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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531557/characterization-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-leached-from-a-woodchip-bioreactor
#1
Ibrahim Abusallout, Guanghui Hua
Woodchip bioreactors are increasingly being applied to remove nitrate from agricultural subsurface drainage. However, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released from woodchips may negatively affect the aquatic ecosystems and drinking water supplies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the leaching characteristics, disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potentials, and treatability of DOC derived from a laboratory woodchip bioreactor. Initial flush of woodchips resulted in the release of high organic content from woodchips...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529387/cross-sectional-surveys-inferring-total-eventual-time-in-current-state-using-only-elapsed-time-to-date
#2
Richard C Larson
We focus on snapshot surveying of sub-populations whose members are in a temporary state and where one of the questions asked is the elapsed time already spent in that state. From these answers we develop probabilistic and statistical procedures to estimate the distribution of total time that will eventually be spent in that state by any random individual who enters the state. The method relies on a selection bias often found in temporal sampling, sometimes called "random incidence" or "longevity bias." We develop results for several types of sampling, including random and fixed times of surveying, random and fixed times of entering the state, and sampling only those who have already spent some minimal specified time in the targeted state...
March 2017: Socio-economic Planning Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527389/dynamics-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-riverine-sediments-affected-by-weir-impoundments-production-benthic-flux-and-environmental-implications
#3
Meilian Chen, Sung-Han Kim, Heon-Jae Jung, Jung-Ho Hyun, Jung Hyun Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, In-Ae Huh, Jin Hur
In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH4(+) and the decrease of PO4(3-), signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway...
May 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525538/chimeraviz-a-tool-for-visualizing-chimeric-rna
#4
Stian Lågstad, Sen Zhao, Andreas M Hoff, Bjarne Johannessen, Ole Christian Lingjærde, Rolf I Skotheim
Summary: Advances in high-throughput RNA sequencing have enabled more efficient detection of fusion transcripts, but the technology and associated software used for fusion detection from sequencing data often yield a high false discovery rate. Good prioritization of the results is important, and this can be helped by a visualization framework that automatically integrates RNA data with known genomic features. Here we present chimeraviz , a Bioconductor package that automates the creation of chimeric RNA visualizations...
May 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523397/the-heterogeneity-of-composition-and-assembly-processes-of-the-microbial-community-between-different-nutrient-loading-lake-zones-in-taihu-lake
#5
Dayong Zhao, Xinyi Cao, Rui Huang, Jin Zeng, Feng Shen, Huimin Xu, Sichen Wang, Xiaowei He, Zhongbo Yu
To investigate the differences in the microbial community composition and assembly process in two lake zones (Meiliang Bay (MLB) and Xukou Bay (XKB) in Taihu Lake, China) with different nutrient loadings, water samples were collected. Both the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene for the bacterial community and the 18S rRNA gene for the microeukaryote community were investigated using the Illumina second-generation sequencing platform (2 × 250 paired-end). The results indicated that both the bacterioplankton and microeukaryote community composition derived from the two lake zones were significantly different...
May 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523100/transdermal-bioavailability-in-rats-of-lidocaine-in-the-forms-of-ionic-liquids-salts-and-deep-eutectic
#6
Paula Berton, Kristin R Di Bona, Denise Yancey, Syed A A Rizvi, Marquita Gray, Gabriela Gurau, Julia L Shamshina, Jane F Rasco, Robin D Rogers
Tuning the bioavailability of lidocaine was explored by its incorporation into the ionic liquid lidocainium docusate ([Lid][Doc]) and the deep eutectic Lidocaine·Ibuprofen (Lid·Ibu) and comparing the transdermal absorption of these with the crystalline salt lidocainium chloride ([Lid]Cl). Each form of lidocaine was dissolved in a vehicle cream and topically applied to Sprague-Dawley rats. The concentrations of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in blood plasma were monitored over time as an indication of systemic absorption...
May 11, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521277/the-spatio-temporal-mechanical-environment-of-healthy-and-injured-human-cartilage-during-sustained-activity-and-its-role-in-cartilage-damage
#7
Saeed Miramini, David W Smith, Lihai Zhang, Bruce S Gardiner
Recently we presented a computational model of articular cartilage calibrated for normal human tissue explants. This model was able to capture the transient deformation of cartilage experiencing a cyclic load. The model takes into account the tension-compression nonlinearity of the cartilage and incorporates the dependency of the compressive stiffness and fluid permeability of cartilage on the deformation-dependent aggrecan concentration in cartilage tissue. As such it represents a leading constitutive model of articular cartilage...
May 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518096/invasive-behavior-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#8
Jiang Ren, Sijia Liu, Chao Cui, Peter Ten Dijke
In many cases, cancer patients do not die of a primary tumor, but rather because of metastasis. Although numerous rodent models are available for studying cancer metastasis in vivo, other efficient, reliable, low-cost models are needed to quickly access the potential effects of (epi)genetic changes or pharmacological compounds. As such, we illustrate and explain the feasibility of xenograft models using human breast cancer cells injected into zebrafish embryos to support this goal. Under the microscope, fluorescent proteins or chemically labeled human breast cancer cells are transplanted into transgenic zebrafish embryos, Tg (fli:EGFP), at the perivitelline space or duct of Cuvier (Doc) 48 h after fertilization...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516405/characterization-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-an-urbanized-estuary-located-in-northeastern-brazil
#9
Maria de Lara Palmeira de Macedo Arguelho, José do Patrocínio Hora Alves, Adnívia Santos Costa Monteiro, Carlos Alexandre Borges Garcia
The Sal River estuary, which is located in the state of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, stands out as an urban estuary, anthropogenically impacted by untreated and treated wastewater discharge. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and measurement of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were used for characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the estuarine water. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations ranged from 7.5 to 19.0 mg L(-1) and, in general, the highest values were recorded during dry season...
June 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515709/effects-of-10-hz-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-the-left-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-disorders-of-consciousness
#10
Xiaoyu Xia, Yang Bai, Yangzhong Zhou, Yi Yang, Ruxiang Xu, Xiaorong Gao, Xiaoli Li, Jianghong He
BACKGROUND: While repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied in treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), a standardized stimulation protocol has not been proposed, and its therapeutic effects are inconsistently documented. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of rTMS in improving consciousness in patients with persistent minimally conscious state (MCS) or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), previously known as vegetative state (VS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506599/application-of-vadose-zone-monitoring-system-for-real-time-characterization-of-leachate-percolation-in-and-under-a-municipal-landfill
#11
Imri Aharoni, Hagar Siebner, Ofer Dahan
Leachates from solid-waste landfills are considered a severe threat to groundwater quality. The fate of pollutants in the waste and underlying unsaturated zone is crucial for evaluating environmental risks and selecting a restoration strategy. In this study, a vadose-zone monitoring system (VMS) installed in a municipal landfill was used, for the first time, to continuously track leachates percolation dynamics and assess their chemical transformation across the entire thickness of the waste body (15m) and underlying unsaturated zone (16m) to the water table...
May 12, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497424/validation-of-sdm-q-doc-questionnaire-to-measure-shared-decision-making-physician-s-perspective-in-oncology-practice
#12
C Calderon, P J Ferrando, A Carmona-Bayonas, U Lorenzo-Seva, C Jara, C Beato, T García, A Ramchandani, B Castelo, M M Muñoz, S Garcia, O Higuera, M Mangas-Izquierdo, P Jimenez-Fonseca
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Shared Decision-Making Questionnaire-Physician version (SDM-Q-Doc) in a sample of medical oncologists who provide adjuvant treatment to patients with non-metastatic resected cancer and the correlations between the total SDM-Q-Doc score and physician satisfaction with the information provided. METHODS: Prospective, observational and multicenter study in which 32 medical oncologists and 520 patients were recruited...
May 11, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495096/sequential-extraction-protocol-for-organic-matter-from-soils-and-sediments-using-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#13
Malak M Tfaily, Rosalie K Chu, Jason Toyoda, Nikola Tolić, Errol W Robinson, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Nancy J Hess
A vast number of organic compounds are present in soil organic matter (SOM) and play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, facilitate interactions between organisms, and represent a sink for atmospheric CO2. The diversity of different SOM compounds and their molecular characteristics is a function of the organic source material and biogeochemical history. By understanding how SOM composition changes with sources and the processes by which it is biogeochemically altered in different terrestrial ecosystems, it may be possible to predict nutrient and carbon cycling, response to system perturbations, and impact of climate change will have on SOM composition...
June 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494127/does-iron-reduction-control-the-release-of-dissolved-organic-carbon-and-phosphate-at-catchment-scales-need-for-a-joint-research-effort
#14
A Musolff, B Selle, O Büttner, M Opitz, K H Knorr, J H Fleckenstein, T Reemtsma, J Tittel
We welcome the comment by Kalbitz et al. (2017) on our recent paper in which we examined long-term time series of concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phosphate from 110 streams in Germany. We concluded that increasing concentrations of both DOC and phosphate were governed by the reduction of iron(III)-minerals in riparian soils and the associated release of the adsorbed compounds. We explained the decreasing stability of the iron minerals by declining nitrogen depositions and thus decreasing nitrate redox buffers in riparian wetland soils (Musolff et al...
May 11, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486184/bioaccessibility-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-activated-carbon-or-biochar-amended-vegetated-salix-viminalis-soil
#15
Patryk Oleszczuk, Paulina Godlewska, Danny D Reible, Piotr Kraska
The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of activated carbon (AC) or biochars on the bioaccessibility (Cbioacc) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils vegetated with willow (Salix viminalis). The study determined the effect of willow on the Cbioacc PAHs and the effect of the investigated amendments on changes in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), crop yield and the content of PAHs in plants. PAH-contaminated soil was amended with 2.5 wt% AC or biochar. Samples from individual plots with and without plants were collected at the beginning of the experiment and after 3, 6, 12 and 18 months...
May 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484263/biological-early-diagenesis-and-insolation-paced-paleoproductivity-signified-in-deep-core-sediment-organic-matter
#16
Meilian Chen, Ji-Hoon Kim, Jiyoung Choi, Yun Kyung Lee, Jin Hur
The dynamics of a large stock of organic matter contained in deep sediments of marginal seas plays pivotal role in global carbon cycle, yet it is poorly constrained. Here, dissolved organic matter (DOM) in sediments was investigated for core sediment up to ~240 meters deep in the East/Japan Sea. The upper downcore profile (≤118 mbsf, or meters below seafloor) at a non-chimney site (U1) featured the exponential production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and optically active DOM with time in the pore water above sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ), concurrent with the increases of nutrients and alkalinity, and the reduction of sulfate...
May 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484060/prediction-of-primary-care-depression-outcomes-at-six-months-validation-of-doc-6-%C3%A2
#17
Kurt B Angstman, Gregory M Garrison, Cesar A Gonzalez, Daniel W Cozine, Elizabeth W Cozine, David J Katzelnick
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to develop and validate an assessment tool for adult primary care patients diagnosed with depression to determine predictive probability of clinical outcomes at 6 months. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 3096 adult patients enrolled in collaborative care management (CCM) for depression. Patients enrolled on or before December 31, 2013, served as the training set (n = 2525), whereas those enrolled after that date served as the preliminary validation set (n = 571)...
May 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475990/removal-behaviors-and-mechanisms-of-hexavalent-chromium-from-aqueous-solution-by-cephalosporin-residue-and-derived-chars
#18
Jishi Zhang, Shujun Chen, Huiwen Zhang, Xikui Wang
Cephalosporin residue (CR) was used to produce biochar (BC) and activated carbon (AC) at 600°C (BC600 and AC600). To compare the removal behaviors and mechanisms of Cr(VI) by CR and derived chars, batch adsorption tests were performed in Cr(VI) microenvironment like pH, Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dosage, combing with the characterization of adsorbents before and after adsorption. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) techniques were used...
April 23, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475975/using-column-experiments-to-examine-transport-of-as-and-other-trace-elements-released-from-poultry-litter-implications-for-trace-element-mobility-in-agricultural-watersheds
#19
Oluyinka Oyewumi, Madeline E Schreiber
Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475964/electrochemical-advanced-oxidation-processes-for-staphylococcus-aureus-disinfection-in-municipal-wwtp-effluents
#20
Pilar Valero, Martha Verbel, Javier Silva-Agredo, Rosa Mosteo, Maria P Ormad, Ricardo A Torres-Palma
This paper presents the Staphylococcus aureus inactivation in a simulated wastewater treatment plant effluent by different electrochemical techniques, including the photo-electro-Fenton process. S. aureus, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total oxidants and H2O2 concentrations, as well as pH, were monitored during the assays. An electrolytic cell, including a UVA lamp, a gas diffusion electrode (GDE) as cathode and an IrO2 anode, was used to conduct the experiments under galvanostatic conditions (20 mA). Low inactivation (-0...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
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