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Chang Ho Lee, So Young Kim, Hyoung-Mi Kim, Young Ju Kim, Ji Yoon Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
OBJECTIVES: To study the influence of the cochleariform process abutment (CPA) of early congenital cholesteatomas (CC) (ECCs) on surgical outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: University hospital otology referral clinic. PATIENTS: Two hundred consecutive pediatric ECC patients. INTERVENTIONS: The patients were classified into three groups based on the temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT) findings of ECC: A) the absence of CPA, B) the presence of CPA, and C) the presence of CPA and extension posterior to the malleus handle...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Raju Vaishya, Ahmad Tariq Azizi, Amit Kumar Agarwal, Vipul Vijay
Osgood-Schlatter disease (OSD) is a condition in which the patellar tendon insertion on the tibial tuberosity becomes inflamed. It is a well-known condition in late childhood characterized by pain and a bony prominence over the tibial tuberosity. The pain is usually exacerbated by physical activities like running, jumping, and climbing stairs. In the acute stage, the margins of the patellar tendon become blurred in radiographs due to the soft tissue swelling. After three to four months, bone fragmentation at the tibial tuberosity is viewed...
September 13, 2016: Curēus
Jia Ke, Shao-Xing Zhang, Lei Hu, Chang-Sheng Li, Yun-Feng Zhu, Shi-Long Sun, Li-Feng Wang, Fu-Rong Ma
BACKGROUND: A single drilled tunnel from the lateral mastoid cortex to the cochlea via the facial recess is essential for minimally invasive cochlear implant surgery. This study aimed to explore the safety profile of this kind of new image-guided and bi-planar device-assisted surgery procedure in vitro. METHODS: Image-guided minimally invasive cochlear implantations were performed on eight cadaveric temporal bone specimens. The main procedures were: (1) temporal bone specimens were prepared for surgery and fiducial markers were registered...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Rensa Chen, Martin Schwander, Mary F Barbe, Marion M Chan
Globally, a body of comparative case-control studies suggests that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients are more prone to developing hearing loss (HL). However, experimental evidence that supports this hypothesis is still lacking because the human auditory organ is not readily accessible. The aim of this study was to determine the association between bone damage to the ossicles of the middle ear and HL, using a widely accepted murine model of collagen-induced arthritis (RA mice). Diarthrodial joints in the middle ear were examined with microcomputer tomography (microCT), and hearing function was assessed by auditory brainstem response (ABR)...
2016: PloS One
Sibylle Sabrautzki, Michael A Sandholzer, Bettina Lorenz-Depiereux, Robert Brommage, Gerhard Przemeck, Ingrid L Vargas Panesso, Alexandra Vernaleken, Lillian Garrett, Katharina Baron, Ali O Yildirim, Jan Rozman, Birgit Rathkolb, Christine Gau, Wolfgang Hans, Sabine M Hoelter, Susan Marschall, Claudia Stoeger, Lore Becker, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Klingenspor, Thomas Klopstock, Christoph Lengger, Leuchtenberger Stefanie, Eckhard Wolf, Tim M Strom, Wolfgang Wurst, Martin Hrabě de Angelis
Animal models resembling human mutations are valuable tools to research the features of complex human craniofacial syndromes. This is the first report on a viable dominant mouse model carrying a non-synonymous sequence variation within the endothelin receptor type A gene (Ednra c.386A>T, p.Tyr129Phe) derived by an ENU mutagenesis program. The identical amino acid substitution was reported recently as disease causing in three individuals with the mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia (MFDA, OMIM 616367) syndrome...
September 26, 2016: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Alexander Stoessel, Romain David, Philipp Gunz, Tobias Schmidt, Fred Spoor, Jean-Jacques Hublin
The diminutive middle ear ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) housed in the tympanic cavity of the temporal bone play an important role in audition. The few known ossicles of Neandertals are distinctly different from those of anatomically modern humans (AMHs), despite the close relationship between both human species. Although not mutually exclusive, these differences may affect hearing capacity or could reflect covariation with the surrounding temporal bone. Until now, detailed comparisons were hampered by the small sample of Neandertal ossicles and the unavailability of methods combining analyses of ossicles with surrounding structures...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Karyn Jourdeuil, Tamara Anne Franz-Odendaal
The induction and patterning of the conjunctival papillae (i.e. epithelial thickenings of the conjunctiva required for the induction of the underlying, neural crest-derived scleral ossicles) is complex. It takes place over a period of two days and follows a defined spatiotemporal sequence. In this study, we investigated the spatial and temporal expression pattern of four genes over seven morphological stages of development of these papillae. We show that β-catenin is expressed during the pre-patterning of the epithelium prior to papilla induction and second that β-catenin, Ednrb and Inhba are expressed during the induction and patterning of the conjunctival papillae...
September 21, 2016: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Ana Castro Sousa, Vânia Henriques, Jorge Rodrigues, Rui Fonseca
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The goal of ossiculoplasty is to improve hearing. Successful ossiculoplasty depends on several factors. This retrospective study was carried out to analyze hearing results of ossiculoplasty in ears with chronic otitis media (COM) and evaluate clinical outcomes and factors predictive of hearing improvement. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the results of 153 patients with COM (with cholesteatoma (COMC) and without cholesteatoma (COMWC)) who underwent ossiculoplasty between January of 2002 to December of 2011...
September 20, 2016: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
Christopher R Hood, Stephanie Eldridge, Matthew Tran, Jason R Miller
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: There are several various accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones that can be seen throughout the foot and ankle, with reported incidence of 21.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones usually remain asymptomatic until an inciting event (trauma, overuse) occurs and can then cause pain or degenerative changes. They can also be found in routine imaging. One of these confusing findings are lesser metatarsal sesamoids, which are a rare occurrence...
September 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Yusu Ni, Kaishi Wang, Yi Jiang, Ren Zhou, Yan Sha, Huawei Li
OBJECTIVE: To explore and quantify the surgically relevant anatomic relationships and three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the supralabyrinthine space, and enable a deeper, clearer understanding of its regional anatomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D-DOCTOR software was used to create a 3D reconstruction of the axial CT images and multiplanar reformatting of 55 slices of temporal bone in 29 patients (17 males and 12 females), whose average age was 38.69 ± 17.81 years...
September 10, 2016: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
Bruno Areias, Carla Santos, Renato M Natal Jorge, Fernanda Gentil, Marco Pl Parente
The ear is one of the most complex organs in the human body. Sound is a sequence of pressure waves, which propagates through a compressible media such as air. The pinna concentrates the sound waves into the external auditory meatus. In this canal, the sound is conducted to the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane transforms the pressure variations into mechanical displacements, which are then transmitted to the ossicles. The vibration of the stapes footplate creates pressure waves in the fluid inside the cochlea; these pressure waves stimulate the hair cells, generating electrical signals which are sent to the brain through the cochlear nerve, where they are decoded...
September 2, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Markus Pirlich, Mary Tittmann, Daniela Franz, Andreas Dietz, Mathias Hofer
"CI-Wizard" is a new, three-dimensional software planning tool for cochlear implant surgery with manual and semi-automatic algorithms to visualize anatomical risk structures of the lateral skull base preoperatively. Primary endpoints of the study represented the evaluation of the CI-Wizards usability, accuracy, subjectively perceived and objectively measured time in clinical practice. In a period from January 2014 to March 2015, n = 36 participants were included in this study. These members were divided into three groups of equal number (n = 12), but different level of experience...
September 2, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Héctor E Ramírez-Chaves, Vera Weisbecker, Stephen Wroe, Matthew J Phillips
BACKGROUND: The minute, finely-tuned ear ossicles of mammals arose through a spectacular evolutionary transformation from their origins as a load-bearing jaw joint. This involved detachment from the postdentary trough of the mandible, and final separation from the dentary through resorption of Meckel's cartilage. Recent parsimony analyses of modern and fossil mammals imply up to seven independent postdentary trough losses or even reversals, which is unexpected given the complexity of these transformations...
2016: Frontiers in Zoology
Franziska Saxer, Arnaud Scherberich, Atanas Todorov, Patrick Studer, Sylvie Miot, Simone Schreiner, Sinan Güven, Laurent Ah Tchang, Martin Haug, Michael Heberer, Dirk J Schaefer, Daniel Rikli, Ivan Martin, Marcel Jakob
Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF) cells freshly isolated from adipose tissue include osteogenic- and vascular-progenitors, yet their relevance in bone fracture healing is currently unknown. Here, we investigated whether human SVF cells directly contribute to the repair of experimental fractures in nude rats, and explored the feasibility/safety of their clinical use for augmentation of upper arm fractures in elderly individuals. Human SVF cells were loaded onto ceramic granules within fibrin gel and implanted in critical nude rat femoral fractures after locking-plate osteosynthesis, with cell-free grafts as control...
August 19, 2016: Stem Cells
Hyeon-Wook Ahn, Keun-Bae Lee
BACKGROUND: Subfibular ossicles are frequently found in patients with chronic lateral ankle instability (CLAI). However, there is a lack of consensus about the optimal surgical treatment for CLAI with subfibular ossicle. PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the modified Broström procedure with subfibular ossicle excision compared with the same procedure for CLAI without subfibular ossicle. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3...
August 15, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Alice C Coombs, Philip A Bird
OBJECTIVE: To describe the intraoperative findings and outcomes of stapedectomy surgery in Teunissen-Cremers syndrome. PATIENTS: A family of three patients with bilateral conductive hearing loss because of Teunissen-Cremers syndrome. INTERVENTION: Six exploratory tympanotomies and stapedectomies, including one revision operation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intraoperative findings and postoperative hearing results. RESULTS: There was an increased distance between the incus and the vestibule, a thicker long process of the incus, and slight variation in the relative position of the ossicles in all patients...
October 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Vivian F Zhu, Yann-Fuu Kou, Kenneth H Lee, Joe Walter Kutz, Brandon Isaacson
OBJECTIVES: 1) To describe the technique for transcanal endoscopic management of congenital ossicular chain fixation. 2) To highlight the utility and outcomes of the endoscopic approach for management of congenital ossicular fixation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective patient series. SETTING: Academic tertiary pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: Pediatric patients (age 6-12) undergoing transcanal endoscopic management of congenital ossicular fixation from May 2014 to December 2014...
September 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Charles G Messing
Porphyrocrinus daniellalevyae, new species, is described from irregular, hard-substrate, deep island slope habitats in the tropical western Atlantic Ocean (northwestern Bahamas and, probably, Honduras). It represents the first record of the genus from the western Atlantic, and is the first crinoid, living or fossil, known to gradually increase its number of rays with increasing size and, ostensibly, growth. The four known specimens have 8, 12, 14 and 15 radial ossicles, which give rise to undivided arms. The method of augmentation is unknown, although the possibility of autotomy of one and regrowth of two in its place is discussed...
2016: Zootaxa
Thomas H Reid, Amy Tam, Georgia Antoniou, Juling Ong
Wormian bones are independent ossification centers found within cranial sutures or fontanelles. Though common in adult populations, their presence in children can be associated with several conditions such as osteogenesis imperfecta, hypothyroidism, pyknodysostosis, cleidocranial dysostosis, rickets, and acrocallosal syndrome. These conditions encompass a large range of clinical features but there has only been 1 other reported patient of exomphalos occurring concurrently with these ossicles. The authors present the case of a child with an anterior fontanellar Wormian bone, dysmorphic facial features, and exomphalos major born to unaffected parents...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Maimi Ozeki-Satoh, Aoi Ishikawa, Shigehito Yamada, Chigako Uwabe, Tetsuya Takakuwa
We describe the three-dimensional morphogenesis of the middle ear ossicles (MEOs) according to Carnegie stage (CS) in human embryos. Seventeen samples including 33 MEOs from CS18 to 23 were selected from the Kyoto Collection. The primordia of the MEOs and related structures were histologically observed and three-dimensionally reconstructed from digital images. The timing of chondrogenesis was variable among structures. The stapes was recognizable as a vague condensation of the mesenchymal cells in all samples from CS18, whereas the malleus and incus were recognizable at CS19...
October 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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