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Xu-Guang Huang, Shun-Xing Li, Feng-Jiao Liu, Wang-Rong Lan
Exudates by marine phytoplankton and metals coexist in the seawater, but little is known about their interaction. In this study, cultures of Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu were grown in urea and ammonium, and then exposed to different Ni ion levels in order to study the effects of Ni ions on algal growth. The regulatory mechanisms of P. donghaiense Lu for coping with different Ni ion levels was investigating by characterizing dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbohydrate and protein content released per cell, hydropathy properties (hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions) and thiol compounds (cysteine-like or glutathione-like)...
January 10, 2018: Chemosphere
Galina Matafonova, Valeriy Batoev
Over the last decade, ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have attracted considerable attention as alternative mercury-free UV sources for water treatment purposes. This review is a comprehensive analysis of data reported in recent years (mostly, post 2014) on the application of UV LED-induced advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to degrade organic pollutants, primarily dyes, phenols, pharmaceuticals, insecticides, estrogens and cyanotoxins, in aqueous media. Heterogeneous TiO2-based photocatalysis in lab grade water using UVA LEDs is the most frequently applied method for treating organic contaminants...
January 4, 2018: Water Research
Yafei Shen, Ruimei Cheng, Wenfa Xiao, Shao Yang, Yan Guo, Na Wang, Lixiong Zeng, Lei Lei, Xiaorong Wang
The effects of forest management on carbon (C) sequestration are poorly understood, particularly in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. We aimed to identify the effects of forest management on C sequestration in Pinus massoniana plantations. An intact control forest (CK), a site undergoing regular shrub cutting with the simultaneous removal of residues (SC), a site under low-intensity thinning (LIT), and a site under high-intensity thinning (HIT) were compared for soil labile organic carbon (LOC), related enzyme activities, and soil characteristics...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kyung-Jo Kim, Am Jang
To enhance the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in ceramic (Ce) membrane filtration, an iron-aluminum binary oxide (FAO) was applied to the ceramic membrane surface as the adsorbent cake layer, and it was compared with heated aluminum oxide (HAO) for the evaluation of the control of NOM. Both the HAO and FAO adsorbent cake layers efficiently removed the NOM regardless of NOM's hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristics, and the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal in NOM for FAO was 1-1.12 times greater than that for HAO, which means FAO was more efficient in the removal of DOC in NOM...
January 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Karina Banasik, Neil R Robertson, Richard Mott, Mark I McCarthy
Summary: Data integration and visualization help geneticists make sense of large amounts of data. To help facilitate interpretation of genetic association data we developed Toppar, a customizable visualization tool that stores results from association studies and enables browsing over multiple results, by combining features from existing tools and linking to appropriate external databases. Availability: Detailed information on Toppar's features and functionality are on our website http://mccarthy...
January 8, 2018: Bioinformatics
Jie Xu, Yanxia Zhao, Baoyu Gao, Songlin Han, Qian Zhao, Xiaoli Liu
Cyanobacterial bloom causes the release of algal organic matter (AOM), which inevitably affects the treatment processes of natural organic matter (NOM). This study works on treating micro-polluted surface water (SW) by emerging coagulant, namely titanium sulfate (Ti(SO4)2), followed by Low Pressure Ultrafiltration (LPUF) technology. In particular, we explored the respective influence of extracellular organic matter (EOM) and intracellular organic matter (IOM) on synergetic EOM-NOM/IOM-NOM removal, functional mechanisms and subsequent filtration performance...
January 5, 2018: Chemosphere
Per Holm Nygaard, Line Tau Strand, Arne Oddvar Stuanes
Stand dynamics and the gap initiation prior to gap formation are not well-understood because of its long-term nature and the scarcity of late-successional stands. Reconstruction of such disturbance is normally based on historical records and dendroecological methods. We investigated gap initiation and formation at the fine-scale stand level in the old-growth reserve of Karlshaugen in Norway. Given its long-term conservation history, and thorough mapping in permanent marked plots with spatially referenced trees, it provides an opportunity to present stand development before, during, and after gap formation...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Rebecca T Barnes, David Ellison Butman, Henry Wilson, Peter A Raymond
The flux of terrestrial C to rivers has increased relative to pre-industrial levels, a fraction of which is aged dissolved organic C (DOC). In rivers, C is stored in sediments, exported to the ocean, or (bio)chemically processed and released as CO2. Disturbance changes land cover and hydrology, shifting potential sources and processing of DOC. To investigate the likely sources of aged DOC, we analyzed radiocarbon ages, chemical, and spectral properties of DOC and major ions from nineteen rivers draining the coterminous U...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Davide Rossi Sebastiano, Elisa Visani, Ferruccio Panzica, Davide Sattin, Anna Bersano, Anna Nigri, Stefania Ferraro, Eugenio Parati, Matilde Leonardi, Silvana Franceschetti
OBJECTIVE: We assessed sleep patterns in 85 patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DOC) in order to reveal any relationship with the degree of the impairment. METHODS: Nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) was scored in patients classified as being in an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state (UWS/VS; n = 49) or a minimally conscious state (MCS; n = 36) in accordance with the rules of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The PSG data in the two diagnostic groups were compared, and the PSG parameters associated with the degree of impairment were analysed...
December 24, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Hao Zhang, Jie Tang, Shuang Liang, Zhaoyang Li, Jingjing Wang, Sining Wang
Variations in soil organic carbon (SOC) have implications for atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the greenhouse effect. However, the effects of snow cover and straw mulching on the variations in SOC fractions across winter remain largely unknown. In this study, soil samples were collected during different stages of winter from an in situ experiment comprising three treatments: 1) snow removal with no straw mulching (Sn-SM-); 2) snow cover with no straw mulching (SC), and; 3) snow cover with straw mulching (SC + SM+)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Nguyen Thanh-Nho, Emilie Strady, Tran-Thi Nhu-Trang, Frank David, Cyril Marchand
Mangroves can be considered as biogeochemical reactors along (sub)tropical coastlines, acting both as sinks or sources for trace metals depending on environmental factors. In this study, we characterized the role of a mangrove estuary, developing downstream a densely populated megacity (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam), on the fate and partitioning of trace metals. Surface water and suspended particulate matter were collected at four sites along the estuarine salinity gradient during 24 h cycling in dry and rainy seasons...
December 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Xuechu Chen, Yingying Huang, Guiqin Chen, Panpan Li, Yingshi Shen, Timothy Walter Davis
Recent studies indicated that the algal decomposition produces particulate and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and can enhance denitrification in eutrophic lakes. However, the effects of the living cyanobacteria on nitrogen cycling in eutrophic lakes were still an unknown question. This study explores a new underlying mechanism of nitrate removal which is driven by living Microcystis. The results suggested that living Microcystis significantly enhanced the nitrate removal at sediment-water interface, with a nitrate removal rate of 0...
January 2, 2018: Chemosphere
M Caschetto, W Robertson, M Petitta, R Aravena
Natural attenuation of nitrogen (N) was investigated in a well characterized septic system plume at a campground in Ontario, Canada. Total inorganic N (TIN) concentrations in deeper portions of the plume were about one third of the septic tank value of 40.7mgL-1. NH4+ and NO3- isotopic characterization were used to provide insight into potential attenuation processes. Concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- were highly variable in the plume, but approached the septic tank TIN value in some shallow zones and exhibited δ15N values like the tank value of +6‰...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elena La Gattuta, Francesco Corallo, Viviana Lo Buono, Simona De Salvo, Fabrizia Caminiti, Carmela Rifici, Antonella Alagna, Francesca Arcadi, Alessia Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Acquired brain injury can produce severe impairments of alertness, cognition, behavior, and, sometimes, an impairment of consciousness. Several studies defined the criteria to distinguish the different level of disorders of consciousness (DOC) and many tools to evaluate awareness, alertness, and response to stimuli were created. The aim of this review is to assess the advanced research of rehabilitative protocols and which rehabilitative techniques are used in the care of DOC patients.
January 5, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Jun-Jian Wang, Melissa Lafrenière, Scott Lamoureux, Andre J Simpson, Yves Gélinas, Myrna J Simpson
Regional warming has caused permafrost thermokarst and disturbances, such as active layer detachments (ALDs), which may alter carbon feedback in Arctic ecosystems. However, it is currently unclear how these disturbances alter DOM biogeochemistry in rivers and ponds in Arctic ecosystems. Water samples from main channel, ALD-disturbed/undisturbed tributaries, and disturbed/undisturbed ponds within a catchment of Canadian High Arctic were collected and analyzed using carbon isotopes and spectroscopic methods. Both river and pond samples had large variations in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Daniel Graeber, Jane Rosenstand Poulsen, Marlen Heinz, Jes J Rasmussen, Dominik Zak, Björn Gücker, Brian Kronvang, Norbert Kamjunke
A large part of the organic carbon in streams is transported by pulses of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon (tDOC) during hydrological events, which is more pronounced in agricultural catchments due to their hydrological flashiness. The majority of the literature considers stationary benthic biofilms and hyporheic biofilms to dominate uptake and processing of tDOC. Here, we argue for expanding this viewpoint to planktonic bacteria, which are transported downstream together with tDOC pulses, and thus perceive them as a less variable resource relative to stationary benthic bacteria...
December 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Penghao Jiao, Zhijun Li, Qiang Li, Wen Zhang, Li He, Yue Wu
In the coupled Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particular Filter (DPF) system, soot cannot be completely removed by only using the passive regeneration. And DPF active regeneration is necessary. The research method in this paper is to spray different kinds of combustion-supporting agents to the DOC in the front of the DPF. Therefore, the low temperature combustion mechanism of different kinds of combustion-supporting agents in DOC was studied, in order to grasp the law of combustion in DOC, and the influence of follow-up emission on DPF removal of soot...
December 26, 2017: ISA Transactions
Kaname Sakuma, Ryuki Tamura, Shintaro Hanyu, Haruka Takahashi, Hideaki Sato, Takahiro Oneyama, Akira Yamaguchi, Akira Tanaka
Using trace three-dimensional culture, the collagen gel droplet-embedded culture drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) can be tested even in cases with a small number of cells, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and evaluation of the antitumor effect with a drug concentration close to the in vivo level is possible. The present report aimed to evaluate the utility of the CD-DST in the assessment of the in vitro efficacy of single-agent and multidrug combination chemotherapy for OSCC in comparison with the clinical response rates and to examine the possible clinical application of CD-DST for such cases...
December 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Nahid Ramezan Ghorbani, Shirin Djalalinia, Mitra Modirian, Zahra Esmaeili Abdar, Morteza Mansourian, Armita Mahdavi Gorabi, Hamid Asayesh, Hossein Ansari, Mehrdad Kazemzadeh Atoofi, Ramin Tajbakhsh, Mehdi Noroozi, Saeid Safiri, Mostafa Qorbani
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and a potential cause of substantial morbidity and mortality. This study aims to provide a comprehensive evidence on HCV Infection in Iranian hemodialysis (HD) patients we conducted a systematic review. Materials and Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, through a comprehensive search of literature until January of 2016, we estimated the pooled prevalence of hepatitis C infection in Iranian HD patients...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Yu-Mi Kim, Soon-Joung Kwon, Hyun-Joon Jang, Young-Kwon Seo
The objective of this study is to evaluate of rice bran mineral extract (RBM) increases the expression of anagen-related molecules in human dermal papilla (DOCs). Four treatment groups were established to evaluate the efficacy of RBM, including a negative control, positive control (ascorbic acid), RBM and ortho-silicic acid (Si(OH)4) (OSA) group. Three days after the DPCs were administered the various treatments, western blot analysis showed that type I collagen expression was increased 2.5-fold in the OSA group and 4-fold in the RBM group, and ALP expression was increased 1...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
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