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Soil transmitted helminth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734515/the-global-state-of-helminth-control-and-elimination-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Jill E Weatherhead, Peter J Hotez, Rojelio Mejia
Helminth infections, including soil-transmitted helminths and schistosomiasis, remain one of the most common infections in the world with over 1 billion people infected. These infections cause significant morbidity, particularly in young children, that may last a lifetime, including growth and cognitive stunting. There is an urgent need for the control and elimination of helminth infections from areas of poverty to reduce morbidity in children. Mass drug administration programs were adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2001 and have evolved to provide coverage with multiple anthelmintic medications in a single rapid impact package and more extensive coverage within a community...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722571/more-poop-more-precision-improving-epidemiologic-surveillance-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-with-multiple-fecal-sampling-using-the-kato-katz-technique
#2
Chengfang Liu, Louise Lu, Linxiu Zhang, Yu Bai, Alexis Medina, Scott Rozelle, Darvin Scott Smith, Changhai Zhou, Wei Zang
Soil-transmitted helminths, or parasitic intestinal worms, are among the most prevalent and geographically widespread parasitic infections in the world. Accurate diagnosis and quantification of helminth infection are critical for informing and assessing deworming interventions. The Kato-Katz thick smear technique, the most widely used laboratory method to quantitatively assess infection prevalence and infection intensity of helminths, has often been compared with other methods. Only a few small-scale studies, however, have considered ways to improve its diagnostic sensitivity...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719642/infections-with-schistosoma-mansoni-and-geohelminths-among-school-children-dwelling-along-the-shore-of-the-lake-hawassa-southern-ethiopia
#3
Bamlaku Tadege, Techalew Shimelis
BACKGROUND: Infections with Schistosoma mansoni and soil-transmitted helminthes (STHs) are major public health problems in Ethiopia. However, information was scarce on the current status of these infections to guide an intervention in the study area. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the prevalence of infections with S. mansoni and STHs and associated factors among school children in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study investigated children who were attending the Finchawa and Tullo junior elementary schools and were residing along the shore of the lake Hawassa in January and February, 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719325/serologic-monitoring-of-public-health-interventions-against-strongyloides-stercoralis
#4
Paola Vargas, Alejandro J Krolewiecki, Adriana Echazú, Marisa Juarez, Pamela Cajal, Jose F Gil, Nicolás Caro, Julio Nasser, Patrick Lammie, Rubén O Cimino
Northwestern Argentina is endemic for soil-transmitted helminths, and annual deworming programs are carried out in prioritized areas. High prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis was reported in this area; therefore, control programs including ivermectin are being evaluated. The NIE-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for this purpose. In this community trial, two groups of patients, classified according to housing and living conditions were evaluated. Simultaneous with baseline survey, Group 1 was moved to new households with access to improved water and sanitation facilities (W and S), where deworming (MDA, massive drug administration) took place within 1 month; whereas Group 2 received MDA but remained living with unimproved W and S...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716158/efficacy-of-single-dose-500-mg-mebendazole-in-soil-transmitted-helminth-infections-a-review
#5
J Mrus, B Baeten, M Engelen, S A Silber
Soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) is caused by Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm), Trichuris trichiura (whipworm), and Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus (hookworms). Mebendazole is one of the recommended preventive chemotherapy agents for STH. This review summarizes the efficacy data from 29 studies with single-dose 500 mg mebendazole in STH treatment and compares the results with those of a recently conducted phase 3 study of a 500 mg mebendazole chewable tablet against A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700363/prospects-for-elimination-of-soil-transmitted-helminths
#6
Kristjana H Ásbjörnsdóttir, Arianna R Means, Marleen Werkman, Judd L Walson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic in 120 countries and are associated with substantial morbidity and loss of economic productivity. Although current WHO guidelines focus on morbidity control through mass drug administration (MDA), there is global interest in whether a strategy targeting disease elimination might be feasible in some settings. This review summarizes the prospects for switching from control to an elimination strategy. RECENT FINDINGS: STH control efforts have reduced the intensity of infections in targeted populations with associated reductions in morbidity...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697451/reduced-efficacy-of-albendazole-against-ascaris-lumbricoides-in-rwandan-schoolchildren
#7
Jürgen Krücken, Kira Fraundorfer, Jean Claude Mugisha, Sabrina Ramünke, Kevin C Sifft, Dominik Geus, Felix Habarugira, Jules Ndoli, Augustin Sendegeya, Caritas Mukampunga, Claude Bayingana, Toni Aebischer, Janina Demeler, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
Control of human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) relies on preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren applying the benzimidazoles (BZ) albendazole or mebendazole. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is a common problem in nematodes of veterinary importance but for human STHs, information on drug efficacy is limited and routine monitoring is rarely implemented. Herein, the efficacy of single dose albendazole (400 mg) was evaluated in 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda where Ascaris is the predominant STH. Ascaris eggs were detected by wet mount microscopy and the Mini-FLOTAC method to assess cure rate (CR) and faecal egg count reduction (FECR)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692668/a-novel-species-specific-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-of-the-emerging-zoonotic-parasite-ancylostoma-ceylanicum-in-human-stool
#8
Marina Papaiakovou, Nils Pilotte, Jessica R Grant, Rebecca J Traub, Stacey Llewellyn, James S McCarthy, Alejandro J Krolewiecki, Rubén Cimino, Rojelio Mejia, Steven A Williams
BACKGROUND: Molecular-based surveys have indicated that Ancylostoma ceylanicum, a zoonotic hookworm, is likely the second most prevalent hookworm species infecting humans in Asia. Most current PCR-based diagnostic options for the detection of Ancylostoma species target the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal gene cluster. These regions possess a considerable degree of conservation among the species of this genus and this conservation can lead to the misidentification of infecting species or require additional labor for accurate species-level determination...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680323/high-prevalence-of-helminths-infection-and-associated-risk-factors-among-adults-living-in-a-rural-setting-central-kenya-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Janet Masaku, Faith Mutungi, Paul M Gichuki, Collins Okoyo, Doris W Njomo, Sammy M Njenga
BACKGROUND: Schistosome infection and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are major public health problems in many developing countries where they contribute to the suffering of populations living in poor settings. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in four rural villages in central region of Kenya to provide information on the status of schistosome and STH infections. Previous studies conducted in the area among primary school children showed that there were high STH and Schistosoma mansoni infections...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676845/th2-1-hybrid-cells-occurring-in-murine-and-human-strongyloidiasis-share-effector-functions-of-th1-cells
#10
Cristin N Bock, Subash Babu, Minka Breloer, Anuradha Rajamanickam, Yukhti Boothra, Marie-Luise Brunn, Anja A Kühl, Roswitha Merle, Max Löhning, Susanne Hartmann, Sebastian Rausch
Infections by the soil-transmitted threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis affect 30-100 million people worldwide, predominantly in tropic and sub-tropic regions. Here we assessed the T helper cell phenotypes in threadworm-infected patients and experimental murine infections with focus on CD4(+) T cells co-expressing markers of Th2 and Th1 differentiation. We show that mice infected with the close relative S. ratti generate strong Th2 responses characterized by the expansion of CD4(+) GATA-3(+) cells expressing IL-4/-5/-13 in blood, spleen, gut-draining lymph nodes, lung and gut tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670749/the-severely-under-recognized-public-health-risk-of-strongyloidiasis-in-north-american-cities-a-one-health-approach
#11
REVIEW
S Jariwala, L Redding, D Hewitt
Strongyloides and other soil-transmitted helminths represent a severely under-recognized zoonotic public health risk, especially in North American cities. They are present throughout North America, including in urban areas, causing morbidity and mortality in human and non-human animals. Epidemiological "masking" of strongyloidiasis due to overlapping symptoms with other systemic diseases, including allergies, and diagnostic limitations complicate our understanding of the epidemiological extent of this disease, and auto-infection allows long-term persistence of individual infections...
July 2, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666452/identifying-optimal-threshold-statistics-for-elimination-of-hookworm-using-a-stochastic-simulation-model
#12
James E Truscott, Marleen Werkman, James E Wright, Sam H Farrell, Rajiv Sarkar, Kristjana Ásbjörnsdóttir, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: There is an increased focus on whether mass drug administration (MDA) programmes alone can interrupt the transmission of soil-transmitted helminths (STH). Mathematical models can be used to model these interventions and are increasingly being implemented to inform investigators about expected trial outcome and the choice of optimum study design. One key factor is the choice of threshold for detecting elimination. However, there are currently no thresholds defined for STH regarding breaking transmission...
June 30, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650985/chronic-trichuris-muris-infection-causes-neoplastic-change-in-the-intestine-and-exacerbates-tumour-formation-in-apc-min-mice
#13
Kelly S Hayes, Laura J Cliffe, Alison J Bancroft, Simon P Forman, Seona Thompson, Cath Booth, Richard K Grencis
Incidences of infection-related cancers are on the rise in developing countries where the prevalence of intestinal nematode worm infections are also high. Trichuris muris (T. muris) is a murine gut-dwelling nematode that is the direct model for human T. trichiura, one of the major soil-transmitted helminth infections of humans. In order to assess whether chronic infection with T. muris does indeed influence the development of cancer hallmarks, both wild type mice and colon cancer model (APC min/+) mice were infected with this parasite...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646926/high-burden-of-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-school-aged-children-in-marolambo-district-madagascar
#14
Stephen A Spencer, James M St John Penney, Hannah J Russell, Anthony P Howe, Cortland Linder, Andriamahitsisambatra L D Rakotomampianina, Anjara M Nandimbiniaina, S Bertel Squire, J Russell Stothard, Amaya L Bustinduy, Alain M Rahetilahy
BACKGROUND: A school-based survey was undertaken to assess prevalence and infection intensity of schistosomiasis in school-aged children in the Marolambo District of Madagascar. METHODS: School-aged children from six purposively selected schools were tested for Schistosoma haematobium by urine filtration and Schistosoma mansoni using circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) and Kato-Katz stool analysis. The investigators did not address soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in this study...
June 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632749/using-a-health-rating-system-to-evaluate-the-usefulness-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-as-a-model-for-anthelmintic-study
#15
Kathryn J Weaver, Cassandra J May, Brian L Ellis
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are intestinal parasitic nematodes that infect humans, and are transmitted through contaminated soil. These nematodes include the large roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworm (Ancylostoma ceylanicum, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Necator americanus). Nearly 1.5 billion people (~24% of the population) worldwide are infected with at least one species of these parasites, burdening the poor, in particular, children and pregnant women. To combat these diseases, the WHO only recognizes four anthelmintic drugs, including the preferred drug, albendazole, for mass drug administration (MDA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615011/lessons-from-implementing-mass-drug-administration-for-soil-transmitted-helminths-among-pre-school-aged-children-during-school-based-deworming-program-at-the-kenyan-coast
#16
Rosemary M Musuva, Elizabeth Matey, Janet Masaku, Gladys Odhiambo, Faith Mwende, Isaac Thuita, Jimmy Kihara, Doris Njomo
BACKGROUND: The 2012 London declaration which committed to "sustaining, expanding and extending drug access programmes to ensure the necessary supply of drugs and other interventions to help control soil-transmitted helminths (STH) by 2020" has seen many countries in Africa roll out mass drug administration (MDA) especially among school age children. In Kenya, however, during the National school-based deworming exercise, pre-school aged children (PSAC) have to access treatment at primary schools as the pre-school teachers are not trained to carry out deworming...
June 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614462/-cross-sectional-study-of-intestinal-parasitosis-in-child-populations-in-argentina
#17
Graciela Teresa Navone, María Lorena Zonta, Paola Cociancic, Mariela Garraza, María Inés Gamboa, Luis Alberto Giambelluca, Silvia Dahinten, Evelia Edith Oyhenart
Objective: Determine the distribution of intestinal parasitosis in children in nine provinces representative of Argentina's mosaic of contrasting environments. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of preschool children (5 years old or under) and school-age children (6-14 years) in the provinces of Buenos Aires (sample taken between 2005 and 2013), Chubut (2010-2013), Corrientes (2012), Entre Ríos (2010-2012), Formosa (2014), La Pampa (2006), Mendoza (2008-2011), Misiones (2005-2008 and 2013), and Salta (2012-2013)...
June 8, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606164/the-importance-of-patient-compliance-in-repeated-rounds-of-mass-drug-administration-mda-for-the-elimination-of-intestinal-helminth-transmission
#18
Sam H Farrell, James E Truscott, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: Systematic non-compliance to chemotherapeutic treatment among a portion of the eligible population is thought to be a major obstacle to the elimination of helminth infections by mass drug administration (MDA). MDA for helminths is repeated at defined intervals such as yearly or every 2 years, as a consequence of the inability of the human host to develop fully protective immunity to reinfection. As such, how an individual complies to these repeated rounds of MDA can have a significant impact on parasite transmission...
June 12, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602619/the-impact-of-sanitation-on-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-status-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Matthew C Freeman, Joshua V Garn, Gloria D Sclar, Sophie Boisson, Kate Medlicott, Kelly T Alexander, Gauthami Penakalapati, Darcy Anderson, Amrita G Mahtani, Jack E T Grimes, Eva A Rehfuess, Thomas F Clasen
BACKGROUND: Sanitation aims to sequester human feces and prevent exposure to fecal pathogens. More than 2.4 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities and almost one billion practice open defecation. We undertook systematic reviews and meta-analyses to compile the most recent evidence on the impact of sanitation on diarrhea, soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, trachoma, schistosomiasis, and nutritional status assessed using anthropometry. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We updated previously published reviews by following their search strategy and eligibility criteria...
May 31, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599671/is-there-a-difference-in-prevalence-of-helminths-between-households-using-ecological-sanitation-and-those-using-traditional-pit-latrines-a-latrine-based-cross-sectional-comparative-study-in-malawi
#20
Save Kumwenda, Chisomo Msefula, Wilfred Kadewa, Yohane Diness, Charles Kato, Tracy Morse, Bagrey Ngwira
BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that households using sludge from human excreta for agriculture are at an increased risk of soil transmitted helminths. However, while use of ecological sanitation (EcoSan) latrines is increasing in most African countries including Malawi, few studies have been done to check whether use of such sludge could potentially increase the prevalence of helminthic infections among household members as a results of exposure to faecal sludge/compared to use of traditional latrines...
June 9, 2017: BMC Research Notes
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