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membranous AND cancer

Xi Wu, Xue Xue, Lihui Wang, Wenjing Wang, Jian Han, Xiaoxue Sun, Haotian Zhang, Yueyang Liu, Xiaohang Che, Jingyu Yang, Chunfu Wu
Autophagy, a cellular survival mechanism, is thought to allow the recycling of cellular breakdown products when cancer cells are subjected to chemotherapy, thus decreasing drug-induced apoptosis. Disulfiram (DSF), a drug widely used to control alcoholism, possesses anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. Our previous studies proved that DSF/Cu exerts increased anti-tumor effects on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft models, and inhibits NSCLC recurrence driven by ALDH-positive cancer stem cells...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Barbara Bassi, Giacomo Dacarro, Pietro Galinetto, Enrico Giulotto, Nicoletta Marchesi, Piersandro Pallavicini, Alessia Pascale, Stefano Perversi, Angelo Taglietti
The last decade came across an increasing demand of theranostic biocompatible nanodevices, possessing the double ability of diagnosis and therapy. In this work, we report the design, synthesis and step-by-step characterization of rationally coated gold nanostars (GNS) for SERS imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) of HeLa cancer cells. The nanodevice was realized synthesizing GNS with a seed-growth approach, coating them with a controlled mixture of thiols composed of a Raman reporter and a polyethylenglicol with a terminal amino group, and then reacting these amino groups with Folic Acid (FA), in order to impart selectivity towards cancer cells which overexpress folate receptors on their membranes...
March 16, 2018: Nanotechnology
Christina H Stuelten, Carole A Parent, Denise J Montell
Metastasis remains the greatest challenge in the clinical management of cancer. Cell motility is a fundamental and ancient cellular behaviour that contributes to metastasis and is conserved in simple organisms. In this Review, we evaluate insights relevant to human cancer that are derived from the study of cell motility in non-mammalian model organisms. Dictyostelium discoideum, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio permit direct observation of cells moving in complex native environments and lend themselves to large-scale genetic and pharmacological screening...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Kyle I Mentkowski, Jonathan D Snitzer, Sarah Rusnak, Jennifer K Lang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) comprise a heterogeneous group of small membrane vesicles, including exosomes, which play a critical role in intracellular communication and regulation of numerous physiological processes in health and disease. Naturally released from virtually all cells, these vesicles contain an array of nucleic acids, lipids and proteins which they transfer to target cells within their local milieu and systemically. They have been proposed as a means of "cell-free, cell therapy" for cancer, immune disorders, and more recently cardiovascular disease...
March 15, 2018: AAPS Journal
Wan-Angkan Poolsri, Phornpun Phokrai, Somrudee Suwankulanan, Narinthorn Phakdeeto, Pattamaphorn Phunsomboon, Dumrongsak Pekthong, Lysiane Richert, Sutatip Pongcharoen, Piyarat Srisawang
Increased expression levels of both mitochondrial citrate transporter (CTP) and plasma membrane citrate transporter (PMCT) proteins have been found in various cancers. The transported citrates by these two transporter proteins provide acetyl-CoA precursors for the de novo lipogenesis (DNL) pathway to support a high rate of cancer cell viability and development. Inhibition of the DNL pathway promotes cancer cell apoptosis without apparent cytotoxic to normal cells, leading to the representation of selective and powerful targets for cancer therapy...
2018: BioMed Research International
Anna Szewczyk, Julie Gehl, Malgorzata Daczewska, Jolanta Saczko, Stine Krog Frandsen, Julita Kulbacka
Calcium electroporation (CaEP) describes the use of electric pulses (electroporation) to transiently permeabilize cells to allow supraphysiological doses of calcium to enter the cytosol. Calcium electroporation has successfully been investigated for treatment of cutaneous metastases in a clinical study. This preclinical study explores the possible use of calcium electroporation for treatment of sarcoma. A normal murine muscle cell line (C2C12), and a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line (RD) were used in the undifferentiated and differentiated state...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Marija Adzic, Nadezda Nedeljkovic
CD73 is a bifunctional glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane protein which functions as ecto-5'-nucleotidase and a membrane receptor for extracellular matrix protein (ECM). A large body of evidence demonstrates a critical involvement of altered purine metabolism and particularly, increased expression of CD73 in a number of human disorders, including cancer and immunodeficiency. Massive up-regulation of CD73 was also found in reactive astrocytes in several experimental models of human neuropathologies...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Dan-Dan Wang, Qing-Xi Wu, Wen-Juan Pan, Sajid Hussain, Shomaila Mehmood, Yan Chen
Background: Polysaccharides extracted from fungus that have been used widely in the food and drugs industries due to biological activities. Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the tumor-suppressive activity and mechanism of a novel polysaccharide (SAP) extracted from Sarcodon aspratus . Methods: The SAP was extracted and purified using Sepharose CL-4B gel from S. aspratus . The cytotoxicity of SAP on cell lines was determined by MTT method...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Rokaya El Ansari, Madeleine L Craze, Maria Diez-Rodriguez, Christopher C Nolan, Ian O Ellis, Emad A Rakha, Andrew R Green
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease characterised by variant biology, metabolic activity and patient outcome. This study aimed to evaluate the biological and prognostic value of the membrane solute carrier, SLC3A2 in BC with emphasis on the intrinsic molecular subtypes. SLC3A2 was assessed at the genomic level, using METABRIC data (n = 1980), and at the proteomic level, using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray (TMA) sections constructed from a large well-characterised primary BC cohort (n = 2500)...
March 16, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Sol Sotillos, Mario Aguilar-Aragon, James Castelli-Gair Hombría
RhoGAP proteins control the precise regulation of the ubiquitous small RhoGTPases. The Drosophila Crossveinless-c (Cv-c) RhoGAP is homologous to the human tumour suppressor proteins Deleted in Liver Cancer 1-3 (DLC1-3) sharing an identical arrangement of SAM, GAP and START protein domains. Here we analyse in Drosophila the requirement of each Cv-c domain to its function and cellular localization. We show that the basolateral membrane association of Cv-c is key for its epithelial function and find that the GAP domain targeted to the membrane can perform its RhoGAP activity independently of the rest of the protein, implying the SAM and START domains perform regulatory roles...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Roberto A Salas Fragomeni, Tali Amir, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Susan C Harvey, Mehrbod S Javadi, Lilja Solnes, Ana Kiess, Mohamad E Allaf, Martin Pomper, Michael A Gorin, Steven P Rowe
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that is highly overexpressed on prostate cancer epithelial cells and for which there is a growing body of literature examining the role of small molecule and antibody radiotracers targeted against this protein for prostate cancer detection and therapy. Despite its name, PSMA is also expressed, to varying degrees, in the neovasculature of a wide variety of non-prostate cancers; indeed, the pathology literature is replete with promising immunohistochemistry findings...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Shao-Fang Xing, Lin-Hua Liu, Ma-Li Zu, Xiao-Fan Ding, Wei-Ye Cui, Tuo Chang, Xiang-Lan Piao
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gypenosides are major constituents in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Previous studies have shown that gypenosides isolated from G. pentaphyllum possess inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer cells, especially A549 cells, with structure-activity relationship (SAR). However, the underlying mechanism of gypenoside-induced A549 cell death remains to be clarified. AIM OF THE STUDY: To further investigate SAR and the underlying mechanism of gypenosides in A549 cells...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Marc A Bjurlin, Baris Turkbey, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Sonia Gaur, Peter L Choyke, Samir S Taneja
Imaging is critically important for the diagnosis, staging, and management of men with high-risk prostate cancer. Conventional imaging modalities, including computed tomography and radionuclide bone scan have been employed for local and metastatic staging, but their performance has generally been poor. Sodium fluoride positron emission tomography is recommended when there is high suspicion for bone metastases despite a negative or indeterminate bone scan. Magnetic resonance imaging has advantages in local staging but its value depends on the extent of disease...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Lei Wang, Liang Liu, Jing Wang, YueTong Chen
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to explore the inhibitory effect of artesunate on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, in order to search for high effective and low toxic anti-gastric cancer drugs. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to detect the CDC25A protein expression in different gastric diseases. After the treatment of different concentrations of artesunate (0, 30, 60, 120 μmol/l) on the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 cells for 24 h, 0 μmol/l Art was instead of normal saline as control group, the expression of CDC25A, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 protein, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Medical Research
Emily Wonder, Lorena Simón-Gracia, Pablo Scodeller, Ramsey N Majzoub, Venkata Ramana Kotamraju, Kai K Ewert, Tambet Teesalu, Cyrus R Safinya
Cationic liposome-nucleic acid (CL-NA) complexes, which form spontaneously, are a highly modular gene delivery system. These complexes can be sterically stabilized via PEGylation [PEG: poly (ethylene glycol)] into nanoparticles (NPs) and targeted to specific tissues and cell types via the conjugation of an affinity ligand. However, there are currently no guidelines on how to effectively navigate the large space of compositional parameters that modulate the specific and nonspecific binding interactions of peptide-targeted NPs with cells...
March 2, 2018: Biomaterials
Xuejiao Song, Tiantao Gao, Qian Lei, Lidan Zhang, Yuqin Yao, Jingyuan Xiong
Malignant melanoma is a devastating skin cancer due to its severe drug resistance and prompt metastasis. Piperlongumine is an anti-inflammation and tumor-suppressing natural product with defined structure. While numerous studies revealed exceptional inhibitory effects of piperlongumine on several carcinomas, few investigations were performed on melanoma. Therefore, the present study investigated the anti-tumor effects of piperlongumine on human melanoma cells in vitro, and explored the mechanisms of action...
March 15, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Wei Sun, Ju-Dong Luo, Hua Jiang, Dayue Darrel Duan
Tumor cells produce and secrete more nucleic acids, proteins and lipids than normal cells. These molecules are transported in the blood or around the cells in membrane-encapsulated exosomes. Tumor-derived or tumor-associated exosomes (usually 30-100 nm in diameter) contain abundant biological contents resembling those of the parent cells along with signaling messengers for intercellular communication involved in the pathogenesis, development, progression, and metastasis of cancer. As these exosomes can be detected and isolated from various body fluids, they have become attractive new biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer...
March 15, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Michael E Paulaitis, Kitty Agarwal, Serge Patrick Nana-Sinkam
A model is proposed for characterizing exosome size distributions based on dynamic scaling of domain growth on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies in the established exosome biogenesis pathway. The scaling exponent in this model captures the asymmetry of exosome size distributions, which are notably right-skewed to larger vesicles independent of the minimum detectable vesicle size. Analyses of exosome size distributions obtained by cryo-TEM imaging and nanoparticle tracking (NTA) show, respectively, that the scaling exponent is sensitive to the state of the cell source for exosomes in cell culture supernatants, and can distinguish exosome size distributions in serum samples taken from cancer patients relative to those from healthy donors...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Stephanie N David, Shanna A Arnold Egloff, Rajen Goyal, Peter E Clark, Sharon Phillips, Lan L Gellert, Omar Hameed, Giovanna A Giannico
BACKGROUND: Membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2 (MAGI2) promotes the activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Recent studies suggest that dysregulation of this signaling pathway has a role in prostate carcinogenesis. Our study aims to determine the prognostic significance of MAGI2 expression in prostate cancer. METHODS: Tissue microarrays from 51 radical prostatectomy cases including benign prostatic tissue, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and adenocarcinoma were constructed...
March 14, 2018: Prostate
Eugene Shenderov, Michael A Gorin, Seohyun Kim, Pamela T Johnson, Mohamad E Allaf, Alan W Partin, Martin G Pomper, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Kenneth J Pienta, Steven P Rowe
Radiotracers targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), including [18 F]DCFPyL, have been extensively investigated as a means to image prostate cancer more accurately. We present the case of a man with oligometastatic prostate cancer who was also diagnosed with a metastatic small bowel carcinoid tumor following the detection of indeterminate findings on a [18 F]DCFPyL PET and discuss how this case highlights the utility of a newly proposed reporting system for PSMA-targeted PET (PSMA-RADS version 1...
March 2018: Urology Case Reports
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