is used as a prototype, in which the para sites of 9,14-diphenyl are systematically enclosed by a dialkoxybenzene-alkyl-ester or -ether linkage with different chain lengths, imposing various degrees of constraint to impede the structural deformation...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070925/bioorthogonal-fluorescent-labelling-of-biopolymers-via-inverse-electron-demand-diels-alder-reactions
#8
Eszter Kozma, Orsolya Demeter, Péter Kele
Inverse electron demand Diels-Alder (IEDDA) based biorthogonal labelling schemes have attracted much attention lately in chemical biology. The appealing features of this reaction such as the fast reaction kinetics, fully biorthogonal nature, and high selectivity helped chemical biologists to get deeper understanding of biochemical processes at the molecular level. By listing the components and debating the possibilities and limitations that lay behind these reagents we provide a recent snapshot of IEDDA-based biomolecular manipulation field with special focus on fluorescent modulation schemes through bioorthogonalized building blocks...
January 10, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070869/fast-t1-and-t2-mapping-methods-the-zoomed-u-flare-sequence-compared-with-epi-and-snapshot-flash-for-abdominal-imaging-at-11-7-tesla
#9
Géraldine Pastor, María Jiménez-González, Sandra Plaza-García, Marta Beraza, Torsten Reese
OBJECTIVE: A newly adapted zoomed ultrafast low-angle RARE (U-FLARE) sequence is described for abdominal imaging applications at 11.7 Tesla and compared with the standard echo-plannar imaging (EPI) and snapshot fast low angle shot (FLASH) methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ultrafast EPI and snapshot-FLASH protocols were evaluated to determine relaxation times in phantoms and in the mouse kidney in vivo. Owing to their apparent shortcomings, imaging artefacts, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and variability in the determination of relaxation times, these methods are compared with the newly implemented zoomed U-FLARE sequence...
January 9, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070563/gut-microbiome-of-the-canadian-arctic-inuit
#10
Catherine Girard, Nicolas Tromas, Marc Amyot, B Jesse Shapiro
Diet is a major determinant of community composition in the human gut microbiome, and "traditional" diets have been associated with distinct and highly diverse communities, compared to Western diets. However, most traditional diets studied have been those of agrarians and hunter-gatherers consuming fiber-rich diets. In contrast, the Inuit of the Canadian Arctic have been consuming a traditional diet low in carbohydrates and rich in animal fats and protein for thousands of years. We hypothesized that the Inuit diet and lifestyle would be associated with a distinct microbiome...
January 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069646/snapshot-profiling-of-anti-leishmanial-potency-of-lead-compounds-and-drug-candidates-against-intracellular-l-donovani-amastigotes-with-focus-on-human-derived-host-cells
#11
Markella Koniordou, Stephen Patterson, Susan Wyllie, Karin Seifert
This study characterised in vitro potencies of anti-leishmanial agents against intracellular Leishmania donovani amastigotes in primary human macrophages, obtained with or without CD14-positive monocyte enrichment, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) differentiated THP-1 cells and mouse peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEMs). Host cell dependent potency was confirmed for pentavalent and trivalent antimony. Fexinidazole was inactive against intracellular amastigotes across the host cell panel. Fexinidazole sulfone, (R)-PA-824, (S)-PA-824 and VL-2098 displayed similar potency in all host cells tested...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069355/double-fellowships-in-radiology-a-survey-of-2014-graduating-fellows
#12
Thomas Y Wong, Andrew Moriarity, Neil Lall, Jason C Hoffmann, Douglas S Katz, Jonathan A Flug
PURPOSE: Radiology fellowship training has evolved from being an uncommon option to being a near requisite for post-training employment in the United States. A subset of fellows elect to pursue second fellowships with potentially substantial implications on both the private sector and academic radiology workforce. The purpose of this study was to assess the proportion of current radiology fellows pursuing multiple years of post-residency fellowship training. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining IRB approval, an anonymous web-based survey was emailed to 1,269 radiology fellows listed as "completing fellowship" in the American College of Radiology database in June 2014...
November 12, 2016: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069314/a-data-parsimonious-model-for-capturing-snapshots-of-groundwater-pollution-sources
#13
Jyoti Chaubey, Deepak Kashyap
Presented herein is a data parsimonious model for identification of regional and local groundwater pollution sources at a reference time employing corresponding fields of head, concentration and its time derivative. The regional source flux, assumed to be uniformly distributed, is viewed as the causative factor for the widely prevalent background concentration. The localized concentration-excesses are attributed to flux from local sources distributed around the respective centroids. The groundwater pollution is parameterized by flux from regional and local sources, and distribution parameters of the latter...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069133/bh3-only-proteins-in-health-and-disease
#14
J A Glab, G W Mbogo, H Puthalakath
BH3-only proteins are proapoptotic members of the broader Bcl-2 family, which promote cell death by directly or indirectly activating Bax and Bak. The expression of BH3-only proteins is regulated both transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally in a cell type-specific and a tissue-specific manner. Research over the last 20 years has provided significant insights into their roles in tissue homeostasis and various pathologies, which in turn has led to the development of novel therapeutics for numerous diseases...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067180/dispensing-patterns-of-anxiolytics-and-sedative-hypnotics-a-feasibility-study-comparing-datasets-from-a-developed-and-developing-country-australia-and-south-africa
#15
Therése Kairuz, Ilse Truter, Laurence Rossato, Alex Pudmenzky
BACKGROUND: Dispensing patterns reflect drug usage trends. Benzodiazepines are known as drugs with potential for misuse, and frequent dispensing may be a surrogate marker of misuse. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to obtain a comparative snapshot of anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic dispensing in a developing country and a developed country, to determine whether further research about benzodiazepines is warranted. METHOD: A cross-national, cross-sectional retrospective drug utilisation study was conducted on benzodiazepines and z-drugs...
January 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067089/metabolomic-applications-in-radiation-biodosimetry-exploring-radiation-effects-through-small-molecules
#16
Evan L Pannkuk, Albert J Fornace, Evagelia C Laiakis
PURPOSE: Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation has increased in the past decades, primarily due to long distance travel and medical procedures. On the other hand, accidental exposures, nuclear accidents, and elevated threats of terrorism with the potential detonation of a radiological dispersal device or improvised nuclear device in a major city, all have led to increased needs for rapid biodosimetry and assessment of exposure to different radiation qualities and scenarios...
January 9, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065822/detecting-drug-induced-changes-in-ecg-parameters-using-jacketed-telemetry-effect-of-different-data-reduction-techniques
#17
Matthew Skinner, Guozhen Xing, Jing Lu, Jin Ren, Karen Oldman
INTRODUCTION: Continuous cardiovascular data is routinely collected during preclinical safety assessment of new medicines. This generates large datasets, which must be summarised to analyse and interpret drug effects. We assessed four methods of data reduction of continuous electrocardiogram (ECG) data and examined the impact on the statistical power of the assay. METHODS: Continuous ECG data were collected from a validation study in 6 cynomolgus monkeys using jacketed telemetry...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062979/contemporary-indications-for-diagnostic-open-biopsy-in-women-assessed-for-screen-detected-breast-lesions-a-ten-year-single-institution-series-of-814-consecutive-cases
#18
Gelareh Farshid, P Grantley Gill
PURPOSE: In contemporary practice, 5% of women with non-malignant needle biopsies of screen-detected lesions still require diagnostic open biopsy (OBx). Our aims are to (i) capture a snapshot of the contemporary indications for OBx in screen-detected lesions; (ii) determine upgrade rates to malignancy (DCIS or invasive cancer); (iii) identify indications with sufficiently low upgrades to justify avoidance of OBx and (iv) propose plausible non-surgical alternatives. METHODS: Between Jan 2005 and Dec 2014, women assessed for a screen-detected lesion and recommended for OBx are included...
January 6, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061811/the-nature-and-nurture-of-cell-heterogeneity-accounting-for-macrophage-gene-environment-interactions-with-single-cell-rna-seq
#19
Quin F Wills, Esther Mellado-Gomez, Rory Nolan, Damien Warner, Eshita Sharma, John Broxholme, Benjamin Wright, Helen Lockstone, William James, Mark Lynch, Michael Gonzales, Jay West, Anne Leyrat, Sergi Padilla-Parra, Sarah Filippi, Chris Holmes, Michael D Moore, Rory Bowden
BACKGROUND: Single-cell RNA-Seq can be a valuable and unbiased tool to dissect cellular heterogeneity, despite the transcriptome's limitations in describing higher functional phenotypes and protein events. Perhaps the most important shortfall with transcriptomic 'snapshots' of cell populations is that they risk being descriptive, only cataloging heterogeneity at one point in time, and without microenvironmental context. Studying the genetic ('nature') and environmental ('nurture') modifiers of heterogeneity, and how cell population dynamics unfold over time in response to these modifiers is key when studying highly plastic cells such as macrophages...
January 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059338/sub-picosecond-snapshots-of-fast-electrons-from-high-intensity-laser-matter-interactions
#20
R Pompili, M P Anania, F Bisesto, M Botton, M Castellano, E Chiadroni, A Cianchi, A Curcio, M Ferrario, M Galletti, Z Henis, M Petrarca, E Schleifer, A Zigler
The interaction of a high-intensity short-pulse laser with thin solid targets produces electron jets that escape the target and positively charge it, leading to the formation of the electrostatic potential that in turn governs the ion acceleration. The typical timescale of such phenomena is on the sub-picosecond level. Here we show, for the first time, temporally-resolved measurements of the first released electrons that escaped from the target, so-called fast electrons. Their total charge, energy and temporal profile are provided by means of a diagnostics based on Electro-Optical Sampling with temporal resolution below 100 fs...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
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