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Es-Hak Bedri, Miriam Redleaf
OBJECTIVES: In Ethiopia, 2-stage operations with middle ear prostheses are economically unfavorable. We hypothesized that single-stage autologous ossiculoplasty results in acceptable tympanic membrane (TM) and hearing improvements in a setting of limited resources. METHODS: One hundred eighty-eight patients (197 ears) who underwent 1-stage autologous ossiculoplasty for ossicular dysfunction are presented. All but 14 of these ears also had perforations of the TM...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Jennifer L Favinger, Michael L Richardson, Felix S Chew
The os peroneum is an accessory ossicle within the peroneus longus tendon. Prior reports have discussed fracture of the os peroneum with associated tears of the peroneus longus tendon. When the ossicle fractures, there can be varying degrees of retraction of the tendon, which can be diagnosed by malposition of the ossicle or the ossicle fragments. We report a case of a man with recurrent eversion ankle injuries with progressive retraction of a fractured os peroneum, implying injuries to the superior and inferior peroneal retinacula and the peroneus longus tendon...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Julia A Schultz, Irina Ruf, Thomas Martin
Middle ear ossicles (malleus, incus, stapes) are known for few multituberculate taxa, and three different stapedial morphotypes have been suggested: (i) slender, columelliform and microperforate, (ii) robust and rod-like, and (iii) bicrural. Reinvestigation of Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) mammalian petrosals from the Guimarota coal mine in central Portugal (Western Europe) revealed an asymmetric bicrural stapes (ABS) in the paulchoffatiid Pseudobolodon oreas The middle ear ossicles displaced inside the osseous vestibule were detected by a µCT analysis...
February 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Suresh Kumar, Kanak Yadav, Tarun Ojha, Abhishek Sharma, Amit Singhal, Saurabh Gakhar
Chronic suppurative otitis media, with and without cholesteatoma, frequently results in disruption of the ossicular chain. The present study was designed to compare the outcome using autologous ossicle and titanium prosthesis in two groups of suitable patients presenting with chronic suppurative otitis media for middle ear reconstructive surgeries. A prospective study done from July 2012 to December 2013, at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Sitapura, Jaipur (Rajasthan). The target group included patients with chronic suppurative otitis media admitted and planned for reconstructive middle ear surgery...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Masaki Tamori, Jun Koki, Tatsuo Motokawa
Sea urchins have a globiferous pedicellaria that stands from a test with a stalk on which lies a head made of three movable jaws with venom-injecting teeth. The globiferous pedicellariae of the flower sea urchin Toxopneustes pileolus, one of the most developed among sea urchins, are unique in that the jaws are provided with a jaw membrane that gives the pedicellaria an appearance of a flower when the jaws are open. We observed this membrane in an ionic liquid that does not require processes, such as fixation, dehydration, or coating with conductive materials, for observation with a scanning electron microscope...
February 2018: Zoological Science
T Strenger, M Brandstetter, T Stark, F Böhnke
BACKGROUND: An instrument to measure vibration in the middle ear needs to be sensitive enough to detect displacement on a nanometer scale, yet not affect the vibration itself. Numerous techniques have been described in the literature, but laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) has nowadays become established as the standard method in hearing research. OBJECTIVE: This article aims to present possible clinical applications of an LDV system in otology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A commercially available single-point vibrometer was used...
February 7, 2018: HNO
Kristin Fritsch, Sébastien Pigeot, Xiaomin Feng, Paul E Bourgine, Timm Schroeder, Ivan Martin, Markus G Manz, Hitoshi Takizawa
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in a specialized bone marrow (BM) environment, the so-called HSC niche, that provides pivotal factors for their maintenance. While the cellular and molecular components of the mouse BM HSC niche have been extensively studied using genetically modified animals, relatively little is known about the counterpart human BM niche components. We have previously shown with a developmental tissue engineering approach that human adult BM-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can develop into human bone organs (so-called ossicles) through endochondral ossification in vivo, and that these human ossicles are able to maintain functional mouse HSCs...
February 2, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Nigar Keles-Celik, Ozkan Kose, Rahime Sekerci, Gunes Aytac, Adil Turan, Ferhat Güler
Accessory ossicles of the foot and ankle are normal variants of bone development that usually remain asymptomatic. However, they may be involved in various disorders and become a source of pain such as in fractures, dislocations, degenerative changes, osteonecrosis, osteoarthritis, osteochondral lesions, avascular necrosis, and irritation or impingement of adjacent soft tissues. Hence, during the assessment of the situations above, knowledge about these little-known ossicles could be very important to reach the correct diagnosis...
November 26, 2017: Curēus
Tim Rolvien, Felix N Schmidt, Petar Milovanovic, Katharina Jähn, Christoph Riedel, Sebastian Butscheidt, Klaus Püschel, Anke Jeschke, Michael Amling, Björn Busse
Within the mineralized bone, osteocytes form a multifunctional mechanosensitive network orchestrating bone remodelling. A preserved osteocyte population is a crucial determinant of bone quality. In human auditory ossicles, the early decrease in osteocyte numbers but maintained integrity remains an unexplained phenomenon that might serve for sound transmission from air to the labyrinth. Here we analysed the frequency, size and composition of osteocyte lacunae in the auditory ossicles of 22 individuals from early postnatal period to old age...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melissa Fiscaletti, Andrew Biggin, Bruce Bennetts, Karen Wong, Julie Briody, Verity Pacey, Catherine Birman, Craig F Munns
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by low bone density and recurrent fractures with a wide genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. Common features include short stature, opalescent teeth, blue sclerae and hearing impairment. The majority (>90%) of patients with OI have autosomal dominant variants in COL1A1/COL1A2, which lead to defects in type 1 collagen. More recently, numerous recessive variants involving other genes have also been identified. Sp7/Osx gene, is a protein coding gene that encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, osterix, which is a member of the Sp subfamily of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins...
January 27, 2018: Bone
Kate A Gustavsen, Joanne R Paul-Murphy, Ernest Scott Weber, Allison L Zwingenberger, Freeland H Dunker, Richard R Dubielzig, Christopher M Reilly, Christopher J Murphy
OBJECTIVE: To describe the ocular anatomy of the black pacu (Colossoma macropomum), a freshwater teleost fish of the Amazon River basin, including an unusual choroid laden with adipose tissue. PROCEDURES: Three adult black pacu were anesthetized and examined clinically and with ocular ultrasonography, then euthanized. Three fish were euthanized and their heads imaged immediately postmortem using computed tomography. One fish was euthanized and its exenterated eyes imaged by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging...
January 30, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Marta Checchi, Jessika Bertacchini, Giulia Grisendi, Alberto Smargiassi, Antonella Sola, Massimo Messori, Carla Palumbo
Recovering of significant skeletal defects could be partially abortive due to the perturbations that affect the regenerative process when defects reach a critical size, thus resulting in a non-healed bone. The current standard treatments include allografting, autografting, and other bone implant techniques. However, although they are commonly used in orthopedic surgery, these treatments have some limitations concerning their costs and their side effects such as potential infections or malunions. On this account, the need for suitable constructs to fill the gap in wide fractures is still urgent...
December 25, 2017: Biomedicines
Ali J Electricwala, Jaffer T Electricwala
CASE: We present an unusual case of unilateral congenital quintus valgus of the left foot (congenital lateral deviation of the fifth [little] toe) in a 1.5-year-old boy. The child had no other congenital malformations. Radiographs revealed the abnormal presence of 2 accessory phalangeal ossicles in the fourth web space, leading to lateral deviation of the fifth toe. Remarkably, the ossicles of the middle and distal phalanges of the fifth toe were absent. Surgical excision of the accessory ossicles was performed, and correction of the deformity was achieved...
October 2017: JBJS Case Connector
Zoran Djinović, Robert Pavelka, Miloš Tomić, Georg Sprinzl, Hanns Plenk, Udo Losert, Helga Bergmeister, Roberto Plasenzotti
The main obstacle in realization of a totally implantable hearing aid is a lack of reliable implantable microphone. In this paper we have described a potentially miniature fiber-optic vibrometer based on a modified Michelson interferometer, designed to serve as a middle-ear microphone for totally implantable cochlear- or middle-ear hearing aids. A model of the sensing system was used for in-vitro and in-vivo investigation of acoustical response of sheep's middle-ear ossicles. Surgical and implantation procedure of introducing the sensing optical fiber into the middle-ear and its aiming at the incus was investigated and described here in detail...
December 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Alexey V Smirnov, Elena G Panina, Nadezhda P Sanamyan, Karen E Sanamyan
New species Scoliorhapis stepanovi has been collected from depths of 10-23 m on the sandy bottom of Avacha Bay (east coast of Kamchatka), Paramushir Island (North Kuril Islands), and Matua Island (Middle Kuril Islands). It is unique in having sigmoid ossicles in the body wall with points at both ends (without an open-eye, and with the two points lying in a perpendicular plane). Such sigmoids do not occur in any other taeniogyrinid species. The two-pointed sigmoids are 80-115 µm in length, and are scattered in the body wall and not clustered...
October 20, 2017: Zootaxa
Yusuke Yamana, Hayato Tanaka
A new apodid sea cucumber, Chiridota impatiens sp. nov., is described from the intertidal zone of Okinawa, Japan, and C. rigida Semper, 1867 is also described from the intertidal zone of Wakayama, as new to Japan. C. impatiens sp. nov. is approximately 60-70 mm, with 12 tentacles and 4-7 pairs of digits per tentacle, red or reddish brown in living specimens. The tentacles contain curved rod ossicles, with spinous processes and many branches in C. rigida, however, in C. impatiens sp. nov., the curved rod ossicles are crescent-shaped, sometimes distally, with spinous processes and rarely a few branches on the circumference...
October 31, 2017: Zootaxa
Wouter Johannes van Drunen, Mathias Mueller, Anatoly Glukhovskoy, Rolf Salcher, Marc Christopher Wurz, Thomas Lenarz, Hannes Maier
Introduction: Most implantable hearing aids currently available were developed to compensate the sensorineural hearing loss by driving middle ear structures (e.g., the ossicles). These devices are successfully used in round window (RW) stimulation clinically, although this was initially not the intended use. Here, a novel microactuator, specifically designed for RW stimulation, was tested in human temporal bones to determine actuator performance and applicability. Methods: Stapes footplate response to RW stimulation was determined experimentally in human temporal bones and the obtained sound pressure output level was estimated...
2017: BioMed Research International
Es-Hak Bedri, Nebiat Teferi, Miriam Redleaf
: Tympanosclerosis in the middle ear space is common in Ethiopia and often involves the ossicles and particularly the stapes. Ear operations in Ethiopia are relatively expensive in this country of limited medical resources and a low average living wage. In this setting, 2-stage operations using prostheses become prohibitively expensive. Therefore, the recommended 2-stage approach for tympanic membrane perforation with tympanosclerosis and stapes fixation is impractical for Ethiopia.We present a series of 67 patients who had a single stage tympanoplasty, removal of tympanosclerosis from the stapes suprastructure, and ossicular chain reconstruction using ossicular interposition...
February 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Christine L Hammer, Tamara A Franz-Odendaal
Previous work, almost four decades ago, showed that hydrocortisone (HC) treatment reduces the number of skeletogenic condensations that give rise to the scleral ossicles in the chicken eye. The scleral ossicles are a ring of overlapping intramembranous bones, the sclerotic ring, and are present in most reptiles, including birds. The scleral condensations that give rise to the scleral ossicles are induced by a series of overlying thickenings (or papillae) of the conjunctival epithelium. Here, we further explore the effects of altering the dosage and timing of HC treatment on the morphology and number of skeletogenic condensations and conjunctival papillae...
February 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Matthew J Mason, Nigel C Bennett, Martin Pickford
Many living species of golden moles (Chrysochloridae) have greatly enlarged middle ear ossicles, believed to be used in the detection of ground vibrations through inertial bone conduction. Other unusual features of chrysochlorids include internally coupled middle ear cavities and the loss of the tensor tympani muscle. Our understanding of the evolutionary history of these characteristics has been limited by the paucity of fossil evidence. In this article, we describe for the first time the exquisitely preserved middle and inner ears of Namachloris arenatans from the Palaeogene of Namibia, visualised using computed tomography, as well as ossicles attributed to this species...
March 2018: Journal of Morphology
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