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Combat ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736195/chest-ultrasonography-in-modern-day-extreme-settings-from-military-setting-and-natural-disasters-to-space-flights-and-extreme-sports
#1
REVIEW
Francesco Feletti, Viviana Mucci, Andrea Aliverti
Chest ultrasonography (CU) is a noninvasive imaging technique able to provide an immediate diagnosis of the underlying aetiology of acute respiratory failure and traumatic chest injuries. Given the great technologies, it is now possible to perform accurate CU in remote and adverse environments including the combat field, extreme sport settings, and environmental disasters, as well as during space missions. Today, the usage of CU in the extreme emergency setting is more likely to occur, as this technique proved to be a fast diagnostic tool to assist resuscitation manoeuvres and interventional procedures in many cases...
2018: Canadian Respiratory Journal: Journal of the Canadian Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613770/nanoenzyme-augmented-cancer-sonodynamic-therapy-by-catalytic-tumor-oxygenation
#2
Piao Zhu, Yu Chen, Jianlin Shi
Ultrasound (US)-triggered sonodynamic therapy (SDT) can solve the critical issue of low tissue-penetrating depth of traditional phototriggered therapies, but the SDT efficacy is still not satisfactorily high in combating cancer at the current stage. Here we report on augmenting the SDT efficacy based on catalytic nanomedicine, which takes the efficient catalytic features of nanoenzymes to modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME). The multifunctional nanosonosensitizers have been successfully constructed by the integration of a MnOx component with biocompatible/biodegradable hollow mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles, followed by conjugation with protoporphyrin (as the sonosensitizer) and cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic pentapeptide (as the targeting peptide)...
April 5, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563372/the-effect-of-ultrasound-assisted-debridement-combined-with-vacuum-pump-therapy-in-deep-sternal-wound-infections
#3
Lachmandath Tewarie, Nikolay Chernigov, Andreas Goetzenich, Ajay Moza, Rüdiger Autschbach, Rashad Zayat
PURPOSE: To assess whether a combined treatment of low-frequency (25 kHz) ultrasonic-debridement systems followed by vacuum-assisted wound closure (VAC) produces a better outcome in deep sternal wound infections (SWIs) compared to that of VAC alone. METHODS: We evaluated 45 consecutive patients (25 males) between January 2013 and December 2016, in whom deep SWI was treated with a combination of low-frequency ultrasonic debridement system followed by vacuum-assisted closure (group A, n = 23) or with only vacuum-assisted closure therapy (group B, n = 22)...
March 22, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548031/cross-sectional-area-of-the-achilles-tendon-in-a-cohort-of-elite-military-warriors-using-standard-ultrasound-techniques
#4
Kevin D Martin, Jeffrey Wake, Laura Dawson, J Preston Van Buren
Background: The prevalence of Achilles tendon (AT) pathology is common and can result in disability. Understanding normal AT properties can improve our ability to prevent AT injuries. We examined the cross-sectional area of the AT at multiple levels in an asymptomatic population of Army Rangers. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study composed of 41 voluntarily recruited United States Army Rangers deployed in a combat theater. All subjects were members of the Ranger Regiment participating in more than 20 h of intense bipedal non-sport weekly training with no history of AT pathology...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505406/receiver-operating-characteristic-analysis-of-eigen-based-clutter-filters-for-ultrasound-color-flow-imaging
#5
Adrian J Y Chee, Alfred C H Yu
The eigen-based filter has theoretically established itself as a potent solution in ultrasound color flow imaging (CFI) for combating against clutter arising from moving tissues. Yet, it remains poorly understood on how much gain in flow detection sensitivity and specificity can be delivered by this adaptive clutter filter. Here, we investigated the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) of the eigen-based clutter filter to statistically evaluate its efficacy. Our investigation was conducted using a new vascular phantom testbed that incorporated both intrinsic tissue motion (vessel pulsation: 7...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502527/expert-consensus-on-the-evaluation-and-diagnosis-of-combat-injuries-of-the-chinese-people-s-liberation-army
#6
Zhao-Wen Zong, Lian-Yang Zhang, Hao Qin, Si-Xu Chen, Lin Zhang, Lei Yang, Xiao-Xue Li, Quan-Wei Bao, Dao-Cheng Liu, Si-Hao He, Yue Shen, Rong Zhang, Yu-Feng Zhao, Xiao-Zheng Zhong
The accurate assessment and diagnosis of combat injuries are the basis for triage and treatment of combat casualties. A consensus on the assessment and diagnosis of combat injuries was made and discussed at the second annual meeting of the Professional Committee on Disaster Medicine of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA). In this consensus agreement, the massive hemorrhage, airway, respiration, circulation and hypothermia (MARCH) algorithm, which is a simple triage and rapid treatment and field triage score, was recommended to assess combat casualties during the first-aid stage, whereas the abbreviated scoring method for combat casualty and the MARCH algorithm were recommended to assess combat casualties in level II facilities...
February 13, 2018: Military Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498314/progress-on-utilizing-hyperthermia-for-mitigating-bacterial-infections
#7
Taylor Ibelli, Sarah Templeton, Nicole Levi-Polyachenko
Recovery from systemic or local bacterial infections can be lengthy and costly, with the clinical challenges being further complicated when bacteria acquire resistance to current antibiotics. Hyperthermia offers new mechanisms for removing bacteria via ablation, or sensitising them to chemical agents. The first part of this review provides a background on the bacterial biofilms, their response to hyperthermia, and acquired resistance to antibiotics, followed by the clinical challenges they present in managing infections associated with soft tissues and biomedical implants...
March 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353083/combining-ultrasound-and-intratumoral-administration-of-doxorubicin-loaded-microspheres-to-enhance-tumor-cell-killing
#8
Anh-Vu Do, Sean M Geary, Dongrim Seol, Philip Tobias, Daniel Carlsen, Nattawut Leelakanok, James A Martin, Aliasger K Salem
Melanoma is an incurable disease for which alternative treatments to chemotherapy alone are sought. Here, using a melanoma model, we investigated the antitumor potential of combining ultrasound (US) with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres loaded with doxorubicin (DOX). The aim was to achieve synergistic tumoricidal activity through direct and indirect US-mediated damage of tumor cells combined with sustained and potentially controllable release (when combined with US) of DOX from microspheres...
March 25, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351782/stakeholders-perspectives-on-facilitators-of-and-barriers-to-the-utilisation-of-and-access-to-maternal-health-services-in-eritrea-a-qualitative-study
#9
Chol Chol, Cynthia Hunter, Berhane Debru, Berhana Haile, Joel Negin, Robert G Cumming
BACKGROUND: Wars affect maternal health services by destroying health systems. Eritrea experienced two wars with neighbouring Ethiopia. Despite this, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Eritrea fell by 69% from 1590 per 100,000 live births in 1990 to 501 in 2015. This study aimed to examine facilitators of and barriers to the utilisation of and access to maternal health services in Eritrea. METHODS: Using in-depth interviews and field observations for data collection, this qualitative study was conducted in five healthcare facilities in Asmara, the capital of Eritrea, in February and March 2016...
January 19, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350361/evaluation-of-tourniquet-application-in-a-simulated-tactical-environment
#10
Tomasz Sanak, Robert Brzozowski, Marek Dabrowski, Magdalena Kozak, Agata Dabrowska, Maciej Sip, Katarzyna Naylor, Kamil Torres
BACKGROUND: Application of a tourniquet in a tactical environment is implemented in two ways: the so-called self-aid, which is the application of a tourniquet by the injured, and the so-called buddy aid, which is the application of a tourniquet by the person provide aid. This study aimed to test the quality of tourniquet use in a simulated situation, close quarter battle. METHODS: The study involved 24 injured operators and 72 operators in the whole simulation, implying 12 sections of six individuals...
January 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307034/emergency-department-imaging-of-pediatric-trauma-patients-during-combat-operations-in-iraq-and-afghanistan
#11
Jason F Naylor, Michael D April, Jamie L Roper, Guyon J Hill, Paul Clark, Steven G Schauer
BACKGROUND: Military hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan treated children with traumatic injuries during the recent conflicts. Diagnostic imaging is an integral component of trauma management; however, few published data exist on its use in the wartime pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: The authors describe the emergency department (ED) utilization of radiology resources for pediatric trauma patients in Iraq and Afghanistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We queried the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) for all pediatric patients admitted to military fixed-facility hospitals in Iraq and Afghanistan from January 2007 to January 2016...
January 6, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209530/teleconsultation-ultrasonography-a-new-weapon-to-combat-cholangiocarcinoma
#12
Nittaya Chamadol, Vallop Laopaiboon, Jiraporn Srinakarin, Watcharin Loilome, Puangrat Yongvanit, Bandit Thinkhamrop, Narong Khuntikeo
Although cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is usually a rare cancer, in northeast Thailand it kills 20 000 or more people every year. The prognosis is very poor owing to late stage diagnosis, with palliative treatment often representing the only option. In this area of predominantly rural Thailand, CCA is associated with infection with the liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini , which is classified as a group 1 carcinogen. Up to 6 million Thais are infected with this fluke. The Cholangiocarcinoma Screening and Care Program (CASCAP) was initiated in 2014 with the aim of detecting early stage CCA, allowing curative surgery, by using ultrasound (US) screening of prospectively 500 000 at risk individuals...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915951/male-contraception-prospects-for-sound-and-ultrasound
#13
Robert Sewak, Bettina Teng, Lee A Learman, Charles H Hennekens
The worldwide human population growth rate, which doubled during the 20th century, as well as the increasing fertility rate, have contributed to an increasing and evolving emphasis on contraception. With respect to female contraceptive methods, many have been developed, marketed, and are widely available. In contrast, male contraception has been limited to condoms, which pose logistical challenges, and vasectomy, which is largely irreversible. The use of sound to achieve effective and safe male contraception is a promising but unproven hypothesis...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817412/effect-of-physical-methods-of-lymphatic-drainage-on-postexercise-recovery-of-mixed-martial-arts-athletes
#14
Aleksandra Zebrowska, Robert Trybulski, Robert Roczniok, Wieslaw Marcol
OBJECTIVE: Physical methods are reported to be important for accelerating skeletal muscle regeneration, decreasing muscle soreness, and shortening of the recovery time. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the physical methods of lymphatic drainage (PMLD) such as manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), the Bodyflow (BF) therapy, and lymphatic drainage by deep oscillation (DO) on postexercise regeneration of the forearm muscles of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes. DESIGN AND METHODS: Eighty MMA athletes aged 27...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810992/two-new-effective-tourniquets-for-potential-use-in-the-military-environment-a-serving-soldier-study
#15
Alastair Beaven, Rob Briard, Mark Ballard, Paul Parker
BACKGROUND: Limb tourniquets have been used extensively during modern Middle Eastern conflicts. Despite its undeniable successes, the combat applied tourniquet (C-A-T) has some shortfalls, principally its inability to reliably control lower limb bleeding when applied to the mid-thigh. We tested two tourniquets which may represent an improvement to the combat applied tourniquet; the tactical mechanical tourniquet and the tactical pneumatic tourniquet. METHODS: We recruited 12 healthy service personnel and applied the tactical mechanical tourniquet and tactical pneumatic tourniquet to both lower limbs in a randomly generated sequence...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782570/nanomedicine-and-advanced-technologies-for-burns-preventing-infection-and-facilitating-wound-healing
#16
REVIEW
Mirza Ali Mofazzal Jahromi, Parham Sahandi Zangabad, Seyed Masoud Moosavi Basri, Keyvan Sahandi Zangabad, Ameneh Ghamarypour, Amir R Aref, Mahdi Karimi, Michael R Hamblin
According to the latest report from the World Health Organization, an estimated 265,000 deaths still occur every year as a direct result of burn injuries. A widespread range of these deaths induced by burn wound happens in low- and middle-income countries, where survivors face a lifetime of morbidity. Most of the deaths occur due to infections when a high percentage of the external regions of the body area is affected. Microbial nutrient availability, skin barrier disruption, and vascular supply destruction in burn injuries as well as systemic immunosuppression are important parameters that cause burns to be susceptible to infections...
January 1, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776612/overcoming-t-gondii-infection-and-intracellular-protein-nanocapsules-as-biomaterials-for-ultrasonically-controlled-drug-release
#17
REVIEW
M S Aw, L Paniwnyk
One of the pivotal matters of concern in intracellular drug delivery is the preparation of biomaterials containing drugs that are compatible with the host target. Nanocapsules for oral delivery are found to be suitable candidates for targeting Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), a maneuvering and smart protozoic parasite found across Europe and America that causes a subtle but deadly infection. To overcome this disease, there is much potential of integrating protein-based cells into bioinspired nanocompartments such as via biodegradable cross-linked disulfide polyelectrolyte nanoparticles...
September 26, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706360/osteoporosis-prevention-and-management
#18
Muralidhar V Pai
Osteoporosis, defined by BMD at the hip or lumbar spine that is less than or equal to 2.5 standard deviations below the mean BMD of a young-adult reference population, is the most common bone disease in humans affecting both sexes and all races. It's a silent killer affecting the quality of life due to fractures and postural changes. In osteoporosis there is an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption in favor of latter. Preventive measures and treatments are available to combat this evil. Counseling is the integral part of prevention as well as treatment of osteoporosis...
August 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466195/beneficial-neurocognitive-effects-of-transcranial-laser-in-older-adults
#19
Enrique Vargas, Douglas W Barrett, Celeste L Saucedo, Li-Da Huang, Jacob A Abraham, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley, F Gonzalez-Lima
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury)...
July 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366540/valproate-induced-hepatic-steatosis-by-enhanced-fatty-acid-uptake-and-triglyceride-synthesis
#20
Xupeng Bai, Weipeng Hong, Peiheng Cai, Yibei Chen, Chuncao Xu, Di Cao, Weibang Yu, Zhongxiang Zhao, Min Huang, Jing Jin
Steatosis is the characteristic type of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity and may result in life-threatening hepatic lesion. Approximately 61% of patients treated with VPA have been diagnosed with hepatic steatosis through ultrasound examination. However, the mechanisms underlying VPA-induced intracellular fat accumulation are not yet fully understood. Here we demonstrated the involvement of fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in VPA-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, western blotting analysis, fatty acid uptake assays, Nile Red staining assays, and Oil Red O staining assays...
June 1, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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