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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443102/expression-of-exogenous-antigens-in-the-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-vaccine-via-non-genetic-surface-decoration-with-the-avidin-biotin-system
#1
Ting-Yu Angela Liao, Alice Lau, Joseph Sunil, Vesa Hytönen, Zakaria Hmama
Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious infectious disease and the only available vaccine M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is safe and effective for protection against children's severe TB meningitis and some forms of disseminated TB, but fails to protect against pulmonary TB, which is the most prevalent form of the disease. Promising strategies to improve BCG currently rely either on its transformation with genes encoding immunodominant M. tuberculosis (Mtb)-specific antigens and/or complementation with genes encoding co-factors that would stimulate antigen presenting cells...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442397/tuberculin-skin-test-versus-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-refugee-children-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Chris Elliot, Ben Marais, Phoebe Williams, Paul Joshua, Sherri Towle, Graham Hart, Karen Zwi
AIM: The aim of this study was to assist clinicians evaluating refugee children for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) by comparing paired tuberculin skin test (TST) and Quantiferon Gold In-Tube (QGIT) test results with clinical management decisions and follow-up data in a large cohort of newly arrived refugee children. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of all refugee children (<15 years of age) evaluated for LTBI with both TST and interferon-γ release assay between 2007 and 2010 in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of New South Wales, Australia...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439702/bcg-vaccination-in-southern-rural-mozambique-an-overview-of-coverage-and-its-determinants-based-on-data-from-the-demographic-and-health-surveillance-system-in-the-district-of-manhi%C3%A3-a
#3
Elena Marbán-Castro, Charfudin Sacoor, Ariel Nhacolo, Orvalho Augusto, Edgar Jamisse, Elisa López-Varela, Aina Casellas, John J Aponte, Quique Bassat, Betuel Sigauque, Eusebio Macete, Alberto L Garcia-Basteiro
BACKGROUND: Over the past four decades, the World Health Organization established the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) to foster universal access to all relevant vaccines for all children at risk. The success of this program has been undeniable, but requires periodic monitoring to ensure that coverage rates remain high. The aim of this study was to measure the BCG vaccination coverage in Manhiça district, a high TB burden rural area of Southern Mozambique and to investigate factors that may be associated with BCG vaccination...
February 13, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432385/economic-evaluation-of-selective-neonatal-bcg-vaccination-of-high-risk-infants-in-ireland
#4
Conor Teljeur, Patrick S Moran, Patricia Harrington, Karina Butler, Brenda Corcoran, Joan O'Donnell, Cara Usher, Darina O'Flanagan, Kevin Connolly, Máirín Ryan
BACKGROUND: In Western Europe, currently only Ireland and Portugal continue to provide universal neonatal BCG vaccination programmes, despite not being considered as high TB incidence countries. Other European countries only vaccinate infants considered at high risk of contracting TB. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of selective BCG vaccination compared to strategies of universal and no vaccination. METHODS: An economic model was used to simulate a cohort from birth to life expectancy, taking the perspective of the publicly-funded healthcare system...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432383/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-seven-dosing-regimens-of-the-candidate-rts-s-as01e-malaria-vaccine-integrated-within-an-expanded-program-on-immunization-regimen-a-phase-ii-single-center-open-controlled-trial-in-infants-in-malawi
#5
Desiree Witte, Nigel A Cunliffe, Ann M Turner, Edward Ngulube, Opokua Ofori-Anyinam, Johan Vekemans, Philips Chimpeni, Marc Lievens, Trevor P Wilson, Jenala Njiramʼmadzi, Yolanda Guerra Mendoza, Amanda Leach
BACKGROUND: In a phase III trial, the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine produced lower anti-circumsporozoite (CS) antibody titres when co-administered with Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccines (0,1,2-month schedule) at 6-12 weeks compared to 5-17 months at first vaccination. Alternative infant immunisation schedules within the EPI were investigated. METHODS: This phase II, open, single site (Blantyre, Malawi) trial was conducted in infants aged 1-7 days. Subjects were equally randomised across seven groups to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01E at time points that included ≤7 days, 6, 10, 14, 26 weeks, and 9 months...
February 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429814/vaccination-timeliness-and-co-administration-among-kenyan-children
#6
Nina B Masters, Abram L Wagner, Bradley F Carlson, Matthew L Boulton
BACKGROUND: Timely administration of recommended vaccines requires children to have multiple vaccines co-administered in the first year of life. The objectives of this study were to estimate the proportion of timely vaccinations and the proportion of co-administered vaccines, and to assess the relationship between vaccine co-administration and vaccine timeliness in Kenyan children. METHODS: Using the 2014 Kenyan Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), we calculated the proportion of children who received co-administered and timely vaccine doses...
February 8, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427966/do-higher-cut-off-values-for-tuberculin-skin-test-increase-the-specificity-and-diagnostic-agreement-with-interferon-gamma-release-assays-in-immunocompromised-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccinated-patients
#7
Serhat Erol, Fatma Arslan Ciftci, Aydin Ciledag, Akin Kaya, Ozlem Ozdemir Kumbasar
PURPOSE: Immunocompromised patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are at high risk of progression to active tuberculosis. Detection and treatment of LTBI in this group of patients are very important to control active tuberculosis. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are two methods for detection of LTBI. Diagnostic agreement between two tests are poor especially in Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated immunocompromised patients. In this study, we tried to figure out if the use of a higher cut-off for TST increases diagnostic agreement with IGRAs and TST specificity and or not...
February 7, 2018: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426597/determinants-of-tuberculosis-trends-in-six-indigenous-populations-of-the-usa-canada-and-greenland-from-1960-to-2014-a-population-based-study
#8
Kianoush Dehghani, Zhiyi Lan, Peizhi Li, Sascha Wilk Michelsen, Sean Waites, Andrea Benedetti, Pierre Lejeune, Jill Torrie, Elizabeth Robinson, Berenica Vejvoda, Muhammad Mullah, Diana Redwood, Michael Cooper, Anne Fanning, Wadieh Yacoub, Gonzalo G Alvarez, Bolette Søborg, Richard Long, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis continues to disproportionately affect many Indigenous populations in the USA, Canada, and Greenland. We aimed to investigate whether population-based tuberculosis-specific interventions or changes in general health and socioeconomic indicators, or a combination of these factors, were associated with changes in tuberculosis incidence in these Indigenous populations. METHODS: For this population-based study we examined annual tuberculosis notification rates between 1960 and 2014 in six Indigenous populations of the USA, Canada, and Greenland (Inuit [Greenland], American Indian and Alaska Native [Alaska, USA], First Nations [Alberta, Canada], Cree of Eeyou Istchee [Quebec, Canada], Inuit of Nunavik [Quebec, Canada], and Inuit of Nunavut [Canada]), as well as the general population of Canada...
February 6, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421667/socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-full-childhood-vaccination-in-bangladesh-2014
#9
Matthew L Boulton, Bradley F Carlson, Laura E Power, Abram L Wagner
OBJECTIVES: Childhood vaccination in Bangladesh has improved, but there is room for improvement. We estimate full immunization coverage in Bangladeshi children and characterize risk factors for incomplete immunization. METHODS: Using the 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), we examined full vaccination of children aged 12 to 24 months, defined as receipt of one dose of BCG, three doses of Pentavalent, three doses of OPV, and one dose of MCV. Associations between full vaccination and select risk factors were assessed with logistic regression...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416539/adjuvant-effect-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-on-hepatitis-b-vaccine-immunogenicity-in-the-preterm-and-term-newborn
#10
Annette Scheid, Francesco Borriello, Carlo Pietrasanta, Helen Christou, Joann Diray-Arce, Matthew A Pettengill, Sweta Joshi, Ning Li, Ilana Bergelson, Tobias Kollmann, David J Dowling, Ofer Levy
Immunization is key to protecting term and preterm infants from a heightened risk of infection. However, preterm immunity is distinct from that of the term, limiting its ability to effectively respond to vaccines routinely given at birth, such as hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). As part of the Expanded Program on Immunization, HBV is often given together with the live-attenuated vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), known to activate multiple pattern-recognition receptors. Of note, some clinical studies suggest BCG can enhance efficacy of other vaccines in term newborns...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415180/neonatal-bcg-vaccination-influences-cytokine-responses-to-toll-like-receptor-ligands-and-heterologous-antigens
#11
B Freyne, S Donath, S Germano, K Gardiner, D Casalaz, R M Robins-Browne, N Amenyogbe, N L Messina, M G Netea, K L Flanagan, T Kollmann, N Curtis
Background: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is associated with a reduction in all-cause infant mortality in high-mortality settings. The underlying mechanisms remain uncertain but long-term modulation of the innate immune response (trained immunity) may be involved. Methods: Whole blood, collected 7 days post randomisation from 212 neonates enrolled in a randomised trial of neonatal BCG vaccination, was stimulated with killed pathogens and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to interrogate cytokine responses...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404180/evaluation-of-treatment-indications-tuberculin-skin-test-and-bacillus-calmette-guerin-vaccination-scars-in-the-cases-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-treatment
#12
Beyhan Çakar
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment application and to investigate if there is change between tuberculin skin test (TST) results according to bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) scar numbers after LTBI treatment with isoniazid (INH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from the LTBI treatment files from the dispensary of 2006. The results were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: Latent tuberculosis infection was administered to 253 cases in 2006...
January 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394352/cyclic-di-amp-mediated-interaction-between-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-%C3%AE-cnpb-and-macrophages-implicates-a-novel-strategy-for-improving-bcg-vaccination
#13
Yang Zhang, Jun Yang, Guangchun Bai
Cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) has been shown to play an important role in bacterial physiology and pathogen-host interactions. We previously reported that deletion of the sole c-di-AMP phosphodiesterase-encoding gene (cnpB) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) led to significant virulence attenuation. In this study, we found that ΔcnpB of M. bovis BCG (BCG) was unable to secrete c-di-AMP, which differs from Mtb ΔcnpB. We infected bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) with c-di-AMP-associated mutants generated from both Mtb and BCG...
January 31, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392992/immunisation-rates-among-children-in-nuuk
#14
Nadja Albertsen, Ivalu Meincke Fencker, Heidi Egede Noasen, Michael Lynge Pedersen
The children immunisation programme in Greenland correlates to the one in Denmark with the addition of the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccine and the immunisation against Hepatitis B (HBV). The immunisation rate among children in Greenland has been and is currently unknown and this study aims to estimate the immunisation rates among children in Nuuk from 1 July 2015 until 30 June 2016. We did an observational cross-sectional study based on a statistical extraction identifying all children in Nuuk eligible for an immunization in the children immunisation programme from 1 July 2015 until 30 June 2016 and a review of their medical records...
December 2018: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384896/a-25-year-surveillance-of-disseminated-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-disease-treatment-in-children-in-southern-iran
#15
Ali Amanati, Gholamreza Pouladfar, Mohammad Rahim Kadivar, Anahita Sanaei Dashti, Zahra Jafarpour, Sezaneh Haghpanah, Abdolvahab Alborzi
Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) disease is one of the most serious complications of BCG vaccination, mainly among immunocompromised children with high morbidity and mortality.Currently, there is no any consensus with regard to the standard regimen of antituberculosis (anti-TB) agents and duration of treatment in healthy or immunocompromised host in children. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of various combination treatment strategies for disseminated BCG disease in children.In this cross-sectional study, the outcome of 3 different combination protocols was investigated in 59 patients...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369380/mothers-informational-needs-when-deciding-to-have-their-newborn-infant-vaccinated-with-bcg-a-mixed-methods-design
#16
Gitte Thybo Pihl, Jette Ammentorp, Helle Johannessen, Jesper Kjaergaard, Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Nina Marie Birk, Lone Graff Stensballe, Lisbeth Marianne Thøstesen, Poul-Erik Kofoed
OBJECTIVE: To explore the informational needs of mothers with different levels of education in order to improve counselling about vaccination. METHODS: In the setting of a large vaccination trial, mothers' assessments and yield of written information in combination with telephone consultations were evaluated in a survey. Furthermore, searching strategies for additional information were investigated. Mothers' perspectives on informational needs were explored in focus group discussions...
January 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364534/italian-multicentre-study-found-infectious-and-vaccine-preventable-diseases-in-children-adopted-from-africa-and-recommends-prompt-medical-screening
#17
Elena Chiappini, Mauro Zaffaroni, Martina Bianconi, Giuseppina Veneruso, Nicolino Grasso, Silvia Garazzino, Rosangela Arancio, Piero Valentini, Anna Ficcadenti, Maria Rosalia Da Riol, Simona La Placa, Luisa Galli, Maurizio de Martino, Gianni Bona
AIM: This study evaluated the prevalence of infectious diseases and immunisation status of children adopted from Africa METHODS: We studied 762 African children referred to 11 Italian paediatric centres in 2009-2015. Clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively collected and analysed. RESULTS: The median age of the children (60.3% males) was 3.6 years, 52.6% came from Ethiopia and 50.1% had at least one infectious disease. Parasitic infections accounted for the majority of the infectious diseases (409/715) and the most common were Giardia lamblia (n=239), Toxocara canis (n=65) and skin infections (n=205), notably Tinea capitis/corporis (n=134) and Molluscum contagiosum (n=56) Active tuberculosis (TB) was diagnosed in nine children (1...
January 24, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363172/bcg-vaccination-drives-accumulation-and-effector-function-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-murine-lungs
#18
Pia Steigler, Naomi J Daniels, Tim R McCulloch, Brin M Ryder, Sarah K Sandford, Joanna R Kirman
The tuberculosis (TB) vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prevents disseminated childhood TB, however fails to protect against the more prevalent pulmonary TB. Limited understanding of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, has hindered development of improved vaccines. Although memory CD4 T cells are considered the main mediators of protection against TB, recent studies suggest there are other key subsets that contribute to anti-mycobacterial immunity. To that end, innate cells may be involved in the protective response...
January 9, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354397/development-of-a-new-approach-to-determine-the-potency-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccines-using-flow-cytometry
#19
Eunjeong Gweon, Chanwoong Choi, Jaeok Kim, Byungkuk Kim, Hyunkyung Kang, Taejun Park, Sangja Ban, Minseok Bae, Sangjin Park, Jayoung Jeong
Objectives: To circumvent the limitations of the current golden standard method, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, for viability of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines, we developed a new method to rapidly and accurately determine the potency of BCG vaccines. Methods: Based on flow cytometry (FACS) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) as the most appropriate fluorescent staining reagent, 17 lots of BCG vaccines for percutaneous administration and 5 lots of BCG vaccines for intradermal administration were analyzed in this study...
December 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346255/safety-of-bcg-vaccination-in-pediatric-liver-transplant-recipients
#20
Noriko Kinoshita, Kensuke Shoji, Takanori Funaki, Akinari Fukuda, Seisuke Sakamoto, Mureo Kasahara, Isao Miyairi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Transplantation
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