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Soil transmitted helminth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081124/rapid-genotyping-of-%C3%AE-tubulin-polymorphisms-in-trichuris-trichiura-and-ascaris-lumbricoides
#1
Nour Rashwan, Marilyn Scott, Roger Prichard
BACKGROUND: The benzimidazole (BZ) anthelmintics, albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are the most common drugs used for treatment of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). Their intensive use increases the possibility that BZ resistance may develop. In veterinary nematodes, BZ resistance is caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the β-tubulin isotype 1 gene at codon position 200, 167 or 198, and these SNPs have also been correlated with poor response of human Trichuris trichiura to BZ treatment...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056024/a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-of-maternal-postpartum-deworming-to-improve-infant-weight-gain-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#2
Layla S Mofid, Martín Casapía, Eder Aguilar, Hermánn Silva, Antonio Montresor, Elham Rahme, William D Fraser, Grace S Marquis, Jozef Vercruysse, Lindsay H Allen, Brittany Blouin, Hugo Razuri, Lidsky Pezo, Theresa W Gyorkos
BACKGROUND: Nutritional interventions targeting the critical growth and development period before two years of age can have the greatest impact on health trajectories over the life course. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that interventions investing in maternal health in the first 1000 days of life are beneficial for both mothers and their children. One such potential intervention is deworming integrated into maternal postpartum care in areas where soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039389/low-efficacy-of-albendazole-against-trichuris-trichiura-infection-in-schoolchildren-from-port-elizabeth-south-africa
#3
Ivan Müller, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Uwe Pühse, Rosa du Randt, Jürg Utzinger, Leyli Zondie, Cheryl Walter, Peter Steinmann
BACKGROUND: Albendazole is one of two standard drugs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis. METHODS: A total of 149 schoolchildren from Port Elizabeth, South Africa, were examined for soil-transmitted helminth infections using duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears before and 2 weeks after administration of albendazole (400 mg). RESULTS: Trichuris trichiura was the predominant soil-transmitted helminth species (prevalence 60.4%), followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (47...
December 29, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033376/genome-wide-analyses-of-individual-strongyloides-stercoralis-nematoda-rhabditoidea-provide-insights-into-population-structure-and-reproductive-life-cycles
#4
Taisei Kikuchi, Akina Hino, Teruhisa Tanaka, Myo Pa Pa Thet Hnin Htwe Aung, Tanzila Afrin, Eiji Nagayasu, Ryusei Tanaka, Miwa Higashiarakawa, Kyu Kyu Win, Tetsuo Hirata, Wah Win Htike, Jiro Fujita, Haruhiko Maruyama
The helminth Strongyloides stercoralis, which is transmitted through soil, infects 30-100 million people worldwide. S. stercoralis reproduces sexually outside the host as well as asexually within the host, which causes a life-long infection. To understand the population structure and transmission patterns of this parasite, we re-sequenced the genomes of 33 individual S. stercoralis nematodes collected in Myanmar (prevalent region) and Japan (non-prevalent region). We utilised a method combining whole genome amplification and next-generation sequencing techniques to detect 298,202 variant positions (0...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005901/mapping-soil-transmitted-helminths-and-schistosomiasis-under-uncertainty-a-systematic-review-and-critical-appraisal-of-evidence
#5
Andrea L Araujo Navas, Nicholas A S Hamm, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães, Alfred Stein
BACKGROUND: Spatial modelling of STH and schistosomiasis epidemiology is now commonplace. Spatial epidemiological studies help inform decisions regarding the number of people at risk as well as the geographic areas that need to be targeted with mass drug administration; however, limited attention has been given to propagated uncertainties, their interpretation, and consequences for the mapped values. Using currently published literature on the spatial epidemiology of helminth infections we identified: (1) the main uncertainty sources, their definition and quantification and (2) how uncertainty is informative for STH programme managers and scientists working in this domain...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992424/the-impact-of-lymphatic-filariasis-mass-drug-administration-scaling-down-on-soil-transmitted-helminth-control-in-school-age-children-present-situation-and-expected-impact-from-2016-to-2020
#6
Denise Mupfasoni, Antonio Montresor, Alexei Mikhailov, Jonathan King
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted-helminths (STH) are co-endemic in 58 countries which are mostly in Africa and Asia. Worldwide, 486 million school-age children are considered at risk of both diseases. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the global programme to eliminate LF by 2020. Since then, the LF elimination programme has distributed ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) in combination with albendazole, thereby also treating STH. Consequently, many school-age children have been treated for STH through the LF programme...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979381/differential-effect-of-mass-deworming-and-targeted-deworming-for-soil-transmitted-helminth-control-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Naomi E Clarke, Archie C A Clements, Suhail A Doi, Dongxu Wang, Suzy J Campbell, Darren Gray, Susana V Nery
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth infections are a major global health issue, causing substantial morbidity in the world's poorest populations. Regular delivery of anthelmintic drugs is the mainstay for global soil-transmitted helminth control. Deworming campaigns are often targeted to school-aged children, who are at high risk of soil-transmitted-helminth-associated morbidity. However, findings from modelling studies suggest that deworming campaigns should be expanded community-wide for effective control of soil-transmitted helminth transmission...
December 12, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965884/investigating-the-differential-impact-of-school-and-community-based-integrated-control-programmes-for-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-timor-leste-the-s-wash-d-for-worms-pilot-study-protocol
#8
Naomi E Clarke, Archie C A Clements, Stuart Bryan, John McGown, Darren Gray, Susana V Nery
BACKGROUND: Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions represent an important component of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection control, alongside the administration of anthelmintic drugs, which are generally targeted to school-aged children. Recent modelling studies have suggested that STH control programmes should be broadened to include all age groups across the community. We describe the protocol for a pilot study investigating the impact of school-versus-community-based delivery of integrated WASH and deworming programmes on STH infections in school-aged children in Timor-Leste...
2016: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955788/mass-deworming-to-improve-developmental-health-and-wellbeing-of-children-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#9
Vivian A Welch, Elizabeth Ghogomu, Alomgir Hossain, Shally Awasthi, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Chisa Cumberbatch, Robert Fletcher, Jessie McGowan, Shari Krishnaratne, Elizabeth Kristjansson, Salim Sohani, Shalini Suresh, Peter Tugwell, Howard White, George A Wells
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis, considered among the neglected tropical diseases by WHO, affect more than a third of the world's population, with varying intensity of infection. We aimed to evaluate the effects of mass deworming for soil-transmitted helminths (with or without deworming for schistosomiasis or co-interventions) on growth, educational achievement, cognition, school attendance, quality of life, and adverse effects in children in endemic helminth areas...
January 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930648/isothermal-diagnostic-assays-for-monitoring-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-necator-americanus-associated-with-benzimidazole-drug-resistance
#10
Nour Rashwan, Catherine Bourguinat, Kathy Keller, Nipul Kithsiri Gunawardena, Nilanthi de Silva, Roger Prichard
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are the most prevalent intestinal helminths of humans, and a major cause of morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries. The benzimidazole (BZ) drugs albendazole (ABZ) and mebendazole (MBZ) are used for treatment of human STH infections and this use is increasing dramatically with massive drug donations. Frequent and prolonged use of these drugs could lead to the emergence of anthelmintic resistance as has occurred in nematodes of livestock...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928093/imported-disease-screening-prior-to-chemotherapy-and-bone-marrow-transplantation-for-oncohematological-malignancies
#11
Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Fernando Salvador, Isabel Ruiz-Camps, Pere Barba, David Valcárcel, Elena Sulleiro, Enrique Sanz-García, Israel Molina
Reactivation of latent imported infections has been periodically reported in migrant patients undergoing immunosuppression. We performed a prospective study at Vall d'Hebron University Hospital (Barcelona, Spain). Migrant patients over 16 years with the diagnosis of any oncohematologic disease were included. Patients were tested for soil-transmitted helminths, hepatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus, Treponema pallidum, human T-cell lymphotropic virus, latent tuberculosis infection, Toxoplasma spp...
December 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926921/schistosoma-mansoni-infection-can-jeopardize-the-duration-of-protective-levels-of-antibody-responses-to-immunizations-against-hepatitis-b-and-tetanus-toxoid
#12
Diana K Riner, Eric M Ndombi, Jennifer M Carter, Amos Omondi, Nupur Kittur, Emmy Kavere, Harrison K Korir, Briana Flaherty, Diana Karanja, Daniel G Colley
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a disease of major public health importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Immunoregulation begins early in schistosome infection and is characterized by hyporesponsiveness to parasite and bystander antigens, suggesting that a schistosome infection at the time of immunization could negatively impact the induction of protective vaccine responses. This study examined whether having a Schistosoma mansoni infection at the time of immunization with hepatitis B and tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccines impacts an individual's ability to achieve and maintain protective antibody levels against hepatitis B surface antigen or TT...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925245/helminths-hygiene-hypothesis-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
Karin de Ruiter, Dicky L Tahapary, Erliyani Sartono, Pradana Soewondo, Taniawati Supali, Johannes W A Smit, Maria Yazdanbakhsh
Worldwide, there is little overlap between the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Helminth-induced type 2 immune responses and immune regulatory network might modulate the obesity-induced activation of inflammatory pathways that are associated with the development of insulin resistance, a strong predictor of the development of T2D. However, other factors such as helminth-associated changes in adiposity and gut microbiome might also contribute to improved metabolic outcomes. In this review we summarize epidemiological evidence for the link between helminths and T2D and discuss the potential mechanisms, based on findings from experimental studies as well as the limited number of studies in humans...
December 7, 2016: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923048/contribution-of-wastewater-irrigation-to-soil-transmitted-helminths-infection-among-vegetable-farmers-in-kumasi-ghana
#14
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Amina Abubakari, Thor Axel Stenström, Robert Clement Abaidoo, Razak Seidu
Wastewater irrigation is associated with several benefits but can also lead to significant health risks. The health risk for contracting infections from Soil Transmitted Helminths (STHs) among farmers has mainly been assessed indirectly through measured quantities in the wastewater or on the crops alone and only on a limited scale through epidemiological assessments. In this study we broadened the concept of infection risks in the exposure assessments by measurements of the concentration of STHs both in wastewater used for irrigation and the soil, as well as the actual load of STHs ova in the stool of farmers and their family members (165 and 127 in the wet and dry seasons respectively) and a control group of non-farmers (100 and 52 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively)...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903301/high-prevalence-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-in-school-aged-children-in-a-rural-highland-of-north-western-ethiopia-the-role-of-intensive-diagnostic-work-up
#15
Aranzazu Amor, Esperanza Rodriguez, José M Saugar, Ana Arroyo, Beatriz López-Quintana, Bayeh Abera, Mulat Yimer, Endalew Yizengaw, Derejew Zewdie, Zimman Ayehubizu, Tadesse Hailu, Wondemagegn Mulu, Adriana Echazú, Alejandro J Krolewieki, Pilar Aparicio, Zaida Herrador, Melaku Anegagrie, Agustín Benito
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminthiases (hookworms, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura) are extremely prevalent in school-aged children living in poor sanitary conditions. Recent epidemiological data suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis is highly unreported. However, accurate data are essential for conducting interventions aimed at introducing control and elimination programmes. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 396 randomly selected school-aged children in Amhara region in rural area in north-western Ethiopia, to assess the prevalence of S...
December 1, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895280/effectiveness-of-albendazole-for-hookworm-varies-widely-by-community-and-correlates-with-nutritional-factors-a-cross-sectional-study-of-school-age-children-in-ghana
#16
Debbie Humphries, Sara Nguyen, Sunny Kumar, Josephine E Quagraine, Joseph Otchere, Lisa M Harrison, Michael Wilson, Michael Cappello
Mass drug administration (MDA) targeting school-age children is recommended by the World Health Organization for the global control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Although considered safe and cost-effective to deliver, benzimidazole anthelminthics are variably effective against the three most common STNs, and widespread use has raised concern about the potential for emerging resistance. To identify factors mediating response to albendazole, we conducted a cross-sectional study of hookworm infection in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana in 2011...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884213/regional-variation-in-ascaris-lumbricoides-and-trichuris-trichiura-infections-by-age-cohort-and-sex-effects-of-market-integration-among-the-indigenous-shuar-of-amazonian-ecuador
#17
Theresa E Gildner, Tara J Cepon-Robins, Melissa A Liebert, Samuel S Urlacher, Felicia C Madimenos, J Josh Snodgrass, Lawrence S Sugiyama
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection peaks during childhood and varies by sex. The impact of market integration (MI) (increasing production for and consumption from a market-based economy) on these infection patterns, however, is unclear. In this study, STH infection is examined by sex and age among indigenous Shuar inhabiting two regions of Amazonian Ecuador: (1) the modestly market-integrated Upano Valley (UV) and (2) the more traditional Cross-Cutucú (CC) region. METHODS: Kato-Katz fecal smears were examined for parasite presence and infection intensity...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882241/immune-profile-of-honduran-schoolchildren-with-intestinal-parasites-the-skewed-response-against-geohelminths
#18
José Antonio Gabrie, María Mercedes Rueda, Carol Anahelka Rodríguez, Maritza Canales, Ana Lourdes Sanchez
Soil-transmitted helminth infections typically induce a type-2 immune response (Th2), but no immunoepidemiological studies have been undertaken in Honduras, an endemic country where the main control strategy is children's annual deworming. We aimed to characterize the immune profile of Honduran schoolchildren harbouring these parasitoses. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained through a survey; nutritional status was assessed through anthropometry; intestinal parasites were diagnosed by formol-ether and Kato-Katz; and blood samples were collected to determine immunological markers including Th1/Th2 cytokines, IgE, and eosinophil levels...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881115/intestinal-polyparasitism-with-special-emphasis-to-soil-transmitted-helminths-among-residents-around-gilgel-gibe-dam-southwest-ethiopia-a-community-based-survey
#19
Zeleke Mekonnen, Sultan Suleman, Abdissa Biruksew, Tamirat Tefera, Legese Chelkeba
BACKGROUND: One third of the world population is estimated to be infected with intestinal parasites. The most affected people are children and the poor people living in tropics and subtropics. Polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species) is found to be the norm among the same population although accurate estimate of its magnitude is unknown. It was found that polyparasitism might have a greater impact on morbidity than single species infection which might also increase susceptibility to other infections...
November 23, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842865/monitoring-the-efficacy-of-drugs-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-controlled-by-preventive-chemotherapy
#20
REVIEW
M Albonico, B Levecke, P T LoVerde, A Montresor, R Prichard, J Vercruysse, J P Webster
In the last decade, pharmaceutical companies, governments and global health organisations under the leadership of the World Health Organization (WHO) have pledged large-scale donations of anthelmintic drugs, including ivermectin (IVM), praziquantel (PZQ), albendazole (ALB) and mebendazole (MEB). This worldwide scale-up in drug donations calls for strong monitoring systems to detect any changes in anthelmintic drug efficacy. This review reports on the outcome of the WHO Global Working Group on Monitoring of Neglected Tropical Diseases Drug Efficacy, which consists of three subgroups: (i) soil-transmitted helminthiases (ALB and MEB); (ii) onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (IVM); and (iii) schistosomiasis (PZQ)...
December 2015: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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