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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153173/a-100-year-review-lactating-dairy-cattle-housing-management
#1
J M Bewley, L M Robertson, E A Eckelkamp
Since the mid-1800s, farmers have been housing livestock. What began as a part-time solution for cold winters, stormy days, or injured animals has evolved into the main or only area in which cows spend their adult lives. With this change, farmers, academic researchers, and industry innovators have shaped the farm landscape, literally. Over the last 100 years, changes have been made for productivity, health, milk quality, reproduction, animal well-being, and farm profitability. We review a snapshot of those changes and look ahead to the future of lactating dairy cattle housing...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130504/mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-targeting-the-crosstalk-between-gut-microbiota-and-brain-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#2
REVIEW
Hemi Luan, Xian Wang, Zongwei Cai
Metabolomics seeks to take a "snapshot" in a time of the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of all small molecule metabolites in response to a biological system with genetic or environmental changes. The emerging development in mass spectrometry technologies has shown promise in the discovery and quantitation of neuroactive small molecule metabolites associated with gut microbiota and brain. Significant progress has been made recently in the characterization of intermediate role of small molecule metabolites linked to neural development and neurodegenerative disorder, showing its potential in understanding the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host brain...
November 12, 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111305/landmark-discoveries-in-elucidating-the-origins-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-system-from-the-perspective-of-a-basal-vertebrate-sea-lamprey
#3
REVIEW
Stacia A Sower
The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) system, which is specific to vertebrates, is considered to be an evolutionary innovation that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral jawless vertebrates (agnathans) leading to the neuroendocrine control of many complex functions. Along with hagfish, lampreys represent the oldest lineage of vertebrates, agnathans (jawless fish). This review will highlight our discoveries of the major components of the lamprey HP axis. Generally, gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) have one or two hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) while lampreys have three hypothalamic GnRHs...
October 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082410/model-system-based-proteomics-to-understand-the-host-response-during-bacterial-infections
#4
REVIEW
Arumugam Kamaladevi, Shanmugam Marudhupandiyan, Krishnaswamy Balamurugan
Infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens pose a major concern to public health and, thus, greater attention must be given to providing insightful knowledge on host-pathogen interactions. There are several theories addressing the dynamics of complex mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions. The availability of an ample number of universally accepted model systems, including vertebrates, invertebrates, and mammalian cells, provides in-depth transcriptomics data to evaluate these complex mechanisms during host-pathogen interactions...
November 21, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067166/the-potential-adoption-benefits-and-challenges-of-loinc-codes-in-a-laboratory-department-a-case-study
#5
Chukwuemeka Uchegbu, Xia Jing
BACKGROUND: Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) are a standard for identifying and reporting laboratory investigations that were developed and are maintained by the Regenstrief Institute. LOINC codes have been adopted globally by hospitals, government agencies, laboratories, and research institutions. There are still many healthcare organizations, however, that have not adopted LOINC codes, including rural hospitals in low- and middle- income countries. Hence, organizations in these areas do not receive the benefits that accrue with the adoption of LOINC codes...
December 2017: Health Information Science and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978293/hiv-antiretroviral-medication-stock-outs-in-ghana-contributors-and-consequences
#6
Rebecca A Poku, Adobea Yaa Owusu, Patricia Dolan Mullen, Christine Markham, Sheryl A McCurdy
Drug stock-outs are an unfortunate yet common reality for patients living in low and middle income countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where trouble with consistent stock of antiretroviral medications (ARVs) continues. Our study takes a snapshot of this problem in Ghana. Although the country launched its antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in 2003, progress toward realising the full benefit of ART for treated individuals has been limited, in part, because of stock-outs. In Ghana's Greater Accra region, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 women living with HIV (WLHIV) and 15 individuals with a history of HIV-related work in government or non-governmental organisations, or healthcare facilities...
September 2017: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950754/tele-orthopaedics-a-snapshot-of-services-in-australia
#7
Liam J Caffery, Monica Taylor, John B North, Anthony C Smith
Health services in the United States and Europe have reported that tele-orthopaedics saves significant patient travel time, reduces time off work, increases satisfaction with care and in some scenarios reduces the cost of care. Less is known about the role of tele-orthopaedics in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore Australian-based tele-orthopaedic services, and to identify the barriers and enablers associated with these services. We used a qualitative case study methodology where specific services were identified from multiple sources and invited to participate in a structured interview...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918016/therapeutic-mirna-and-sirna-moving-from-bench-to-clinic-as-next-generation-medicine
#8
REVIEW
Chiranjib Chakraborty, Ashish Ranjan Sharma, Garima Sharma, C George Priya Doss, Sang-Soo Lee
In the past few years, therapeutic microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) are some of the most important biopharmaceuticals that are in commercial space as future medicines. This review summarizes the patents of miRNA- and siRNA-based new drugs, and also provides a snapshot about significant biopharmaceutical companies that are investing for the therapeutic development of miRNA and siRNA molecules. An insightful view about individual siRNA and miRNA drugs has been depicted with their present status, which is gaining attention in the therapeutic landscape...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805350/predicting-student-success-in-nurse-practitioner-programs
#9
Angela Richard-Eaglin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Criteria for admission to nurse practitioner (NP) and other professional programs provide a snapshot of students' potential for success in those programs. Critical examination of admission criteria is a vital component of ensuring timely matriculation and completion of NP programs. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between admission criteria and student progression and completion of NP programs. METHODS: A retrospective review of 150 randomly selected student records from a total of 232 available records was conducted...
October 2017: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765212/programming-and-reprogramming-the-brain-a-meeting-of-minds-in-neural-fate
#10
REVIEW
Magdalena Götz, Sophie Jarriault
In early April 2017, over 130 delegates met in Munich, Germany, to discuss the latest research in the development and reprogramming of cells of the nervous system. The conference, which was organised by Abcam and entitled 'Programming and Reprogramming the Brain', was a great success, and provided an excellent snapshot of the current state of the field, and what the challenges are for the future. This Meeting Review provides a summary of the talks presented and the major themes that emerged from the conference...
August 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751186/the-science-of-selection-using-best-practices-from-industry-to-improve-success-in-surgery-training
#11
Aimee K Gardner, Teodor Grantcharov, Brian J Dunkin
BACKGROUND: The selection of high-quality applicants is critical to the future of surgery. However, it is unclear if current practices meet industry criteria of a successful selection system, as measured by administrative efficiency and performance and attrition of those selected. METHODS: We performed a modified systematic review process to gain an understanding of current selection processes, remediation practices, and attrition rates in surgery residency training programs in the United States...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743731/shifting-disease-burden-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-14-year-survival-analysis-of-childhood-mortality-in-bangladesh
#12
REVIEW
Olakunle Alonge, Siran He, Dewan Emdadul Hoque, Shumona Sharmin Salam, Irteja Islam, Shams El-Arifeen, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to compare all-cause mortality and drowning-specific mortality rates and survival times among birth cohorts of children from rural Bangladesh over a 14-year period. METHOD: Seven birth cohorts of children aged 12-59 months were created using data from the Matlab Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Bangladesh. Each cohort represents children born within a 2-year interval between 1 July 1995 and 30 June 2009, who were then evaluated over a 2-year snapshot...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708092/the-exact-nuclear-overhauser-enhancement-recent-advances
#13
REVIEW
Parker J Nichols, Alexandra Born, Morkos A Henen, Dean Strotz, Julien Orts, Simon Olsson, Peter Güntert, Celestine N Chi, Beat Vögeli
Although often depicted as rigid structures, proteins are highly dynamic systems, whose motions are essential to their functions. Despite this, it is difficult to investigate protein dynamics due to the rapid timescale at which they sample their conformational space, leading most NMR-determined structures to represent only an averaged snapshot of the dynamic picture. While NMR relaxation measurements can help to determine local dynamics, it is difficult to detect translational or concerted motion, and only recently have significant advances been made to make it possible to acquire a more holistic representation of the dynamics and structural landscapes of proteins...
July 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528970/the-many-faces-of-compartmentalized-pka-signalosomes
#14
REVIEW
Omar Torres-Quesada, Johanna E Mayrhofer, Eduard Stefan
Cellular signal transmission requires the dynamic formation of spatiotemporally controlled molecular interactions. At the cell surface information is received by receptor complexes and relayed through intracellular signaling platforms which organize the actions of functionally interacting signaling enzymes and substrates. The list of hormone or neurotransmitter pathways that utilize the ubiquitous cAMP-sensing protein kinase A (PKA) system is expansive. This requires that the specificity, duration, and intensity of PKA responses are spatially and temporally restricted...
May 18, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487061/the-spectrum-of-ambulatory-electrocardiographic-monitoring
#15
REVIEW
Harry G Mond
Since its introduction as a clinical investigative tool, the 12-lead electrocardiograph (ECG) has been the gold standard for recognition of cardiac arrhythmias. The resting 12-lead ECG, however, gives only a rhythm snapshot in time, whereas arrhythmias maybe short-lived, paroxysmal and even asymptomatic making documentation in many patients very difficult. To overcome this, ambulatory ECG monitoring has been developed as a means of recording the ECG in patients over a set period of time, whether it be short-, medium- or long-term...
April 13, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453916/digital-technology-and-clinical-decision-making-in-depression-treatment-current-findings-and-future-opportunities
#16
REVIEW
Kevin A Hallgren, Amy M Bauer, David C Atkins
Clinical decision making encompasses a broad set of processes that contribute to the effectiveness of depression treatments. There is emerging interest in using digital technologies to support effective and efficient clinical decision making. In this paper, we provide "snapshots" of research and current directions on ways that digital technologies can support clinical decision making in depression treatment. Practical facets of clinical decision making are reviewed, then research, design, and implementation opportunities where technology can potentially enhance clinical decision making are outlined...
April 28, 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410462/health-service-provision-for-people-with-epilepsy-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-situational-review
#17
REVIEW
Musa M Watila, Mark R Keezer, Samuel A Angwafor, Andrea S Winkler, Josemir W Sander
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where many people with the condition receive no treatment. Health-care services for epilepsy in this region have not been comprehensively assessed. We examined key features of epilepsy health services provided in SSA. METHODOLOGY: This was a scoping review conducted using pre-specified protocols. We implemented an electronic search strategy to identify relevant citations using PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), African Index Medicus (AIM), Open Grey, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar...
May 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390673/diagnostic-performance-of-256-row-detector-coronary-ct-angiography-in-patients-with-high-heart-rates-within-a-single-cardiac-cycle-a%C3%A2-preliminary-study
#18
J Liang, H Wang, L Xu, L Yang, L Dong, Z Fan, R Wang, Z Sun
AIM: To evaluate the image quality and diagnostic performance of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with high heart rate within a single cardiac cycle using a 256-row detector CT system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-four consecutive symptomatic patients (mean age 60.4±9.1 years, 52 men) with suspected coronary artery disease and heart rate ≥75 beats/min undergoing CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) were enrolled retrospectively...
August 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355471/moving-from-static-to-dynamic-models-of-the-onset-of-mental-disorder-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Barnaby Nelson, Patrick D McGorry, Marieke Wichers, Johanna T W Wigman, Jessica A Hartmann
Importance: In recent years, there has been increased focus on subthreshold stages of mental disorders, with attempts to model and predict which individuals will progress to full-threshold disorder. Given this research attention and the clinical significance of the issue, this article analyzes the assumptions of the theoretical models in the field. Observations: Psychiatric research into predicting the onset of mental disorder has shown an overreliance on one-off sampling of cross-sectional data (ie, a snapshot of clinical state and other risk markers) and may benefit from taking dynamic changes into account in predictive modeling...
May 1, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324673/a-framework-to-guide-the-assessment-of-human-machine-systems
#20
REVIEW
Kimberly Stowers, James Oglesby, Shirley Sonesh, Kevin Leyva, Chelsea Iwig, Eduardo Salas
OBJECTIVE: We have developed a framework for guiding measurement in human-machine systems. BACKGROUND: The assessment of safety and performance in human-machine systems often relies on direct measurement, such as tracking reaction time and accidents. However, safety and performance emerge from the combination of several variables. The assessment of precursors to safety and performance are thus an important part of predicting and improving outcomes in human-machine systems...
March 2017: Human Factors
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