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Joel Kaluzny, Hao Li, Wenzhong Liu, Peter Nesper, Justin Park, Hao F Zhang, Amani A Fawzi
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the versatility and performance of a compact Bayer filter snapshot hyperspectral fundus camera for in-vivo clinical applications including retinal oximetry and macular pigment optical density measurements. METHODS: 12 healthy volunteers were recruited under an Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved protocol. Fundus images were taken with a custom hyperspectral camera with a spectral range of 460-630 nm. We determined retinal vascular oxygen saturation (sO2) for the healthy population using the captured spectra by least squares curve fitting...
October 21, 2016: Current Eye Research
Thomas H Hartranft, Kurt Yandle, Tim Graham, Charles Holden, Lowell W Chambers
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a newly implemented electronic web-based review system created at our institution for evaluating resident performance relative to established milestones. DESIGN: Retrospective review of data collected from a survey of general surgery faculty and residents. SETTING: Tertiary care teaching hospital system and independent academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 12 general surgery faculty and 17 general surgery residents participated in this study...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Basil H Aboul-Enein, Joshua Bernstein, Jacquelyn E Bowser
There is a positive association between availability of regional peer-reviewed public health information systems and progressive change in community and population health. The objective of this brief report was to identify public health journals in Arabic-speaking countries actively publishing as of 2016. We conducted an electronic search in several electronic database records for public health journals using a combination of search terms. We excluded journals that focused on human medicine, veterinary medicine, nursing, and other discipline-specific or clinical health professions...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
Alexey Petrushin, Lorenzo Ferrara, Axel Blau
OBJECTIVE: In light of recent progress in mapping neural function to behavior, we briefly and selectively review past and present endeavors to reveal and reconstruct nervous system function in Caenorhabditis elegans through simulation. APPROACH: Rather than presenting an all-encompassing review on the mathematical modeling of C. elegans, this contribution collects snapshots of pathfinding key works and emerging technologies that recent single- and multi-center simulation initiatives are building on...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Briony E Forbes
The last two years of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) research has yielded a vast literature highlighting the central role IGFs factors play in processes such as development, growth, aging and neurological function. It also provides our latest understanding of how IGF system perturbation is linked to diseases including growth deficiency, cancer, and neurological and cardiovascular diseases. A snapshot of the highlights is presented in this review, focussing on the topics of IGFs and growth, comparative and structural biology to understand insulin-like peptide function, IGFs and cancer, and IGFs and neurological function...
September 30, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Takashi Ishikawa
The axoneme is the main extracellular part of cilia and flagella in eukaryotes. It consists of a microtubule cytoskeleton, which normally comprises nine doublets. In motile cilia, dynein ATPase motor proteins generate sliding motions between adjacent microtubules, which are integrated into a well-orchestrated beating or rotational motion. In primary cilia, there are a number of sensory proteins functioning on membranes surrounding the axoneme. In both cases, as the study of proteomics has elucidated, hundreds of proteins exist in this compartmentalized biomolecular system...
September 6, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Emma M de Koff, Karin M de Winter – de Groot, Debby Bogaert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is punctuated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and recurrent pulmonary exacerbations, and is the major determinant of a patient's life expectancy. With the advent of novel deep-sequencing techniques, polymicrobial bacterial assemblages rather than single pathogens seem to be responsible for the deterioration of pulmonary function. This review summarizes recent insights into the development of the CF respiratory tract microbiome, with its determinants and its relations to clinical parameters...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Carla M Cuda, Richard M Pope, Harris Perlman
Rheumatoid arthritis affects nearly 1% of the world's population and is a debilitating autoimmune condition that can result in joint destruction. During the past decade, inflammatory functions have been described for signalling molecules classically involved in apoptotic and non-apoptotic death pathways, including, but not limited to, Toll-like receptor signalling, inflammasome activation, cytokine production, macrophage polarization and antigen citrullination. In light of these remarkable advances in the understanding of inflammatory mechanisms of the death machinery, this Review provides a snapshot of the available evidence implicating death pathways, especially within the phagocyte populations of the innate immune system, in the perpetuation of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic diseases...
August 23, 2016: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
YongSeok Jho, Hee Young Yoo, Yanxian Lin, Songi Han, Dong Soo Hwang
Complex coacervate refers to a phase-separated fluid, typically of two oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in solution, representing a complex fluid system that has been shown to be of essential interest to biological systems, as well as for soft materials processing owing to the expectation of superior underwater coating or adhesion properties. The significance and interest in complex coacervate fluids critically rely on its low interfacial tension with respect to water that, in turn, facilitates the wetting of macromolecular or material surfaces under aqueous conditions, provided there is attractive interaction between the polyelectrolyte constituents and the surface...
July 21, 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
Gerrit Joop, Andreas Vilcinskas
Parasitic fungi and their insect hosts provide an intriguing model system for dissecting the complex co-evolutionary processes, which result in Red Queen dynamics. To explore the genetic basis behind host-parasite coevolution we chose two parasitic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, representing the most important entomopathogenic fungi used in the biological control of pest or vector insects) and two established insect model hosts (the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum) for which sequenced genomes or comprehensive transcriptomes are available...
August 2016: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
T Renton, W Sabbah
Aims To review never and serious events related to dentistry between 2005-2014 in England.Methods Data from the National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS), with agreed data protection and intelligence governance, was used - snapshot view using the timeframe January 2005 to May 2014. The Strategic Executive Information System (STEIS) database was reported separately for 2012-2013 and 2013-2014. The free text elements from the database were analysed thematically and reclassified according to the nature of the patient safety incident (PSI)...
July 22, 2016: British Dental Journal
Ruth Pape, Kelly Maree Spuur, Geoffrey Currie, Lacey Greene
INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to document the distribution of mammographic parenchymal patterns (MPP) of Indigenous Australian women attending BreastScreen New South Wales (NSW) North Coast, to profile breast cancer risk as it relates to breast density and to explore the correlation between MPP, breast size as described by the posterior nipple line (PNL) and age. METHODS: Ethics was granted from CQUniversity Human Research Ethics Committee, NSW Population Health Services Research Ethics Committee and the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council Ethics Committee...
June 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Yongzhong Zhao, Christian V Forst, Camil E Sayegh, I-Ming Wang, Xia Yang, Bin Zhang
It has been well-recognized that inflammation alongside tissue repair and damage maintaining tissue homeostasis determines the initiation and progression of complex diseases. Albeit with the accomplishment of having captured the most critical inflammation-involved molecules, genetic susceptibilities, epigenetic factors, and environmental factors, our schemata on the role of inflammation in complex diseases remain largely patchy, in part due to the success of reductionism in terms of research methodology per se...
July 19, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Mark A Zamorski, Rachel E Bennett, David Boulos, Bryan G Garber, Rakesh Jetly, Jitender Sareen
OBJECTIVE: The 2013 Canadian Forces Mental Health Survey (CFMHS) collected detailed information on mental health problems, their impacts, occupational and nonoccupational determinants of mental health, and the use of mental health services from a random sample of 8200 serving personnel. The objective of this article is to provide a firm scientific foundation for understanding and interpreting the CFMHS findings. METHODS: This narrative review first provides a snapshot of the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), focusing on 2 key determinants of mental health: the deployment of more than 40,000 personnel in support of the mission in Afghanistan and the extensive renewal of the CAF mental health system...
April 2016: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
Chris Phillips, Carla Santos, Manuel Fondevila, Ángel Carracedo, Maria Victoria Lareu
An expanding choice of ancestry-informative marker single nucleotide polymorphisms (AIM-SNPs) is becoming available for the forensic user in the form of sensitive SNaPshot-based tests or in alternative single-base extension genotyping systems (e.g., Sequenom iPLEX) that can be adapted for analysis with SNaPshot. In addition, alternative ancestry-informative variation: Indels and STRs can be analyzed using direct PCR-to-CE techniques that offer the possibility to detect mixed profiles. We review the current forensically viable AIM panels, their optimized PCR multiplexes, and the population differentiation power they offer...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Howard R Champion, Louis V Lombardo, Charles E Wade, Ellen J Kalin, Mary M Lawnick, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: Vehicle crashes are a leading cause of US injury and death. Early death, however, has almost entirely been studied in-hospital. The US Department of Transportation Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) database captures both prehospital and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: FARS location (prehospital, in-hospital) and time of death were reviewed (1978-2013), and a 2003-2005 subgroup of 55,537 early deaths (i.e., between 5 minutes and 4 hours after injury) was analyzed to quantify risk of death over time...
September 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Nishant Singh, Anuradha Bharara Singh
Ubiquitination is the vital system for controlling protein degradation and regulation of basic cellular processes. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) are emerging as an important regulator of several pathways related to cancer and other diseases. Their ability to detach ubiquitin from the target substrate and regulation of signaling makes it potential target to treat cancer and other fatal diseases. In the current review, we are trying to summarize deubiquitination, and their role in cancer and potential small molecules DUBs inhibitors which can be used as drugs for cancer treatment...
July 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Philip M Beart
This 'Past to Future' Review as part of the 60th anniversary year of the Journal of Neurochemistry focuses on synaptic transmission and associated signalling, and seeks to identify seminal progress in neurochemistry over the last 10 years which has advanced our understanding of neuronal communication in brain. The approach adopted analyses neurotransmitters on a case by case basis (i.e. amino acids, monoamines, acetylcholine, neuropeptides, ATP/purines and gasotransmitters) to highlight novel findings that have changed the way we view each type of transmitter, to explore commonalities and interactions, and to note how new insights have changed the way we view the biology of degenerative, psychiatric and behavioural conditions...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Deepika Raman, Chuan Han Jonathan Foo, Marie-Veronique Clement, Shazib Pervaiz
SIGNIFICANCE: Breast cancer is a unique disease characterized by heterogeneous cell populations causing roadblocks in therapeutic medicine, owing to its complex etiology and primeval understanding of the biology behind its genesis, progression, and sustenance. Globocan statistics indicate over 1.7 million new breast cancer diagnoses in 2012, accounting for 25% of all cancer morbidities. RECENT ADVANCES: Despite these dismal statistics, the introduction of molecular gene signature platforms, progressive therapeutic approaches in diagnosis, and management of breast cancer has led to more effective treatment strategies and control measures concurrent with an equally reassuring decline in the mortality rate...
August 20, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Neil Lunt, Daniel Horsfall, Johanna Hanefeld
The scoping review focuses on medical tourism, whereby consumers elect to travel across borders or to overseas destinations to receive their treatment. Such treatments include: cosmetic and dental surgery; cardio, orthopaedic and bariatric surgery; IVF; and organ and tissue transplantation. The review assesses the emerging focus of research evidence post-2010. The narrative review traverses discussion on medical tourism definitions and flows, consumer choice, clinical quality and outcomes, and health systems implications...
June 2016: Maturitas
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