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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823111/welfare-to-work-interventions-and-their-effects-on-the-mental-and-physical-health-of-lone-parents-and-their-children
#1
REVIEW
Marcia Gibson, Hilary Thomson, Kasia Banas, Vittoria Lutje, Martin J McKee, Susan P Martin, Candida Fenton, Clare Bambra, Lyndal Bond
BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822799/effect-of-application-sequence-of-fluoride-and-cpp-acp-on-remineralization-of-white-spot-lesions-in-primary-teeth-an-in-vitro-study
#2
Ola B Al-Batayneh, Reem A Jbarat, Susan N Al-Khateeb
OBJECTIVE: To explore how application sequence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) and fluoride influences remineralization of enamel white spot lesions (WSL) in primary teeth. DESIGN: In this in-vitro study, artificial WSLs were created in 130 primary teeth. Teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=27) and a control group (n=22) and exposed to one of the following remineralization regimens for 10 weeks: Group-1; 500ppm fluoride dentifrice; Group-2; 10% w/v CPP-ACP; Group-3; fluoride applied first, then CPP-ACP; Group-4; CPP-ACP applied first, then fluoride, and Group-5 was control...
August 10, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821264/impact-of-early-initiation-versus-national-standard-of-care-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-swaziland-s-public-sector-health-system-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomized-trial
#3
Fiona J Walsh, Till Bärnighausen, Wim Delva, Yvette Fleming, Gavin Khumalo, Charlotte L Lejeune, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Charmaine Khudzie Mlambo, Ria Reis, Donna Spiegelman, Mandisa Zwane, Velephi Okello
BACKGROUND: There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or "universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics...
August 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820231/interventions-for-treating-persistent-pain-in-survivors-of-torture
#4
REVIEW
Emma Baird, Amanda C de C Williams, Leslie Hearn, Kirstine Amris
BACKGROUND: Persistent (chronic) pain is a frequent complaint in survivors of torture, particularly but not exclusively pain in the musculoskeletal system. Torture survivors may have no access to health care; where they do, they may not be recognised when they present, and the care available often falls short of their needs. There is a tendency in state and non-governmental organisations' services to focus on mental health, with poor understanding of persistent pain, while survivors may have many other legal, welfare, and social problems that take precedence over health care...
August 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819540/use-of-global-initiative-for-asthma-gina-guidelines-in-asthma-management-among-paediatric-residents-in-a-sub-saharan-african-country-a-cross-sectional-descriptive-study
#5
Adaeze Chikaodinaka Ayuk, Agozie Ubesie, Chioma Laura Odimegwu, Kenechukwu Iloh
INTRODUCTION: Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist practitioner and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Despite abundance of asthma guidelines, prevalence has continued to increase globally. There is need to assess how the contents of asthma guidelines are put to clinical use by doctors in the management of children with asthma. This study aims at evaluating the clinical practice of paediatric residents in applying GINA guidelines...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819495/birth-preparedness-and-complication-readiness-among-pregnant-women-in-osogbo-metropolis-southwest-nigeria
#6
Adedayo Olukemi Sabageh, Oluwatosin Adediran Adeoye, Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi, Donatus Sabageh, Adebola Afolake Adejimi
INTRODUCTION: High maternal mortality is a major problem in Nigeria. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness will ensure that women can have professional delivery thus reducing obstetric complications. This study assessed the birth preparedness and complication readiness among pregnant women in Osogbo metropolis, a south western community in Nigeria. METHODS: A community based descriptive cross sectional survey was used. A total of 180 women were selected using multistage sampling technique...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819253/majority-of-human-traits-do-not-show-evidence-for-sex-specific-genetic-and-environmental-effects
#7
Sven Stringer, Tinca Polderman, Danielle Posthuma
Sex differences in the etiology of human trait variation are a major topic of interest in the social and medical sciences given its far-reaching implications. For example, in genetic research, the presence of sex-specific effects would require sex-stratified analysis, and in clinical practice sex-specific treatments would be warranted. Here, we present a study of 2,335,920 twin pairs, in which we tested sex differences in genetic and environmental contributions to variation in 2,608 reported human traits, clustered in 50 trait categories...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818496/nonlinear-dynamical-systems-comment-on-modeling-human-behavior-in-economics-and-social-science-by-marina-dolfin-leone-leonida-and-nisrine-outada
#8
Nicola Bellomo, Ahmed Elaiw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818164/outcome-in-chronic-subdural-hematoma-after-subdural-vs-subgaleal-drain
#9
Asim Ishfaq
OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcome after surgery for chronic subdural hematoma when the drain is placed in subdural space or subgaleal space. STUDY DESIGN: Quasi experimental study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from July 2015 to June 2016. METHODOLOGY: Patients with chronic subdural hematoma of both genders and age, ranging between 55 to 85 years, were included. Patients on antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy and acute on chronic subdural hematoma were excluded...
July 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817730/new-approach-to-generating-insights-for-aging-research-based-on-literature-mining-and-knowledge-integration
#10
Yeondae Kwon, Yukikazu Natori, Masaru Tanokura
The proportion of the elderly population in most countries worldwide is increasing dramatically. Therefore, social interest in the fields of health, longevity, and anti-aging has been increasing as well. However, the basic research results obtained from a reductionist approach in biology and a bioinformatic approach in genome science have limited usefulness for generating insights on future health, longevity, and anti-aging-related research on a case by case basis. We propose a new approach that uses our literature mining technique and bioinformatics, which lead to a better perspective on research trends by providing an expanded knowledge base to work from...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816207/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-various-sound-pressure-levels-on-the-level-of-serum-aldosterone-concentration-in-rats
#11
Parvin Nassiri, Sajad Zare, Mohammad R Monazzam, Akram Pourbakht, Kamal Azam, Taghi Golmohammadi
INTRODUCTION: Noise exposure may have anatomical, nonauditory, and auditory influences. Considering nonauditory impacts, noise exposure can cause alterations in the automatic nervous system, including increased pulse rates, heightened blood pressure, and abnormal secretion of hormones. The present study aimed at examining the effect of various sound pressure levels (SPLs) on the serum aldosterone level among rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 adult male rats with an age range of 3 to 4 months and a weight of 200 ± 50 g were randomly divided into 15 groups of three...
July 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816195/pentraxin-3-levels-in-gingival-crevicular-fluid-during-canine-retraction-with-nickel-titanium-coil-spring-and-active-tieback
#12
Rakesh Thukral, Sukhpreet Mangat, Anvesha Ganguly, Sanket S Agarkar, Harleen Bali, Shekhar Grover
AIM: Orthodontic treatment is routinely carried out in patients with the purpose of correcting various forms of dental malocclusions. Retraction of the canines can be achieved either individually or along with incisor. Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) is regarded as the true independent indicator of disease activity. Hence, we undertook the present study to assess and compare the level of PTX-3 in patients undergoing canine retraction with active tieback and Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) coil spring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included assessment of 25 patients that underwent canine retraction as a part of fixed orthodontic treatment...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816192/tobacco-abuse-and-associated-oral-lesions-among-interstate-migrant-construction-workers
#13
Anzil Ks Ali, Arshad Mohammed, Archana A Thomas, Shann Paul, M Shahul, K Kasim
AIM: The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816188/assessment-of-changes-in-nickel-and-chromium-levels-in-the-gingival-crevicular-fluid-during-fixed-orthodontic-treatment
#14
Vinny Bhasin, Swati J Pustake, Viprat Joshi, Anil Tiwari, Meenakshi Bhasin, Ramandeep S Punia
BACKGROUND: Various components of appliances used in fixed orthodontic treatment are fabricated from materials that are highly resistant in nature and have high strength and biocompatibility. Corrosion of materials occurs inside the oral cavity due to numerous environmental or oral factors that act on them. These factors include temperature, pH variation, salivary conditions, mechanical loads, microbiological and enzymatic activity, and various food components. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is the material obtained from the gingival sulcus and might act as a potential source for various biomarkers in the orthodontic setup because inflammatory-induced response is directly related to orthodontic forces in GCF...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816092/attitudes-towards-science-among-spanish-citizens-the-case-of-critical-engagers
#15
Montaña Cámara, Ana Muñoz van den Eynde, José A López Cerezo
Using data obtained from Spanish surveys on the public perception of science, this article presents a critical review of current practices of population profile segmentation, including the one-dimensional representation of perceived risks and benefits and of the systematic underestimation of critical attitudes to the social impact of science and technology. We use discriminant analysis to detect a somewhat hidden cluster in the Spanish population which we call 'critical engagers'. These individuals are critically and socially responsible and are not reticent about expressing concern regarding scientific-technological change...
August 1, 2017: Public Understanding of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814933/inflammatory-biomarkers-and-their-value-in-predicting-survival-and-outcome-among-patients-with-spontaneous-intracerebral-haemorrhage
#16
Senthil Kumar Rajapathy, Zamzuri Idris, Regunath Kandasamy, Albert Wong Sii Hieng, Jafri Malin Abdullah
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH) has emerged as one of the most devastating forms of stroke in recent decades. This disease is noted to carry a 30-day mortality rate of approximately 45%. An increasing number of studies have implicated a complex immune-mediated and inflammation-mediated cascade of responses in the pathophysiology of SICH and the resultant neurologic outcome. Several clinical studies have demonstrated an association between inflammatory markers and outcome in patients with SICH...
May 2017: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810451/the-pre-history-of-health-psychology-in-the-united-kingdom-from-natural-science-and-psychoanalysis-to-social-science-social-cognition-and-beyond
#17
Michael Murray
Health psychology formally came of age in the United Kingdom in the 1980s, but it was prefigured by much discussion about challenges to the dominance of biomedicine in healthcare and debates about the role of individual behaviour change in promoting population health. Despite current progress and accomplishments, it is important to reflect upon earlier attempts to explore the psychological dimensions of health and illness. It is through such exploration that we can begin to reveal the connection between ideas and the social context...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809594/evaluating-health-service-quality-using-importance-performance-analysis
#18
Azar Izadi, Younes Jahani, Sima Rafiei, Ali Masoud, Leila Vali
Purpose Measuring healthcare service quality provides an objective guide for managers and policy makers to improve their services and patient satisfaction. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to measure service quality provided to surgical and medical inpatients at Kerman Medical Sciences University (KUMS) in 2015. Design/methodology/approach A descriptive-analytic study, using a cross-sectional method in the KUMS training hospitals, was implemented between October 2 and March 15, 2015. Using stratified random sampling, 268 patients were selected...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807641/a-novel-partnership-disrupts-the-norm-in-early-childhood-education-and-pediatric-health-care
#19
EDITORIAL
M Denise Dowd, John D Lantos
Children living in poverty in the United States in 2016 face a devastating combination of psychological problems. Their neighborhoods are often violent. They have no place to get healthy food. It is not safe to play outside, even on playgrounds. The children who grow up in this environment, not surprisingly, have many adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). ACEs cause toxic stress. Toxic stress leads to long-term physical and psychological problems. For many pediatricians, children's hospitals, civic leaders, and public health officials, it is difficult to know how to intervene...
August 11, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807593/numerical-solution-of-generalised-kinetic-models-for-active-particles-comment-on-modeling-human-behavior-in-economics-and-social-science-by-marina-dolfin-leone-leonida-and-nisrine-outada
#20
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