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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035966/effectiveness-of-rifampicin-chemoprophylaxis-in-preventing-leprosy-in-patient-contacts-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-evidence
#1
Silvana Margarida Benevides Ferreira, Tatiana Yonekura, Eliane Ignotti, Larissa Bertacchini de Oliveira, Juliana Takahashi, Cassia Baldini Soares
BACKGROUND: Individuals in contact with patients who have leprosy have an increased risk of disease exposure, which reinforces the need for chemoprophylactic measures, such as the use of rifampicin. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the review was to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis for contacts with patients with leprosy, and to synthesize the best available evidence on the experience and acceptability of rifampicin chemoprophylaxis as reported by the contacts and health professionals involved in the treatment of leprosy or Hansen's disease...
October 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034422/a-bibliometric-analysis-of-research-on-haze-during-2000-2016
#2
EDITORIAL
Chenxi Li, Kening Wu, Jingyao Wu
As one of the bibliometric analysis tools, CiteSpace software was applied to quantitatively and visually evaluate global scientific documents of research on haze from 2000 to 2016. Five thousand six hundred six documents from the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) of the Web of Science database were statistically analyzed and examined. The distributions on authorship, countries/territories, institutes, and keywords were generated. The amount of publications has increased nearly for the past 17 years...
October 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034127/socio-demographic-factors-which-significantly-relate-to-the-prediction-of-burns-severity-in-children
#3
Khalid Alnababtah, Salim Khan
BACKGROUND: Burns are considered one of the biggest wounds and the most devastating injuries humans can receive as they have prolonged consequences which are not only physical, but psychological in addition to the cost of treatment. The aim of the study was to explore the relationships between socio-demographic factors (SDF) and the incidence and mechanisms of burn injuries in children. The objectives were to identify the multiple and various factors responsible for the occurrence of significant burns in children; to explore and investigate the relationship between these factors; to critically analyse SDF on the incidence and mechanisms of burns and to develop a contextual model with a view to informing future health care policy and health promotion programmes...
2017: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033997/the-effects-of-cognitive-behavioral-stress-management-on-nurses-job-stress
#4
Jafar Shariatkhah, Zahra Farajzadeh, Kolsoom Khazaee
BACKGROUND: Job stress is a prevalent and costly problem in different working conditions. Stress can degrade care quality in nurses and elevate their willingness to leave the job. This study aimed to determine the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management on nurses' job stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this quasi-experimental study with a control group, 40 nurses from the educational hospitals in Birjand who had completed a job stress questionnaire with a score of more than 100 were selected and randomly allocated to two groups...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033994/effect-of-dates-in-late-pregnancy-on-the-duration-of-labor-in-nulliparous-women
#5
Masoumeh Kordi, Fatemeh Aghaei Meybodi, Fatemeh Tara, Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari, Mohsen Nemati, Mohammadtaghi Shakeri
BACKGROUND: Long-term delivery is an important significant issue which is associated with mortality and fetal and maternal disorders. Based on the previous studies, consumption of dates affects uterine contractions and duration of delivery processes. This study aimed to study the effect of date consumption in late pregnancy on the duration of delivery processes in nulliparous women in 2013. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted among 182 nulliparous women 18-35 years who presented to OmAlBanin Hospital in Mashhad in 2013...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033991/comparison-of-nurses-and-parents-viewpoints-regarding-the-needs-of-parents-of-premature-infants-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#6
Marziyeh Tork Ladani, Zahra Abdeyazdan, Alireza Sadeghnia, Mahnoosh Hajiheidari, Akbar Hasanzadeh
BACKGROUND: The birth of a premature infant and her/his hospitalization can cause the parents to experience a variety of needs. Understanding the needs of parents by nurses can lead to provision of high quality care to premature infants. This study aimed to compare the parents' and nurses' viewpoints regarding parents' needs in the neonatal intensive care units (NICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 63 nurses, 120 mothers, and 120 fathers, who met the inclusion criteria, participated...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033471/using-twitter-for-demographic-and-social-science-research-tools-for-data-collection-and-processing
#7
Tyler H McCormick, Hedwig Lee, Nina Cesare, Ali Shojaie, Emma S Spiro
Despite recent and growing interest in using Twitter to examine human behavior and attitudes, there is still significant room for growth regarding the ability to leverage Twitter data for social science research. In particular, gleaning demographic information about Twitter users-a key component of much social science research-remains a challenge. This article develops an accurate and reliable data processing approach for social science researchers interested in using Twitter data to examine behaviors and attitudes, as well as the demographic characteristics of the populations expressing or engaging in them...
August 2017: Sociological Methods & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033138/do-you-believe-it-verbal-suggestions-influence-the-clinical-and-neural-effects-of-escitalopram-in-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-trial
#8
Vanda Faria, Malin Gingnell, Johanna M Hoppe, Olof Hjorth, Iman Alaie, Andreas Frick, Sara Hultberg, Kurt Wahlstedt, Jonas Engman, Kristoffer N T Månsson, Per Carlbring, Gerhard Andersson, Margareta Reis, Elna-Marie Larsson, Mats Fredrikson, Tomas Furmark
BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed for depression and anxiety, but their efficacy relative to placebo has been questioned. We aimed to test how manipulation of verbally induced expectancies, central for placebo, influences SSRI treatment outcome and brain activity in patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). METHODS: We did a randomized clinical trial, within an academic medical center (Uppsala, Sweden), of individuals fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for SAD, recruited through media advertising...
September 27, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032973/epidemiology-and-socio-demographic-risk-factors-of-self-immolation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Maryam Parvareh, Mohammad Hajizadeh, Satar Rezaei, Bijan Nouri, Ghobad Moradi, Nader Esmail Nasab
OBJECTIVE: Self-immolation or self-inflicted burn is the most tragic and violent method of suicide. The higher prevalence of this dramatic phenomenon in Iran is a serious social and health problem. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to combine the results from available studies to examine the epidemiology and socio-demographic characteristics of individuals who attempted self-immolation in Iran. METHOD: Pertinent studies were identified by searching the electronic bibliographic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Iran Medex, Magiran, Medlib and Scientific Information Database (SID) (2000-October 2016)...
October 9, 2017: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031933/relevant-models-and-elements-of-integrated-care-for-multi-morbidity-results-of-a-scoping-review
#10
Verena Struckmann, Fenna R M Leijten, Ewout van Ginneken, Markus Kraus, Miriam Reiss, Anne Spranger, Melinde R S Boland, Thomas Czypionka, Reinhard Busse, Maureen Rutten-van Mölken
BACKGROUND: In order to provide adequate care for the growing group of persons with multi-morbidity, innovative integrated care programmes are appearing. The aims of the current scoping review were to i) identify relevant models and elements of integrated care for multi-morbidity and ii) to subsequently identify which of these models and elements are applied in integrated care programmes for multi-morbidity. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted in the following scientific databases: Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Web of Science...
October 6, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031621/medicinal-chemistry-in-drug-discovery-in-big-pharma-past-present-and-future
#11
REVIEW
Ian B Campbell, Simon J F Macdonald, Panayiotis A Procopiou
The changes in synthetic and medicinal chemistry and related drug discovery science as practiced in big pharma over the past few decades are described. These have been predominantly driven by wider changes in society namely the computer, internet and globalisation. Thoughts about the future of medicinal chemistry are also discussed including sharing the risks and costs of drug discovery and the future of outsourcing. The continuing impact of access to substantial computing power and big data, the use of algorithms in data analysis and drug design are also presented...
October 11, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030830/function-and-quality-of-life-among-primary-osteosarcoma-survivors-in-iran-amputation-versus-limb-salvage
#12
S Solooki, S M Mostafavizadeh Ardestani, H Mahdaviazad, B Kardeh
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) in Iranian osteosarcoma patients and apply this to compare the functional level, quality of life, symptoms and financial burden of the patients who underwent amputation and limb-salvage operations. METHODS: This study was conducted at the main referral orthopedic centers in the southwest of Iran from 2006 to 2016...
October 13, 2017: Musculoskeletal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029962/answering-schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-question-a-free-energy-formulation
#13
REVIEW
Maxwell James Désormeau Ramstead, Paul Benjamin Badcock, Karl John Friston
The free-energy principle (FEP) is a formal model of neuronal processes that is widely recognised in neuroscience as a unifying theory of the brain and biobehaviour. More recently, however, it has been extended beyond the brain to explain the dynamics of living systems, and their unique capacity to avoid decay. The aim of this review is to synthesise these advances with a meta-theoretical ontology of biological systems called variational neuroethology, which integrates the FEP with Tinbergen's four research questions to explain biological systems across spatial and temporal scales...
September 20, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029961/a-critical-analysis-towards-research-perspectives-reply-to-comments-on-modeling-human-behavior-in-economics-and-social-science
#14
M Dolfin, L Leonida, N Outada
We take advantage of the challenging comments to the modeling approach we proposed in [35] to look ahead at a number of applications of the methods to the alternative questions these comments raise. In turn, our effort results in a number of interesting and valuable research perspectives. The presentation goes along three main lines. In the first line, we summarize briefly the aims and results in [35]. In the second section we give a technical the issues raised and, finally, the focus moves to the above mentioned research perspectives...
October 9, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029626/higher-educational-attainment-associated-with-reduced-likelihood-of-abnormal-cervical-lesions-among-zambian-women-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Twaambo Euphemia Hamoonga, Rosemary Ndonyo Likwa, Patrick Musonda, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: The high burden of cervical cancer in Zambia prompted the Ministry of Health and partners to develop the cervical cancer prevention program in Zambia (CCPPZ) in 2006. Despite this intervention more women continue to die from the disease and there is little understanding of factors that may be linked with abnormal cervical lesions in the general population. We therefore examined if educational attainment is associated with abnormal cervical lesions among Zambian women aged 15 to 49 years...
October 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028156/genetic-background-effects-in-neuroligin-3-mutant-mice-minimal-behavioral-abnormalities-on-c57-background
#16
Thomas C Jaramillo, Christine Ochoa Escamilla, Shunan Liu, Lauren Peca, Shari G Birnbaum, Craig M Powell
Neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) is a postsynaptic cell adhesion protein that interacts with presynaptic ligands including neurexin-1 (NRXN1) [Ichtchenko et al., Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271, 2676-2682, 1996]. Mice harboring a mutation in the NLGN3 gene (NL3R451C) mimicking a mutation found in two brothers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were previously generated and behaviorally phenotyped for autism-related behaviors. In these NL3R451C mice generated and tested on a hybrid C57BL6J/129S2/SvPasCrl background, we observed enhanced spatial memory and reduced social interaction [Tabuchi et al...
October 13, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027661/negotiating-ethical-paradoxes-in-conducting-a-randomized-controlled-trial-aligning-intervention-science-with-participatory-values
#17
Shabnam Javdani, Sukhmani Singh, Corianna E Sichel
In this article, we describe ethical tensions we have faced in the context of our work as intervention scientists, where we aim to promote social justice and change systems that impact girls involved in the juvenile legal system. These ethical tensions are, at their core, about resisting collusion with systems of control while simultaneously collaborating with them. Over the course of designing and implementing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an ecological advocacy intervention for girls, called ROSES, ethical paradoxes crystalized and prompted us to engage in critical reflection and action toward the aim of moving away from conducting research on legal-system-involved girls and moving toward a more democratic, participatory process of inquiry with girls...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Community Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027079/guinea-fowl-numidia-meleagris-production-by-small-holder-farmers-in-zimbabwe
#18
Preston Zvakare, Prisca H Mugabe, Tonderai Mutibvu
Guinea fowls are a source of high-value meat and eggs, and the birds are more disease resistant than other types of birds. A survey was conducted in ward 23, Chipinge district, Zimbabwe, to characterise guinea fowl management practices and to identify constraints and potential opportunities for increased guinea fowl productivity. Purposive sampling was used to select 84 out of possible 252 guinea fowl owners. Data were collected by direct observation on guinea fowl varieties, feeding strategies and housing facilities...
October 12, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026727/adverse-effects-of-prolonged-sitting-behavior-on-the-general-health-of-office-workers
#19
Hadi Daneshmandi, Alireza Choobineh, Haleh Ghaem, Mehran Karimi
BACKGROUND: Excessive sitting behavior is a risk factor for many adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to survey the prevalence of sitting behavior and its adverse effects among Iranian office workers. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 447 Iranian office workers. A two-part questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. The first part surveyed the demographic characteristics and general health of the respondents, while the second part contained the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) to assess symptoms...
July 2017: Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026662/intrathecal-and-intraventricular-antibiotics-for-postoperative-gram-negative-meningitis-and-ventriculitis
#20
Saad Akhtar Khan, Muhammad Waqas, Usman T Siddiqui, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, Karim Rizwan Nathani, Rashid Jooma, Faisal Mehmood
BACKGROUND: Postoperative meningitis is a growing cause of concern, especially with the evolution of multidrug-resistant organism. The authors evaluate the use of intraventricular/intrathecal (IVT/IT) antibiotics for postoperative gram-negative meningitis in patients whom intravenous antibiotics were ineffective. METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and neurosurgery patients with gram-negative postoperative infection meningitis/ventriculitis were enrolled in the study...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
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