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Soil transmitted helminth

Masahide Yoshikawa, Yukiteru Ouji, Nobuyasu Hirai, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Minoru Yamada, Naoki Arizono, Naoaki Akamatsu, Takaharu Yoh, Daisuke Kaya, Toshiya Nakatani, Eiryo Kikuchi, Yuichi Katanami, Kimitoshi Satoh, Ryosuke Maki, Yusuke Miyazato, Yuichiro Oba, Kei Kasahara, Keiichi Mikasa
Background: Countries in the Southeast Asia region have a high prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth, such as roundworm, whipworm, and hookworms [ Ancylostoma duodenale , Necator americanus , Ancylostoma ceylanicum ]. Recent molecular-based surveys have revealed that A . ceylanicum , a zoonotic hookworm, is likely the second most prevalent hookworm species infecting humans in that part of the world, while others have noted that this infection is an emerging public health risk not only for indigenous people but also for visitors from other countries...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Rebecca K Shears, Allison J Bancroft, Catherine Sharpe, Richard K Grencis, David J Thornton
Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) is one of the four major soil-transmitted helminth infections of man, affecting an estimated 465 million people worldwide. An effective vaccine that induces long-lasting protective immunity against T. trichiura would alleviate the morbidity associated with this intestinal-dwelling parasite, however the lack of known host protective antigens has hindered vaccine development. Here, we show that vaccination with ES products stimulates long-lasting protection against chronic infection in male C57BL/6 mice...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bernard O Abudho, Eric M Ndombi, Bernard Guya, Jennifer M Carter, Diana K Riner, Nupur Kittur, Diana M S Karanja, W Evan Secor, Daniel G Colley
Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in Kenya. The World Health Organization recommends preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel (PZQ) to control morbidity due to schistosomiasis. Morbidity is considered linked to intensity of infection, which along with prevalence is used to determine the frequency of mass drug administration (MDA) to school-age children. We determined the impact of annual school-based MDA on children across all primary and high school years using a repeated cross-sectional study design in five schools near Lake Victoria in western Kenya, an area endemic for Schistosoma mansoni ...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Pisit Suntaravitun, Amornrat Dokmaikaw
Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of Thailand, particularly in rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among the people living in Huai Sai sub-district, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June 2017 to August 2017 which included a total of 224 participants. Stool samples were examined using a simple direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Carolina Valença Barbosa, Magali Muniz Barreto, Rosemary de Jesus Andrade, Fernando Sodré, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, José Mauro Peralta, Ricardo Pereira Igreja, Heloisa Werneck de Macedo, Helena Lucia Carneiro Santos
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: PloS One
A Palma, B Ortiz, L Mendoza, G Matamoros, J A Gabrie, A L Sánchez, G Fontecha
Ascaris sp. is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH) significantly affecting the health of human and swine populations. Health inequities and poverty, with resulting deficiencies in water, sanitation and hygiene, are directly associated with Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in humans. Resource constraints also lead to small-scale livestock production under unsanitary conditions. Free-ranging pigs, for instance, are exposed to a number of infectious agents, among which Ascaris suum is one of the most common. Under these conditions, close proximity between people and pigs can result in cross-contamination; that is, pigs harbouring human Ascaris and vice versa...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Mark D Lim, Simon J Brooker, Vicente Y Belizario, Françoise Gay-Andrieu, John Gilleard, Bruno Levecke, Lisette van Lieshout, Graham F Medley, Zeleke Mekonnen, Greg Mirams, Sammy M Njenga, Maurice R Odiere, James W Rudge, Lieven Stuyver, Jozef Vercruysse, Johnny Vlaminck, Judd L Walson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Moudachirou Ibikounlé, Ablavi Onzo-Aboki, Justin Doritchamou, Jean-Jacques Tougoué, Pélagie Mimonnou Boko, Boris S Savassi, Edoux Joel Siko, Aboudou Daré, Wilfrid Batcho, Achille Massougbodji, Dorothée Akoko Kindé-Gazard, Achille Kaboré
BACKGROUND: National mapping of soil-transmitted helminth infections (STH) was conducted for the first time in all of the 77 districts of Benin (West Africa) from 2013 to 2015. This mapping aimed to provide basic epidemiological data essential for the implementation of the national strategy against the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in the context of achieving the WHO target of controlling these infections by 2020. METHODS: In each district, 5 schools were purposively selected in 5 villages and 50 school-children (25 girls and 25 boys) from ages 8 to 14 years were randomly enrolled in each school...
March 1, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Bruce A Rosa, Taniawati Supali, Lincoln Gankpala, Yenny Djuardi, Erliyani Sartono, Yanjiao Zhou, Kerstin Fischer, John Martin, Rahul Tyagi, Fatorma K Bolay, Peter U Fischer, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Makedonka Mitreva
BACKGROUND: The human intestine and its microbiota is the most common infection site for soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), which affect the well-being of ~ 1.5 billion people worldwide. The complex cross-kingdom interactions are not well understood. RESULTS: A cross-sectional analysis identified conserved microbial signatures positively or negatively associated with STH infections across Liberia and Indonesia, and longitudinal samples analysis from a double-blind randomized trial showed that the gut microbiota responds to deworming but does not transition closer to the uninfected state...
February 28, 2018: Microbiome
Brechje de Gier, Gisela M Pita-Rodríguez, Maiza Campos-Ponce, Margot van de Bor, Chhoun Chamnan, Raquel Junco-Díaz, Colleen M Doak, Marion Fiorentino, Khov Kuong, Fidel Angel-Núñez, Megan E Parker, Marlene Perignon, Lázara Rojas-Rivero, Jacques Berger, Katja Polman, Frank T Wieringa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2018: Acta Tropica
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Poovendhree Reddy, Razak Seidu, Thor Axel Stenström
Wastewater may contain contaminants harmful to human health; hence, there is the need for treatment before discharge. Centralized wastewater treatment systems are the favored treatment options globally, but these are not necessarily superior in reduction of pathogens as compared to decentralized wastewater treatment systems (collectively called DEWATS). This study was therefore undertaken to assess the soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Taenia sp. egg reduction efficiency of selected anaerobic baffled reactors and planted gravel filters compared to centralized wastewater treatment plants in South Africa and Lesotho...
February 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Angela Martinez-Perez, Silvia Roure Díez, Moncef Belhassen-Garcia, Diego Torrús-Tendero, Jose Luis Perez-Arellano, Teresa Cabezas, Cristina Soler, Marta Díaz-Menéndez, Miriam Navarro, Begoña Treviño, Fernando Salvador
INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a globally distributed nematode that causes diverse clinical symptoms in humans. Spain, once considered an endemic country, has experienced a recent increase in imported cases. The introduction of serology helps diagnosis and is currently replacing microbiological techniques in some settings, but its sensitivity is variable and can be low in immunocompromised patients. Diagnosis can only be confirmed by identification of larvae. Often, this "gold standard" can only be achieved in severe cases, such as disseminated S...
February 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chen Wei-Qi, Zhang Ya-Lan, Li Su-Hua, Deng Yan, Xu Bian-Li, Zhang Hong-Wei
OBJECTIVE: To understand the epidemic situation of soil-transmitted nematodiasis in the national surveillance site in Henan Province. METHODS: Over 1 000 fecal samples from inhabitants in Huaiyang County of Henan Province, which was a national surveillance site, were collected each year from 2006 to 2015, the eggs of soil-transmitted nematodes and other intestinal helminths were examined by Kato-Kats technique. The cellophane swab method was used to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs in children aged 3 to 12 years...
July 27, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Paul-Emile Claus, Anne-Sophie Ceuppens, Mike Cool, Gudrun Alliet
OBJECTIVES:  The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most prevalent parasites belonging to the class of the soil-transmitted helminths. Infections are most common in developing countries with a tropical climate where sanitation and hygiene are poor. However, prevalence of ascariasis in industrialized countries is increasing because of immigration and increasing number of refugees. METHODS:  We report a case of ascariasis in a female patient who was admitted to our hospital after she had left the informal refugee camp of Calais in the north of France...
February 19, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Denise Mupfasoni, Alexei Mikhailov, Pamela Mbabazi, Jonathan King, Theresa W Gyorkos, Antonio Montresor
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are among the most common infections in developing countries. Globally, as many as 2 billion people are considered to be at risk for soil-transmitted-helminth (STH) infections. Preschool children (PSAC), school-age children (SAC) and women of reproductive age (WRA) are at high risk of STH-attributable morbidity and preventive chemotherapy (PC) for STH is recommended by the World health Organization (WHO). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Over the last five years, PC coverage in PSAC and SAC has gradually increased, while coverage in WRA has lagged...
February 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sonia Grego, Viswa Barani, Meghan Hegarty-Craver, Antony Raj, Prasanna Perumal, Adrian B Berg, Colleen Archer
Water quality and sanitation are inextricably linked to prevalence and control of soil-transmitted helminth infections, a public health concern in resource-limited settings. India bears a large burden of disease associated with poor sanitation. Transformative onsite sanitation technologies are being developed that feature elimination of pathogens including helminth eggs in wastewater treatment. We are conducting third-party testing of multiple sanitation technology systems in Coimbatore (Tamil Nadu) India. To ensure stringent testing of the pathogen removal ability of sanitation technologies, the presence of helminth eggs in wastewater across the town of Coimbatore was assessed...
February 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Bruno Levecke, Alice V Easton, Piet Cools, Marco Albonico, Shaali Ame, John S Gilleard, Jennifer Keiser, Antonio Montresor, Roger Prichard, Johnny Vlaminck, Jozef Vercruysse
The egg reduction rate (ERR) is the current standard mean to assess the efficacy of drugs against human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm). Although the timing of post-treatment sampling is pivotal for a readily interpretation of drug efficacy, there is lack empirical data that allows recommending the optimal time point for a follow-up egg counting. In the present study, we re-analyzed both the kinetics of worm expulsion and egg output for Ascaris lumbricoides following a single oral dose of albendazole in a series of studies previously conducted in Kenyan communities...
January 13, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006166.].
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sam H Farrell, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: The success of mass drug administration programmes targeting the soil-transmitted helminths and schistosome parasites is in part dependent on compliance to treatment at sequential rounds of mass drug administration (MDA). The impact of MDA is vulnerable to systematic non-compliance, defined as a portion of the eligible population remaining untreated over successive treatment rounds. The impact of systematic non-compliance on helminth transmission dynamics - and thereby on the number of treatment rounds required to interrupt transmission - is dependent on the parasitic helminth being targeted by MDA...
January 31, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Noé Patrick M'bondoukwé, Eric Kendjo, Denise Patricia Mawili-Mboumba, Jeanne Vanessa Koumba Lengongo, Christelle Offouga Mbouoronde, Dieudonné Nkoghe, Fousseyni Touré, Marielle Karine Bouyou-Akotet
BACKGROUND: Malaria, filariasis, and intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are common and frequently overlap in developing countries. The prevalence and predictors of these infections were investigated in three different settlements (rural, semi-urban, and urban) of Gabon. METHODS: During cross-sectional surveys performed from September 2013 to June 2014, 451 individuals were interviewed. In addition, blood and stool samples were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium, filarial roundworm, intestinal protozoan, and helminth infections...
January 30, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
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