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Biochemistry, social sciences

Rebecca Gryka, Mary E Kiersma, Tracy R Frame, Stephanie M Cailor, Aleda M H Chen
PURPOSE: To evaluate differences in student confidence and perceptions of biochemistry concepts using a team-based learning (TBL) format versus a traditional lecture-based format at two universities. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY: Two pedagogies (TBL vs lecture-based) were utilized to deliver biochemistry concepts at two universities in a first-professional year, semester-long biochemistry course. A 21-item instrument was created and administered pre-post semester to assess changes in confidence in learning biochemistry concepts using Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory (eight items, 5-point, Likert-type) and changes in student perceptions of biochemistry utilizing the theory of planned behavior (TPB) domains (13 items, 7- point, Likert-type)...
March 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
Ji Eun Kim, Jung Hoon Nam, Joon Young Cho, Kil Soo Kim, Dae Youn Hwang
Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice have been widely used in various research fields including toxicology, oncology, pharmacology, and pharmaceutical product safety testing for decades. However, annual tendency of research papers involving ICR mice in various biomedical fields has not been previously analyzed. In this study, we examined the numbers of papers that used ICR mice as experimental animals in the social science, natural science, engineering, medicine-pharmacy, marine agriculture-fishery, and art-kinesiology fields by analyzing big data...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
Fabio Batista Mota, Bruna de Paula Fonseca E Fonseca, Andréia Cristina Galina, Roseli Monteiro da Silva
BACKGROUND: Despite the current global trend of reduction in the morbidity and mortality of neglected diseases, dengue's incidence has increased and occurrence areas have expanded. Dengue also persists as a scientific and technological challenge since there is no effective treatment, vaccine, vector control or public health intervention. Combining bibliometrics and social network analysis methods can support the mapping of dengue research and development (R&D) activities worldwide. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to map the scientific scenario related to dengue research worldwide...
May 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Toru Kawanishi
The practice of regulatory science (RS) for drug development is described. In the course material for education in pharmaceutical sciences drafted by the RS Division of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, RS for pharmaceuticals is defined as the science of predicting, assessing, and judging the quality, efficacy, and safety of pharmaceutical products throughout their lifespan. RS is also described as an integrated science based on basic and applied biomedical sciences, including analytical chemistry, biochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology, genetics, biostatistics, epidemiology, and clinical trial methodology, and social sciences such as decision science, risk assessment, and communication science...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Albert A Okunade, Rose M Rubin, Adeyinka K Okunade
Currently, there are few studies separating the linkage of pathological obese and overweight body mass indices (BMIs) to the all-cause mortality rate in adults. Consequently, this paper, using annual Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data of the 50 US states and the District of Columbia, estimates empirical regression models linking the US adult overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) rates to the all-cause deaths rate. The biochemistry of multi-period cumulative adiposity (saturated fatty acid) from unexpended caloric intakes (net energy storage) provides the natural theoretical foundation for tracing unhealthy BMI to all-cause mortality...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Marcus Antonius Ynalvez, Ruby A Ynalvez, Enrique Ramírez
We explored the social shaping of science at the micro-level reality of face-to-face interaction in one of the traditional places for scientific activities-the scientific lab. We specifically examined how doctoral students' perception of their: (i) interaction with doctoral mentors (MMI) and (ii) lab social environment (LSE) influenced productivity. Construed as the production of peer-reviewed articles, we measured productivity using total number of articles (TOTAL), number of articles with impact factor greater than or equal to 4...
March 4, 2017: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Noor Mohammad Noori, Maryam Nakhaee Moghaddam, Alireza Teimouri, Iraj Shahramian, Behrooz Keyvani
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study is to assess the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in patients with congenital heart diseases (CHDs) and control. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this case-control study, sixty patients with CHD with ages of 1 month to 15 years and thirty healthy subjects were assessed. All objects measured in height, weight, age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Patients diagnosed by echocardiography and patients' blood samples were 3 ml and taken in the catheterization laboratory through catheter and kept for 60 min at a room with normal temperature and separated serum has been held...
July 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
L Quecedo Gutiérrez, R Ruiz Abascal, J M Calvo Vecino, A I Peral García, E Matute González, L E Muñoz Alameda, E Guasch Arévalo, F Gilsanz Rodríguez
In April 2013 the Ministry of Health (MSSSI) adopted the project called "Commitment to Quality by Scientific Societies in Spain", in response to social and professional demands for sustainability of the health system. The initiative is part of the activities of the Spanish Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment and Services of the National Health System, and is coordinated jointly by the Quality and Cohesion Department, the Aragon Institute of Health Sciences (IACS), and the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI)...
November 2016: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Ana Carneiro, Isabel Amaral
This paper focuses on the internal organization and dynamics of the Institute Bento da Rocha Cabral (IRC) in Lisbon, a privately-funded institution devoted to biomedical research, from the particular vantage point of its laboratory of biochemistry; in particular, the process through which the institution turned from medically-related to chemically-related research in the period spanning from 1925 to 1953. The history of the IRC raises interesting questions regarding the social politics of science as it materialized the desire of leading physicians of the Faculty of Medicine of Lisbon to create proper physical facilities for medically-related scientific research...
May 2015: Ambix
Liaquat Hossain, Faezeh Karimi, Rolf T Wigand
OBJECTIVE: The increasing rate of outbreaks in humans of zoonotic diseases requires detailed examination of the education, research, and practice of animal health and its connection to human health. This study investigated the collaboration network of different fields engaged in conducting zoonotic research from a transdisciplinary perspective. METHODS: Examination of the dynamics of this network for a 33-year period from 1980 to 2012 is presented through the development of a large scientometric database from Scopus...
October 2015: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
R Takhelmayum, C Thanpari, S Kumar, A R Singh, J N Sinha
This study was conducted to know the status of Lipid profile in people of central region of Nepal. This study was conducted in College of Medical Sciences & Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal from February 2009 to March 2010 which is situated in central region of Nepal. A total of 870 cases, out of which 512(58.85%) male and 358(41.14%) female were included and study was carried out using data retrieved from the register maintained in the Department of Biochemistry. The variables collected were age, sex, lipid profile which includes total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) & low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C)...
July 2014: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Arun Kumar, Kasturi Mitra, Sangeetha Nagarajan, Bibek Poudel
BACKGROUND: In future, increase in the number of healthcare professionals is dependent on the career interest among present undergraduate medical students. Based on their interest to pursue their specialty, the availability of medical doctors in each specialty could be done. AIMS: This study was to find out future career interest and factors that influence undergraduate medical students to choose their future specialization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out among first-year medical students from five countries...
March 2014: North American Journal of Medical Sciences
George W A Constable, Alan J McKane
We investigate the stochastic dynamics of entities which are confined to a set of islands, between which they migrate. They are assumed to be one of two types, and in addition to migration, they also reproduce and die. Birth and death events are later moderated by weak selection. Systems which fall into this class are common in biology and social science, occurring in ecology, population genetics, epidemiology, biochemistry, linguistics, opinion dynamics, and other areas. In all these cases the governing equations are intractable, consisting as they do of multidimensional Fokker-Planck equations or, equivalently, coupled nonlinear stochastic differential equations with multiplicative noise...
March 2014: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Dipendra Raj Pandeya, Ankush Mittal, Brijesh Sathian, Bibek Bhatta
AIM: To investigate the effect of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on prostate cancer risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This hospital based study was carried out using data retrieved from the register maintained in the Department of Biochemistry of a tertiary care hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal between 31st December, 2011 and 31st October, 2013. The variables collected were age, serum cholesterol, serum calcium, PSA, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin. Analysis was performed by descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis using Excel 2003, R 2...
2014: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Hitoshi Maeda, Takaki Ishikawa, Tomomi Michiue
The major role of forensic pathology is the investigation of human death in relevance to social risk management to determine the cause and process of death, especially in violent and unexpected sudden deaths, which involve social and medicolegal issues of ultimate, personal and public concerns. In addition to the identification of victims and biological materials, forensic molecular pathology contributes to general explanation of the human death process and assessment of individual death on the basis of biological molecular evidence, visualizing dynamic functional changes involved in the dying process that cannot be detected by morphology (pathophysiological or molecular biological vital reactions); the genetic background (genomics), dynamics of gene expression (up-/down-regulation: transcriptomics) and vital phenomena, involving activated biological mediators and degenerative products (proteomics) as well as metabolic deterioration (metabolomics), are detected by DNA analysis, relative quantification of mRNA transcripts using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and immunohisto-/immunocytochemistry combined with biochemistry, respectively...
March 2014: Legal Medicine
R John Aitken
There has never been a greater need for scientists trained in reproductive science. Most developed countries are witnessing unprecedented rates of recourse to assisted conception sitting cheek-by-jowl with high rates of induced abortion. This article addresses these two incongruous faces of reproductive healthcare. Every year at least 44 million abortions are performed worldwide, many under unsafe and insanitary conditions that carry a significant risk to the lives of women deprived of safe, effective methods for controlling their fertility...
February 2014: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Diana R Cundell
Educators are increasingly being encouraged to use more active- and problem-based-learning techniques and assignments in the classroom to improve critical and analytical thinking skills. Active learning-based courses have been purported to be more time consuming than traditional lecture methods and for many instructors have therefore proven difficult to include in many one-semester science courses. To address this problem, a series of assignments was developed for use in a basic microbiology course involving sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students from five different biology majors (environmental science, biology, biochemistry, premedicine, and physician assistant)...
May 2002: Microbiology Education
Dagogo J Pepple, Lauriann E Young, Georgina M Gordon-Stachan, Robert G Carroll
This retrospective study involved the analysis of the grades of ninety-four preclinical students who took the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) Stage I Examination in Anatomy, Biochemistry, Physiology, Social and Preventive Medicine, and Pharmacology between December 1997 and May 1999 at the Mona Campus of The University of the West Indies (UWI). A statistically significant correlation was observed among the basic science subjects. Additionally, a statistically significant prediction was found between the performances of the students in one discipline and the others, with Physiology being the most predicted...
2012: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
K S Woo, Thomas W C Yip, Ping Chook, S K Kwong, C C Szeto, June K Y Li, Alex W Y Yu, William K F Cheng, Thomas Y K Chan, K P Fung, P C Leung
Introduction. Hypertension in association with diabetes (DM), renal impairment (RI), and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. We hypothesize, traditional herbal medicines Danshen and Gegen (D&G) have beneficial effects on atherogenesis in these high-risk hypertensive subjects. Subjects and Methods. 90 asymptomatic hypertensive subjects associated with LVH (63.3%), DM (62.2%), or RI (30%) were randomized to receive D&G herbal capsules 1 gm/day, 2 gm/day, or identical placebo capsules in double-blind and parallel fashion for 12 months...
2013: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ankush Mittal, Satrudhan Pd Gupta, Brijesh Sathian, Jayadevan Sreedharan, Bibek Poudel, Shambhu Kumar Yadav, Dipendra Raj Pandeya
OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic value of AFP and des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) in combination and alone for hepatocellular carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case control study carried out in the Department of Biochemistry of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2011. The variables collected were age, gender, BMI, total proteins, albumin, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, DCP, AFP. Approval for the study was obtained from the institutional research ethical committee...
2012: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
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