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L Chekli, E Corjon, S A A Tabatabai, G Naidu, B Tamburic, S H Park, H K Shon
During algal bloom periods, operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pretreatment processes (e.g. ultrafiltration (UF)) has been hindered due to the high concentration of algal cells and algal organic matter (AOM). The present study evaluated for the first time the performance of titanium salts (i.e. titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC)) for the removal of AOM in seawater and results were compared with the conventional FeCl3 coagulant. Previous studies already demonstrated that titanium salts not only provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional coagulants by producing a valuable by-product but also minimise the environmental impact of sludge production...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Zhaobo Li, Lihong Zhou, Chrisostomos Prodromou, Velibor Savic, Laurence H Pearl
Inhibition of the ATPase cycle of the HSP90 chaperone promotes ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation of its client proteins, which include many oncogenic protein kinases. This provides the rationale for HSP90 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics. However, the mechanism by which HSP90 ATPase inhibition triggers ubiquitylation is not understood, and the E3 ubiquitin ligases involved are largely unknown. Using a siRNA screen, we have identified components of two independent degradation pathways for the HSP90 client kinase CRAF...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
David K DeForest, Robert C Santore, Adam C Ryan, Brian G Church, M Jasim Chowdhury, Kevin V Brix
The US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) current ambient water quality criteria (AWQC) for lead (Pb) in freshwater were developed in 1984. The criteria are adjusted for hardness, but more recent studies have demonstrated that other parameters, especially dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and pH, have a much stronger influence on Pb bioavailability. These recent studies have been used to support development of a biotic ligand model (BLM) for Pb in freshwater, such that acute and chronic Pb toxicity can be predicted over a wide range of water chemistry conditions...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Steven Rheiner, Derek Reichel, Piotr Rychahou, Tadahide Izumi, Hsin-Sheng Yang, Younsoo Bae
Poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated polyethylenimine (PEG-PEI) is a widely studied cationic polymer used to develop non-viral vectors for siRNA therapy of genetic disorders including cancer. Cell lines stably expressing luciferase reporter protein typically evaluate the transfection efficacy of siRNA/PEG-PEI complexes, however recent findings revealed that PEG-PEI can reduce luciferase expression independent of siRNA. This study elucidates a cause of the false positive effect in luciferase assays by using polymer nanoassemblies (PNAs) made from PEG, PEI, poly-(L-lysine) (PLL), palmitate (PAL), and deoxycholate (DOC): PEG-PEI (2P), PEG-PEI-PAL (3P), PEG-PLL (2P'), PEG-PLL-PAL (3P'), and PEG-PEI-DOC (2PD)...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bridget A Ulrich, Marta Vignola, Katelynn Edgehouse, David Werner, Christopher P Higgins
This study sought to evaluate how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) affects attenuation of trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) in biochar-amended stormwater biofilters. It was hypothesized that (1) DOC-augmented runoff would demonstrate enhanced TOrC biodegradation, and (2) biochar-amended sand bearing DOC-cultivated biofilms would achieve enhanced TOrC attenuation due to sorptive retention and biodegradation. Microcosm and column experiments were conducted; utilizing actual runoff, DOC from straw and compost, and a suite of TOrCs...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
H P H Arp, T N Brown, U Berger, S E Hale
The contaminants that have the greatest chances of appearing in drinking water are those that are mobile enough in the aquatic environment to enter drinking water sources and persistent enough to survive treatment processes. Herein a screening procedure to rank neutral, ionizable and ionic organic compounds for being persistent and mobile organic compounds (PMOCs) is presented and applied to the list of industrial substances registered under the EU REACH legislation as of December 2014. This comprised 5155 identifiable, unique organic structures...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Franco Berrino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Benjamin Mueller, Erik H Meesters, Fleur C van Duyl
Photosynthates released by benthic primary producers (BPP), such as reef algae and scleractinian corals, fuel the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production on tropical coral reefs. DOC concentrations near BPP have repeatedly been observed to be elevated compared to those in the surrounding water column. As the DOC release of BPP increases with increasing light availability, elevated DOC concentrations near them will, in part, also depend on light availability. Consequently, DOC concentrations are likely to be higher on the shallow, well-lit reef terrace than in deeper sections on the fore reef slope...
2017: PeerJ
Mukesh Kumar Awasthi, Meijing Wang, Ashok Pandey, Hongyu Chen, Sanjeev Kumar Awasthi, Quan Wang, Xiuna Ren, Altaf Hussain Lahori, Dong-Sheng Li, Ronghua Li, Zengqiang Zhang
In the present study, biochar combined with a higher dosage of zeolite (Z) and biochar (B) alone were applied as additives for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) composting using 130-L working volume lab-scale reactors. We first observed that the addition of a mixture of B and Z to DFSS equivalent to 12%B+10% (Z-1), 15% (Z-2) and 30% (Z-3) zeolite (dry weight basis) worked synergistically as an amendment and increased the composting efficiency compared with a treatment of 12%B alone amended and a control without any amendment...
June 13, 2017: Waste Management
Paul S Appelbaum
Physicians increasingly have recognized the importance of asking patients whether they own firearms and suggesting safe means of storage. Florida's legislature perceived these questions as threats to patients' rights to keep guns and passed a law restricting physicians from making such inquiries. When a number of physicians and their organizations challenged the law in 2011, a six-year odyssey through the courts ensued. In the end, the U.S. 11th Circuit Court of Appeals struck down the statute, recognizing that physicians' free speech rights extend to communications with patients, a decision that may influence other attempts to restrict clinicians' speech...
June 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Ezekiel K Bore, Carolin Apostel, Sara Halicki, Yakov Kuzyakov, Michaela A Dippold
Although biogeochemical models designed to simulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in high-latitude ecosystems incorporate extracellular parameters, molecular and biochemical adaptations of microorganisms to freezing remain unclear. This knowledge gap hampers estimations of the C balance and ecosystem feedback in high-latitude regions. To analyze microbial metabolism at subzero temperatures, soils were incubated with isotopomers of position-specifically (13)C-labeled glucose at three temperatures: +5 (control), -5, and -20°C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Julian Puppe, Deborah van Ooyen, Jeanne Neise, Fabinshy Thangarajah, Christian Eichler, Stefan Krämer, Roman Pfister, Peter Mallmann, Marina Wirtz, Guido Michels
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy with anthracyclines is associated with life-threatening electrocardiographic alterations including corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study we assessed the effect of epirubicin, cyclophosphamide, and docetaxel (EC-Doc) on the QTc interval in 10 patients with early breast cancer. Cardiac toxicity was assessed with symptoms, transthoracic echocardiography, electrocardiography (ECG), and serum cardiac markers at baseline and after 4 cycles of EC and 4 cycles of docetaxel...
March 2017: Breast Care
Ye Zhang, Ran Li, Jubao Du, Su Huo, Jianhui Hao, Weiqun Song
Accurate and reliable prognostic judgments for disorders of consciousness (DOCs) can provide useful information for clinicians in the establishment of appropriate care plan, and may affect end-of-life decisions of caregivers. But until now no certain or standardized prognostic indicator has been constructed to predict the probability of awareness recovery. This study aims to assess higher-order cortical information processing in DOCs by event-related potential (ERP) and determine the value of P300 to predict the long-term prognosis...
June 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Lauri Arvola, Matti Leppäranta, Cecilia Äijälä
In lakes and rivers, the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are closely related. We analysed three large spectrophotometer data sets of Finnish inland waters from the years 1913-1914, 1913-1931 and 2014 for long-term changes in optical properties. The first data set consists of absorption spectra in the band 467-709nm of 212 filtered water samples, the second one contains 11-19years of data for seven rivers, and the third one contains 153 sites with high resolution spectra over the band 200-750nm...
June 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
A Rodriguez, P Yaman, J Dennison, D Garcia
PURPOSE:   To investigate the effect of different light exposure times, shades, and thicknesses on the depth of cure (DOC) of bulk fill composites. METHODS AND MATERIALS:   Two bulk fill composites, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill (TBF) and Sonic Fill (SF), and a conventional composite, Filtek Supreme Ultra (FSU), were evaluated. Samples (n=10) were made using two different shades (light and dark), thicknesses (2 and 4 mm) and exposure times (20 and 40 seconds). A Tukon 2100B-testing machine was used to obtain three Knoop hardness numbers (KHNs) measured at the top and bottom of each sample, and DOC was calculated as the bottom/top ratio...
June 12, 2017: Operative Dentistry
Paola Calza, Giorgio Noè, Debora Fabbri, Valentina Santoro, Claudio Minero, Davide Vione, Claudio Medana
The photochemical reactivity of three ionic liquids (1-ethylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, and 1-(3-cyanopropyl)pyridinium chloride) was studied by combining laboratory experiments and photochemical modeling, to get insight into the possible behavior in surface-water environments. Among the studied compounds, phototransformation in sunlit surface waters could be an important attenuation pathway for 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate (BMPOTFB). In this case the reaction with the carbonate radicals (CO3(-)) would prevail at low values of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), while the direct photolysis would be important at intermediate to high DOC values...
May 30, 2017: Water Research
Noah Stern, Matthew Ginder-Vogel, James C Stegen, Evan Arntzen, David W Kennedy, Bret R Larget, Eric E Roden
Hydrologic exchange plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling within the hyporheic zone (interface between river water and groundwater) of riverine ecosystems. Such exchange may set limits on rates of microbial metabolism, and impose deterministic selection on microbial communities that adapt to dynamically changing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) sources. This study examined the response of attached microbial communities (in situ colonized sand packs) from groundwater, hyporheic, and riverbed habitats within the Columbia River hyporheic corridor to "cross-feeding" with either groundwater, river water, or DOC-free artificial fluids...
June 9, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Danielle Cleveland, William G Brumbaugh, Donald D MacDonald
Evaluations of sediment quality conditions are commonly conducted using whole sediment chemistry analyses, but can be enhanced by evaluating multiple lines of evidence, including measures of the bioavailable forms of contaminants. In particular, pore water chemistry data provide information that is directly relevant for interpreting sediment toxicity data. Various methods for sampling pore water for trace metals and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is an important moderator of metal bioavailability, have been employed...
June 9, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
(no author information available yet)
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines excerpted from the WHO position paper on Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, May 2017, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper replaces the 2014 WHO position paper on HPV vaccines [2]. The position paper focuses primarily on the prevention of cervical cancer, but also considers the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination...
June 5, 2017: Vaccine
Jae-Hyoung Joo, Zhen Kuang, Pengbin Wang, Bum Soo Park, Shailesh Kumar Patidar, Myung-Soo Han
The novel eco-friendly algaecidal naphthoquinone derivate was used to control harmful algal bloom causing species Stephanodiscus and, its effect was assessed on other undesired and non-targeted microbial communities. We conducted a mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of this novel algaecide on native microbial communities rearing in water collected from Nakdonggang River. Upon treatment of the mesocosm with the naphthoquinone derivate the concentration of Chl-a decreased from 20.4 μg L(-1) to 9...
June 5, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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