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World Health Organization
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of cholera vaccines excerpted from the Cholera vaccines: WHO position paper, August 2017, published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record (Cholera vaccine, 2017) [1]. This position paper replaces the 2010 WHO position paper on cholera vaccines (Cholera vaccine, 2010) [2]. It incorporates the most recent evidence on cholera vaccination and provides revised recommendations on the target populations for cholera immunization. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence, and to the evidence-to-recommendation table...
March 17, 2018: Vaccine
Dorina Murgulet, Melissa Trevino, Audrey Douglas, Nicholas Spalt, Xinping Hu, Valeriu Murgulet
We conducted a comprehensive analysis of a variety of geochemical data including total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major ions, stable isotopes, and submarine groundwater discharge, to understand biogeochemical and hydrologic processes driving the seasonal to annual estuarine buffering capacity in Nueces Bay, Texas. These measurements, together with statistical analysis and geochemical modeling, show large variability of freshwater influence. TA consumption, common to spring seasons, was mainly driven by CaCO3 precipitation and, to some extent, by aerobic respiration...
March 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaoqiang Gong, Linlin Cai, Suyan Li, Scott X Chang, Xiangyang Sun, Zhengfeng An
Vermicomposting is a promising method for reusing urban green waste. However, high lignin content in the green waste could hinder the development of earthworm and microorganisms and the vermicomposting process, resulting in a low-quality vermicompost product. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bamboo biochar addition (at 0%, 3%, and 6% on a dry w/w basis) on the activity of Eisenia fetida and the obtained vermicompost. Biochar addition increased (P < 0.05) earthworm biomass, juvenile and cocoon numbers of Eisenia fetida, as well as the activities of dehydrogenase, cellulase, urease and alkaline phosphatase...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Antoine Angelergues, Eleni Efstathiou, Revekka Gyftaki, Piotr Jan Wysocki, Nuria Lainez, Iria Gonzalez, Daniel E Castellano, Mustafa Ozguroglu, Iciar Garcia Carbonero, Aude Flechon, Pablo Borrega, Aline Guillot, Begona Campos Balea, Sylvestre Le Moulec, Emilio Esteban, Javier Munarriz, Gustavo Rubio, Alison J Birtle, Nicolas Delanoy, Joaquim Bellmunt, Stéphane Oudard
BACKGROUND: Several agents have demonstrated an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC); however, the optimal sequencing of these therapies is unknown as a result of a lack of prospective randomized controlled trials. This retrospective study aimed to identify clinical factors influencing outcomes and to determine optimal treatment sequencing in patients with mCRPC treated with cabazitaxel (CABA) and/or androgen receptor-targeted agents (ART) after androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and docetaxel (DOC)...
February 23, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Bin Qu, Mika Sillanpää, Shichang Kang, Fangping Yan, Zhiguo Li, Hongbo Zhang, Chaoliu Li
Rivers are critical links in the carbon and nitrogen cycle in aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. Here riverine carbon and nitrogen exports in nine large rivers on the Tibetan Plateau - the "Water Tower of Asia" - were investigated in the monsoon season from 2013 to 2015. Compared with the world average, concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, 30.7mg/L) were high in river basins of the plateau due to extensive topographic relief and intensive water erosion. Low concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 1...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Huihui Han, Hengfeng Miao, Yajing Zhang, Minfeng Lu, Zhenxing Huang, Wenquan Ruan
Disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors in wastewater during the reversed anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2 /O) process, as well as their molecular weight (MW) and polarity-based fractions, were characterized with UV scanning, fluorescence excitation emission matrix, Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Their DBP formation potentials (DBPFPs) after chlorination were further tested. Results indicated that the reversed A2 /O process could not only effectively remove the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved total nitrogen in the wastewater, but also affect the MW distribution and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Ling Kong, L M Chu
Urban grasslands not only provide a recreational venue for urban residents, but also sequester organic carbon in vegetation and soils through photosynthesis, and release carbon dioxide through respiration, which largely contribute to carbon storage and fluxes at regional and global scales. We investigated organic carbon and nitrogen pools in subtropical turfs and found that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) were regulated by several factors including microbial activity which is indicated by soil enzymatic activity...
March 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Marine Landa, Stéphane Blain, Jérôme Harmand, Sébastien Monchy, Alain Rapaport, Ingrid Obernosterer
In the Southern Ocean, natural iron fertilization in the wake of islands leads to annually occurring spring phytoplankton blooms associated with enhanced heterotrophic activity through the release of labile dissolved organic matter (DOM). The aim of this study was to investigate experimentally how diatom-derived DOM affects the composition of Southern Ocean winter water bacterial communities and to identify the most responsive taxa. A bacterial community collected in the naturally iron-fertilized region off Kerguelen Island (KEOPS2 October-November 2011) was grown onboard in continuous cultures, on winter water alone or amended with diatom-derived DOM supplied at identical DOC concentrations...
April 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Meng Liu, Shiyang Shen, Di Wen, Mengru Li, Teng Li, Xiaojie Chen, Zhen Gu, Ran Mo
Protein therapeutics hold increasing interest with promise of revolutionizing the cancer treatment by virtue of potent specific activity and reduced adverse effect. Nonetheless, the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer proteins is highly compromised by multiple successive physiological barriers to protein delivery. Concurrent elimination of bulk tumor cells and highly-tumorigenic cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) has been evidenced as a promising strategy to improve cancer therapy. Here we show that a hierarchically-assembled nanocomposite can self-adaptively transform its particulate property in response to endogenous tumor-associated signals to overcome the sequential barriers and achieve enhanced antitumor efficacy by killing CSCs and bulk tumor cells synchronously...
March 16, 2018: Nano Letters
Yinhong Hu, Xiaolin Dou, Juanyong Li, Feng Li
The rapid expansion of urbanization has caused land cover change, especially the increasing area of impervious surfaces. Such alterations have significant effects on the soil ecosystem by impeding the exchange of gasses, water, and materials between soil and the atmosphere. It is unclear whether impervious surfaces have any effects on soil bacterial diversity and community composition. In the present study, we conducted an investigation of bacterial communities across five typical land cover types, including impervious surfaces (concrete), permeable pavement (bricks with round holes), shrub coverage ( Buxus megistophylla Levl...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Julien Arsenault, Julie Talbot, Tim R Moore
Pools are common in northern peatlands but studies have seldom focused on their nutrient biogeochemistry, especially in relation to their morphological characteristics and through seasons. We determined the environmental characteristics controlling carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) biogeochemistry in pools and assessed their evolution over the course of the 2016 growing season in a subboreal ombrotrophic peatland of eastern Canada. We showed that water chemistry variations in 62 pools were significantly explained by depth (81...
March 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
(no author information available yet)
Andrew McAinsh received his PhD from the University of Cambridge, UK, working in the laboratory of Steve Jackson on DNA damage and repair mechanisms in yeast. He then joined the laboratory of Peter Sorger as a Jane Coffin Childs Fellow to work as a post-doc on kinetochore biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, USA. In 2005, he returned to the UK to establish his independent laboratory at the Marie Curie Research Institute, Surrey, before moving to the University of Warwick in 2009 to co-found the Centre for Mechanochemical Cell Biology (CMCB)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Sarah J Ronaldson, Lisa Dyson, Laura Clark, Catherine E Hewitt, David J Torgerson, Brendan G Cooper, Matt Kearney, William Laughey, Raghu Raghunath, Lisa Steele, Rebecca Rhodes, Joy Adamson
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Early identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) results in patients receiving appropriate management for their condition at an earlier stage in their disease. The determining the optimal approach to identifying individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (DOC) study was a case-finding study to enhance early identification of COPD in primary care, which evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a series of simple lung function tests and symptom-based case-finding questionnaires...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Jing Qi, Huachun Lan, Ruiping Liu, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu
The coagulation/flocculation/flotation (C/F/F) process is becoming a popular method for algae-laden water treatment. However, the efficiency of flotation is highly dependent on the ability of the preceding coagulation/flocculation process to form flocculated algae flocs. This study aims to improve the Microcystis aeruginosa flotation efficiency from algae cell and organic matter aspects by applying Fe(II)-regulated pretreatment enhanced Al coagulation process. The ability of the C/F/F process to remove cyanobacterial cells can be enhanced from 8% to 99% at a Fe(II) dose of 30 μM...
March 5, 2018: Water Research
T Vandermarken, K Croes, K Van Langenhove, I Boonen, P Servais, T Garcia-Armisen, N Brion, M S Denison, L Goeyens, M Elskens
The Zenne River, crossing the Brussels region (Belgium) is an extremely urbanized river impacted by both domestic and industrial effluents. The objective of this study was to monitor the occurrence and activity of Endocrine Active Substances (EAS) in river water and sediments in the framework of the Environmental Quality Standards Directive (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EU). Activities were determined using Estrogen and Dioxin Responsive Elements (ERE and DRE) Chemical Activated Luciferase Gene Expression (CALUX) bioassays...
March 7, 2018: Chemosphere
Guocheng Zhu, Junfei Liu, Yongning Bian
Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is an important component of aquatic environment of which amount impacts water quality. Thus, removal of DON has attracted wide attention. At present, it is difficult for common coagulation to remove DON from the aquatic environment. The cationic polymers can help to improve the removal efficiency of DON to some extent, but the underlying mechanism of the ascension is not clear. In order to grasp its removal behavior and further improve the removal efficiency of DON in the future, we evaluated the effect of a hybridized coagulant of polyacrylamide with iron-based coagulant on removal of aquatic DON...
March 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xuejun Sun, Qianggong Zhang, Shichang Kang, Junming Guo, Xiaofei Li, Zhengliang Yu, Guoshuai Zhang, Dongmei Qu, Jie Huang, Zhiyuan Cong, Guangjian Wu
Glacierized mountain environments can preserve and release mercury (Hg) and play an important role in regional Hg biogeochemical cycling. However, the behavior of Hg in glacierized mountain environments and its environmental risks remain poorly constrained. In this research, glacier meltwater, runoff and wetland water were sampled in Zhadang-Qugaqie basin (ZQB), a typical glacierized mountain environment in the inland Tibetan Plateau, to investigate Hg distribution and its relevance to environmental risks. The total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 0...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Siqi Li, Xunhua Zheng, Chunyan Liu, Zhisheng Yao, Wei Zhang, Shenghui Han
Quantifications of soil dissolvable organic carbon concentrations, together with other relevant variables, are needed to understand the carbon biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems. Soil dissolvable organic carbon can generally be grouped into two incomparable categories. One is soil extractable organic carbon (EOC), which is measured by extracting with an aqueous extractant (distilled water or a salt solution). The other is soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is measured by sampling soil water using tension-free lysimeters or tension samplers...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Masaki Mogi, Katsuhiko Kohara, Yasuharu Tabara, Kana Tsukuda, Michiya Igase, Masatsugu Horiuchi
Our previous report indicated that sarcopenia is associated with arterial stiffness and cardiovascular death. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease and its activation may be correlated with sarcopenia according to basic research. However, few clinical studies have assessed the correlation between skeletal muscle loss and RAS component concentrations in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the excretion of angiotensinogen (AGT) and aldosterone (Ald) in 24-h urine samples and clinical and sarcopenic indices...
March 9, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Michele Torrisi, Adriana Piccolo, Rosaria De Luca, Matteo Berenati, Antonella Olivo, Giuseppa Maresca, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
Disorder of consciousness (DOC) can be either an acute and reversible condition or a chronic condition, including vegetative state or minimally conscious state. Herein, we describe a patient who has unexpectedly recovered consciousness after being in a misdiagnosed vegetative state for a long period. A 63-year-old woman was admitted to our rehabilitation center in vegetative state (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised score, 6) and treated with a standard rehabilitation program, including physical therapy and multisensory stimulation, besides psychoactive drugs...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
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