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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526065/malnutrition-and-poor-oral-health-status-are-major-risks-among-primary-school-children-at-lasbela-balochistan-pakistan
#1
Muhammad Ayaz Mustufa, Abdul Karim Jamali, Ifra Sameen, Fateh Muhammad Burfat, Mir Yousaf Baloch, Abdul Hameed Baloch, Ghulam Rasool Baloch, Shazia Kulsoom Lashari, Sobiya Mohiuddin Ayaz, Muhammad Younus Baloch
BACKGROUND: This survey was focusing on health and oral hygiene status of primary school children at Lasbela district considering the comparatively less developed and socio demographically deprived part of the Country. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the health status of primary school children in seven tehseels of district Lasbela, Balochistan after applying proportionate sampling technique from March 2015 to July 2015. Field teams visited assigned schools to screen children and collect health related data on predesigned and pre coded proforma...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525582/challenges-in-the-estimation-of-the-annual-risk-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-children-aged-under-5-years
#2
P Y Khan, J R Glynn, T Mzembe, D Mulawa, R Chiumya, A C Crampin, K Kranzer, K L Fielding
Accurate estimates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in young children provide a critical indicator of on-going community M.tb transmission. Cross reactions due to infection with environmental mycobacteria and/or Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination compromise the estimates derived from population-level tuberculin skin test surveys using traditional cut-off methods. Newer statistical approaches are prone to failure of model convergence, especially in settings where the prevalence of M.tb infection is low and environmental sensitisation is high...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522873/recombinant-bcg-expressing-ltak63-adjuvant-induces-superior-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
Ivan P Nascimento, Dunia Rodriguez, Carina C Santos, Eduardo P Amaral, Henrique K Rofatto, Ana P Junqueira-Kipnis, Eduardo D C Gonçalves, Maria R D'Império-Lima, Mario H Hirata, Celio L Silva, Nathalie Winter, Brigitte Gicquel, Kingston H G Mills, Mariagrazia Pizza, Rino Rappuoli, Luciana C C Leite
In order to develop an improved BCG vaccine against tuberculosis we have taken advantage of the adjuvant properties of a non-toxic derivative of Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT), LTAK63. We have constructed rBCG strains expressing LTAK63 at different expression levels. Mice immunized with BCG expressing low levels of LTAK63 (rBCG-LTAK63lo) showed higher Th1 cytokines and IL-17 in the lungs, and when challenged intratracheally with Mycobacterium tuberculosis displayed a 2.0-3.0 log reduction in CFU as compared to wild type BCG...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516082/multifocal-recurrent-osteomyelitis-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-a-boy-with-partial-dominant-ifn-%C3%AE-r1-deficiency-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Aidé Tamara Staines-Boone, Caroline Deswarte, Edna Venegas Montoya, Luz María Sánchez-Sánchez, Jorge Alberto García Campos, Teodoro Muñiz-Ronquillo, Jacinta Bustamante, Francisco J Espinosa-Rosales, Saul Oswaldo Lugo Reyes
Mutations in the genes coding for cytokines, receptors, second messengers, and transcription factors of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) immunity cause Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). We report the case of a 7-year-old male patient with partial dominant (PD) IFN-γ receptor 1 deficiency who had suffered from multifocal osteomyelitis attributable to bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination since the age of 18 months. He developed hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), a hyper-inflammatory complication, and died with multiorgan dysfunction, despite having been diagnosed and treated relatively early...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515626/the-history-of-tuberculosis-from-the-first-historical-records-to-the-isolation-of-koch-s-bacillus
#5
REVIEW
I Barberis, N L Bragazzi, L Galluzzo, M Martini
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious, infectious disease, due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) that has always been a permanent challenge over the course of human history, because of its severe social implications. It has been hypothesized that the genus Mycobacterium originated more than 150 million years ago. In the Middle Ages, scrofula, a disease affecting cervical lymph nodes, was described as a new clinical form of TB. The illness was known in England and France as "king's evil", and it was widely believed that persons affected could heal after a royal touch...
March 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502122/humanized-nog-mice-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis-vaccine-induced-immunity-a-comparative-analysis-with-the-mouse-and-guinea-pig-models-of-tuberculosis
#6
Ajay Grover, Amber Troy, Jenny Rowe, JoLynn M Troudt, Elizabeth Creissen, Jennifer McLean, Prabal Banerjee, Gerold Feuer, Angelo A Izzo
The humanized mouse model has been developed as a model to identify and characterize human immune responses to human pathogens and has been used to better identify vaccine candidates. In the current studies, the humanized mouse was used to determine the ability of a vaccine to affect the immune response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Both human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells responded to infection in humanized mice as a result of infection. In humanized mice vaccinated with either BCG or with CpG-C, a liposome-based formulation containing the M...
May 14, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498853/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-inactivated-whole-cell-tuberculosis-vaccine-booster-in-adults-primed-with-bcg-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-dar-901
#7
C Fordham von Reyn, Timothy Lahey, Robert D Arbeit, Bernard Landry, Leway Kailani, Lisa V Adams, Brenda C Haynes, Todd Mackenzie, Wendy Wieland-Alter, Ruth I Connor, Sue Tvaroha, David A Hokey, Ann M Ginsberg, Richard Waddell
BACKGROUND: Development of a tuberculosis vaccine to boost BCG is a major international health priority. SRL172, an inactivated whole cell booster derived from a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, is the only new vaccine against tuberculosis to have demonstrated efficacy in a Phase 3 trial. In the present study we sought to determine if a three-dose series of DAR-901 manufactured from the SRL172 master cell bank by a new, scalable method was safe and immunogenic. METHODS: We performed a single site, randomized, double-blind, controlled, Phase 1 dose escalation trial of DAR-901 at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in the United States...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498302/reaction-of-the-bcg-scar-in-the-acute-phase-of-kawasaki-disease-in-mexican-children
#8
Luis Martín Garrido-García, Ariel Castillo-Moguel, Mirell Vázquez-Rivera, Patricia Cravioto, Galván Fernando
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease is an acute self-limited systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children < 5 years old. There is no specific diagnostic test. A reaction at the Bacille Calmette-Guérin inoculation site has been reported as a common finding in patients with Kawasaki disease where BCG vaccination is mandatory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of reactivation of the BCG in Mexican children diagnosed with Kawasaki disease. METHODS: A retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with Kawasaki disease from August 1 1995 to August 31 2015 at our Institution was performed...
May 11, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479800/factors-determining-the-clinical-spectrum-course-and-response-to-treatment-and-complications-in-seronegative-patients-with-central-nervous-system-tuberculosis
#9
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Sikandar Advani, Ravi Kumar, Chandrajith Prasad, Anupama R Pai
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculous meningitis remains a major health issue in the community affecting young adults of both genders predominantly from rural background. In India, the disease continues to kill 2 people every 3 min or nearly 1000 daily, according to the Tuberculosis Control Society India. Tuberculosis (TB) of central nervous system (CNS) is the most devastating form of TB. As this disease is associated with very high prevalence in young adults and will ultimately contribute to great workforce loss, we decided to assess the factors deciding the disease and its course in our patients...
April 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479621/increased-immunization-coverage-addresses-the-equity-gap-in-nepal
#10
Ashish Kc, Viktoria Nelin, Hendrikus Raaijmakers, Hyung Joon Kim, Chahana Singh, Mats Målqvist
OBJECTIVE: To compare immunization coverage and equity distribution of coverage between 2001 and 2014 in Nepal. METHODS: We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 2001, 2006 and 2011 together with data from the 2014 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We calculated the proportion, in mean percentage, of children who had received bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, three doses of polio vaccine, three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine and measles vaccine...
April 1, 2017: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479178/needle-adapters-for-intradermal-administration-of-fractional-dose-of-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-evaluation-of-immunogenicity-and-programmatic-feasibility-in-pakistan
#11
Ali Faisal Saleem, Ondrej Mach, Mohammad T Yousafzai, Asia Khan, William C Weldon, M Steven Oberste, Roland W Sutter, Anita K M Zaidi
Administration of 1/5th dose of Inactivated poliovirus vaccine intradermally (fIPV) provides similar immune response as full-dose intramuscular IPV, however, fIPV administration with BCG needle and syringe (BCG NS) is technically difficult. We compared immune response after one fIPV dose administered with BCG NS to administration with intradermal devices, referred to as Device A and B; and assessed feasibility of conducting a door-to-door vaccination campaign with fIPV. In Phase I, 452 children 6-12months old from Karachi were randomized to receive one fIPV dose either with BCG NS, Device A or Device B in a health facility...
May 31, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476627/-the-impact-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-immune-evasion-on-protective-immunity-implications-for-tb-vaccine-design-meeting-report
#12
Cesar Boggiano, Katrin Eichelberg, Lakshmi Ramachandra, Jaqueline Shea, Lalita Ramakrishnan, Samuel Behar, Joel D Ernst, Steven A Porcelli, Markus Maeurer, Hardy Kornfeld
Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death from infectious diseases around the world, particularly in HIV infected individuals. TB vaccine design and development have been focused on improving Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and evaluating recombinant and viral vector expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) proteins, for boosting BCG-primed immunity, but these approaches have not yet yielded significant improvements over the modest effects of BCG in protecting against infection or disease. On March 7-8, 2016, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened a workshop on "The Impact of Mtb Immune Evasion on Protective Immunity: Implications for TB Vaccine Design" with the goal of defining immune mechanisms that could be targeted through novel research approaches, to inform vaccine design and immune therapeutic interventions for prevention of TB...
May 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476145/disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-infections-in-infants-with-immunodeficiency
#13
Suleiman Al-Hammadi, Ahmed R Alsuwaidi, Eman T Alshamsi, Ghassan A Ghatasheh, Abdul-Kader Souid
BACKGROUND: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) preparations are live-attenuated derivatives of Mycobacterium bovis. These products are used to vaccinate infants at birth, a practice that may result in a disseminated infection in those patients who have an unidentified immunodeficiency. CASE PRESENTATION: Patients who were immunized at birth with BCG and who developed a disseminated infection are reported here to emphasize the importance of taking an extensive medical history before ‎giving the BCG vaccine...
May 5, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472373/association-between-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-and-childhood-asthma-in-the-qu%C3%A3-bec-birth-cohort-on-immunity-and-health
#14
Mariam El-Zein, Florence Conus, Andrea Benedetti, Dick Menzies, Marie-Elise Parent, Marie-Claude Rousseau
We estimated the association between Bacillus-Calmette Guérin (BCG) vaccination and childhood asthma in a birth cohort using administrative databases, and determined the impact of adjusting for potential confounders collected from a subset of subjects. Multiple data sources were used: 1) administrative data for 76,623 subjects (stage 1) in the Québec Birth Cohort on Immunity and Health (1974-1994) including BCG vaccination, perinatal and sociodemographic characteristics, and use of health services for asthma; and 2) self-reported asthma risk factors collected in 2012 by telephone interviews with 1,643 subjects (stage 2) using a balanced two-stage sampling design...
May 4, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472067/the-effect-of-current-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-on-the-immunogenicity-of-a-candidate-tb-vaccine-mva85a-in-bcg-vaccinated-adolescents-an-open-label-trial
#15
Anne Wajja, Dennison Kizito, Beatrice Nassanga, Angela Nalwoga, Joyce Kabagenyi, Simon Kimuda, Ronald Galiwango, Gertrude Mutonyi, Samantha Vermaak, Iman Satti, Jaco Verweij, Edridah Tukahebwa, Stephen Cose, Jonathan Levin, Pontiano Kaleebu, Alison M Elliott, Helen McShane
INTRODUCTION: Helminth infection may affect vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. Adolescents, a target population for tuberculosis booster vaccines, often have a high helminth burden. We investigated effects of Schistosoma mansoni (Sm) on the immunogenicity and safety of MVA85A, a model candidate tuberculosis vaccine, in BCG-vaccinated Ugandan adolescents. METHODS: In this phase II open label trial we enrolled 36 healthy, previously BCG-vaccinated adolescents, 18 with no helminth infection detected, 18 with Sm only...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467415/interruption-of-persistent-exposure-to-leprosy-combined-or-not-with-recent-bcg-vaccination-enhances-the-response-to-mycobacterium-leprae-specific-antigens
#16
Fernanda Marques de Carvalho, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Duppre, Iris Maria Peixoto Alvim, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Roberta Olmo Pinheiro, Euzenir Nunes Sarno, Maria Cristina Vidal Pessolani, Geraldo Moura Batista Pereira
Household contacts of multibacillary leprosy patients (HCMB) constitute the group of individuals at the highest risk of developing leprosy. Early diagnosis and treatment of their index cases combined with Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) immunization remain important strategies adopted in Brazil to prevent HCMB from evolving into active disease. In the present study, we assessed the impact of these measures on the immune response to Mycobacterium leprae in HCMB. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HCMB (n = 16) were obtained at the beginning of leprosy index case treatment (T0)...
May 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463648/a-functional-tollip-variant-is-associated-with-bcg-specific-immune-responses-and-tuberculosis
#17
Javeed A Shah, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Muki Shey, David J Horne, Richard D Wells, Glenna J Peterson, Jeffery S Cox, Michelle Daya, Eileen G Hoal, Lin Lin, Raphael Gottardo, Willem A Hanekom, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: The molecular mechanisms that regulate tuberculosis susceptibility and BCG-induced immunity are mostly unknown. However, induction of the adaptive immune response is a critical step in host control of M. tuberculosis. TOLLIP is a ubiquitin-binding protein that regulates innate immune responses, including TLR signaling, which initiate adaptive immunity. TOLLIP variation is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, but the mechanism by which it regulates tuberculosis immunity is poorly understood...
May 2, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454649/variable-bcg-efficacy-in-rhesus-populations-pulmonary-bcg-provides-protection-where-standard-intra-dermal-vaccination-fails
#18
Frank A W Verreck, Elma Z Tchilian, Richard A W Vervenne, Claudia C Sombroek, Ivanela Kondova, Okke A Eissen, Vinod Sommandas, Nicole M van der Werff, Ernst Verschoor, Gerco Braskamp, Jaco Bakker, Jan A M Langermans, Peter J Heidt, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Klaas W van Kralingen, Alan W Thomas, Peter C L Beverley, Clemens H M Kocken
M.bovis BCG vaccination against tuberculosis (TB) notoriously displays variable protective efficacy in different human populations. In non-human primate studies using rhesus macaques, despite efforts to standardise the model, we have also observed variable efficacy of BCG upon subsequent experimental M. tuberculosis challenge. In the present head-to-head study, we establish that the protective efficacy of standard parenteral BCG immunisation varies among different rhesus cohorts. This provides different dynamic ranges for evaluation of investigational vaccines, opportunities for identifying possible correlates of protective immunity and for determining why parenteral BCG immunisation sometimes fails...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454648/the-siglec14-null-allele-is-associated-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-bcg-induced-clinical-and-immunologic-outcomes
#19
Andrew D Graustein, David J Horne, Jerry J Fong, Flavio Schwarz, Heather C Mefford, Glenna J Peterson, Richard D Wells, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Muki Shey, Willem A Hanekom, Mark Hatherill, Thomas J Scriba, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Duc Bang, Sarah J Dunstan, Guy E Thwaites, Ajit Varki, Takashi Angata, Thomas R Hawn
Humans exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) have variable susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) and its outcomes. Siglec-5 and Siglec-14 are members of the sialic-acid binding lectin family that regulate immune responses to pathogens through inhibitory (Siglec-5) and activating (Siglec-14) domains. The SIGLEC14 coding sequence is deleted in a high proportion of individuals, placing a SIGLEC5-like gene under the expression of the SIGLEC14 promoter (the SIGLEC14 null allele) and causing expression of a Siglec-5 like protein in monocytes and macrophages...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454644/genetic-diversity-of-immune-related-antigens-in-region-of-difference-2-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains
#20
Yi Jiang, Haican Liu, Xuezhi Wang, Shiqi Xiao, Machao Li, Guilian Li, Lili Zhao, Xiuqin Zhao, Xiangfeng Dou, Kanglin Wan
Region of Difference 2 (RD2) was lost during the ongoing propagation of BCG between 1927 and 1931, a time that coincides with reports of the ongoing attenuation of the vaccine. Some data demonstrate that RD2 plays a role in mycobacterial virulence, and that its deletion from Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to a decrease in bacterial growth in both a macrophage and a murine model. Human T-cell epitopes of M. tuberculosis are evolutionarily hyperconserved and thus it was deduced that M. tuberculosis lacks antigenic variation and immune evasion...
May 2017: Tuberculosis
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