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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333945/environmental-reservoirs-of-pathogenic-mycobacteria-across-the-ethiopian-biogeographical-landscape
#1
Hayley C King, Tanya Khera-Butler, Phillip James, Brian B Oakley, Girume Erenso, Abraham Aseffa, Rob Knight, Elizabeth M Wellington, Orin Courtenay
The Mycobacterium genus comprises over one-hundred-and-fifty recognised species, the majority of which reside in the environment and many of which can be pathogenic to mammals. Some species of environmental mycobacteria may interfere with BCG vaccination efficacy and in tuberculin test interpretation. Examining biogeographic trends in the distribution of members of the mycobacteria across a number of physicochemical and spatial gradients in soil and water environments across Ethiopia using oligotyping identified differential distributions of pathogenic and significant species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331078/tuberculin-skin-testing-boosts-interferon-gamma-responses-to-diva-reagents-in-mycobacterium-bovis-infected-cattle
#2
Gareth J Jones, Mick Coad, Bhagwati Khatri, Javier Bezos, Natalie A Parlane, Bryce M Buddle, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos, R Glyn Hewinson, H Martin Vordermeier
BCG vaccination sensitises cattle to bovine tuberculin which compromises the use of the current bovine TB surveillance tests. Although the performance of a blood test (that utilises antigens expressed by Mycobacterium bovis but not by BCG) capable of discriminating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA interferon-gamma test, DIT) has been evaluated in naturally infected TB field reactors, there is a need to perform similar analysis in a BCG vaccinated/M. bovis infected population. Furthermore, we explored different scenarios under which a DIT may be implemented alongside BCG vaccination: (i) serial testing to resolve potential false positive skin test results; or (ii) standalone test to replace the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin skin test (SICCT)...
March 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329234/revaccination-of-guinea-pigs-with-the-live-attenuated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-vaccine-mtbvac-improves-bcg-s-protection-against-tuberculosis
#3
Simon Clark, Faye Lanni, Dessislava Marinova, Emma Rayner, Carlos Martin, Ann Williams
Background.: The need for an effective vaccine against human tuberculosis has driven the development of different candidates and vaccination strategies. Novel live attenuated vaccines are being developed that promise greater safety and efficacy than BCG against tuberculosis. We combined BCG with the vaccine MTBVAC to evaluate whether the efficacy of either vaccine would be affected upon revaccination. Methods.: In a well-established guinea pig model of aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, BCG and MTBVAC delivered via various prime-boost combinations or alone were compared...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318770/expression-of-cathepsin-s-in-bcg-converts-it-into-a-pro-apoptotic-and-highly-immunogenic-strain
#4
Alice Lau, Vijender Singh, Hafid Soualhine, Zakaria Hmama
BACKGROUND: BCG vaccine, introduced almost 100years ago, is the only option to prevent TB disease. It effectively protects newborns from meningeal TB but fails to prevent adult pulmonary TB. TB kills 1.3million people annually in areas where BCG vaccination is widely practiced. Thus, more effective TB vaccines are urgently needed. Others and we have shown that BCG mimics features of virulent M. tuberculosis, in particular attenuation of essential macrophage functions such as phagosome maturation and antigen presentation...
March 16, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318766/bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-vaccination-at-birth-and-antibody-responses-to-childhood-vaccines-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#5
Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Nina Marie Birk, Gaby Smits, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen, Lone Graff Stensballe, Mihai G Netea, Fiona van der Klis, Christine Stabell Benn, Ole Pryds
INTRODUCTION: BCG vaccination has been associated with beneficial non-specific effects on child health. Some immunological studies have reported heterologous effects of vaccines on antibody responses to heterologous vaccines. Within a randomised clinical trial of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth, The Danish Calmette Study, we investigated the effect of BCG at birth on the antibody response to the three routine vaccines against DiTeKiPol/Act-Hib and Prevenar 13 in a subgroup of participants...
March 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314076/lactococcus-lactis-carrying-a-dna-vaccine-coding-for-the-esat-6-antigen-increases-il-17-cytokine-secretion-and-boosts-the-bcg-vaccine-immune-response
#6
Vanessa Bastos Pereira, Vanessa Pecini da Cunha, Tatiane Melo Preisser, Bianca Mendes Souza, Meritxell Zurita Turk, Camila Prósperi De Castro, Marcela Santiago Pacheco Azevedo, Anderson Miyoshi
AIMS: A regimen utilizing BCG and another vaccine system as a booster may represent a promising strategy for the development of an efficient tuberculosis vaccine for adults. In a previous work, we confirmed the ability of Lactococcus lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:ESAT-6), a live mucosal DNA vaccine, to produce a specific immune response in mice after oral immunization. In the present study, we examined the immunogenicity of this strain as a booster for the BCG vaccine in mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: After immunization, cytokine and immunoglobulin profiles were measured...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297677/recombinant-bcg-expressing-esx-1-of-mycobacterium-marinum-combines-low-virulence-with-cytosolic-immune-signaling-and-improved-tb-protection
#7
Matthias I Gröschel, Fadel Sayes, Sung Jae Shin, Wafa Frigui, Alexandre Pawlik, Mickael Orgeur, Robin Canetti, Nadine Honoré, Roxane Simeone, Tjip S van der Werf, Wilbert Bitter, Sang-Nae Cho, Laleh Majlessi, Roland Brosch
Recent insights into the mechanisms by which Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiologic agent of human tuberculosis, is recognized by cytosolic nucleotide sensors have opened new avenues for rational vaccine design. The only licensed anti-tuberculosis vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, provides limited protection. A feature of BCG is the partial deletion of the ESX-1 type VII secretion system, which governs phagosomal rupture and cytosolic pattern recognition, key intracellular phenotypes linked to increased immune signaling...
March 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293387/cfp10-mfc%C3%AE-2-as-a-novel-tuberculosis-vaccine-candidate-increases-immune-response-in-mouse
#8
Ali Asghar Baghani, Saman Soleimanpour, Hadi Farsiani, Arman Mosavat, Masoud Yousefi, Zahra Meshkat, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Saeid Amel Jamehdar, Mohammad Reza Akbari Eydgahi, Hamid Sadeghian, Kiarash Ghazvini
OBJECTIVES: Despite treatment with antibiotics and vaccination with BCG, tuberculosis (TB) is still considered as one of the most important public health problems in the world. Therefore, designing and producing a more effective vaccine against TB seems urgently. In this study, immunogenicity of a fusion protein which consisting or comprising CFP-10 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the Fc-domain of mouse IgG2a was evaluated as a novel subunit vaccine candidate against TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genetic constructs were cloned in pPICZαA expression vector and recombinant vectors (pPICZαA-CFP-10: Fcγ2a and pPICZαA-CFP-10:His) were transformed into Pichia pastoris...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288747/mobile-phone-delivered-reminders-and-incentives-to-improve-childhood-immunisation-coverage-and-timeliness-in-kenya-m-simu-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Dustin G Gibson, Benard Ochieng, E Wangeci Kagucia, Joyce Were, Kyla Hayford, Lawrence H Moulton, Orin S Levine, Frank Odhiambo, Katherine L O'Brien, Daniel R Feikin
BACKGROUND: As mobile phone access continues to expand globally, opportunities exist to leverage these technologies to support demand for immunisation services and improve vaccine coverage. We aimed to assess whether short message service (SMS) reminders and monetary incentives can improve immunisation uptake in Kenya. METHODS: In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, villages were randomly and evenly allocated to four groups: control, SMS only, SMS plus a 75 Kenya Shilling (KES) incentive, and SMS plus 200 KES (85 KES = USD$1)...
April 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284678/analysis-of-the-effects-of-individual-and-community-level-factors-on-childhood-immunization-in-malawi
#10
Peter Austin Morton Ntenda, Kun-Yang Chuang, Fentanesh Nibret Tiruneh, Ying-Chih Chuang
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence regarding the relationship between childhood immunization and individual- and community-level factors in low-income countries has received little attention. We compared the trends and the effects of a wide range of individual- and community-level socioeconomic factors on the likelihood of a child being immunized between 2004 and 2010 in Malawi. METHODS: We used data from the 2004 and 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey and applied generalized estimating logistic regression equation to analyze data respectively on 2042 and 3496 children aged 12-23months...
March 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284256/novel-interferon-gamma-assays-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-young-children-in-india
#11
N Shaikh, A Gupte, S Dharmshale, S Pokkali, M Thakar, V J Upadhye, A A Ordonez, A Kinikar, N Gupte, V Mave, A Kagal, A Gupta, A Lalvani, R Paranjpe, R Bharadwaj, S K Jain
SETTING: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) are used as supportive evidence to diagnose active tuberculosis (TB). Novel IGRAs could improve diagnosis, but data are lacking in young children. DESIGN: Children (age 5 years) with suspected TB were prospectively screened at a tertiary hospital in Pune, India; the children underwent TST, and standard (early secretory antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10) and enhanced (five additional novel antigens) enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281896/bcg-and-kawasaki-disease-in-mexico-and-japan
#12
Luisa Berenise Gamez-Gonzalez, Hiromichi Hamada, Beatriz Adriana Llamas-Guillen, Miguel Ruiz-Fernandez, Marco Yamazaki-Nakashimada
Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki was the first to describe BCG reactivation in Kawasaki Disease (KD), and this sign is present in about 30-50% of KD patients. It is a very specific early sign of the disease and although it has been recognized for decades, its pathophysiology continues to be an enigma. Recently, Yamada et al. reported a severe BCG reaction with tuberculid in 2 Japanese KD patients. We present 2 cases with KD and severe BCG reaction, one from Japan and the other from Mexico and review the policies of administration of BCG in both countries...
March 10, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278263/heterologous-prime-boost-vaccination-with-dna-and-mva-vaccines-expressing-hiv-1-subtype-c-mosaic-gag-virus-like-particles-is-highly-immunogenic-in-mice
#13
Ros Chapman, Tsungai Ivai Jongwe, Nicola Douglass, Gerald Chege, Anna-Lise Williamson
In an effort to make affordable vaccines suitable for the regions most affected by HIV-1, we have constructed stable vaccines that express an HIV-1 subtype C mosaic Gag immunogen (BCG-GagM, MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM). Mosaic immunogens have been designed to address the tremendous diversity of this virus. Here we have shown that GagM buds from cells infected and transfected with MVA-GagM and DNA-GagM respectively and forms virus-like particles. Previously we showed that a BCG-GagM prime MVA-GagM boost generated strong cellular immune responses in mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274931/association-of-bcg-dtp-and-measles-containing-vaccines-with-childhood-mortality-systematic-review
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266921/clinical-laboratory-and-molecular-findings-of-63-patients-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency-a-decade%C3%A2-s-experience
#15
M R Fazlollahi, Z Pourpak, A A Hamidieh, M Movahedi, M Houshmand, M Badalzadeh, M Nourizadeh, M Mahloujirad, S Arshi, A M Nabavi, M Gharagozlou, A Khayatzadeh, A Dabbaghzade, L Atarod, F Zandieh, M Sadeghi Shabestary, M Mesdaghi, I Mohammadzadeh, S A Mahdaviani, M H Eslamian, F Pesaran, E Bahraminia, F Abolnezhadian, Z Arij, M Moin
BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is known as a pediatric emergency disease with life threatening conditions. This is an exclusive report of clinical evaluation, immunological assessment, molecular analysis and outcomes of SCID patients in a tertiary referral center in Iran. METHODS: During January 2006 and December 2015, in a prospective cohort study, initial screening and advanced immunological tests were carried out on patients suspected of having SCID...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258153/rationalized-design-of-a-mucosal-vaccine-protects-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-challenge-in-mice
#16
Mushtaq Ahmed, Hongmei Jiao, Racquel Domingo-Gonzalez, Shibali Das, Kristin L Griffiths, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Uma M Nagarajan, Shabaana A Khader
Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. The only licensed TB vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), has variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB. Thus, the development of more effective TB vaccines is critical to control the TB epidemic. Specifically, vaccines delivered through the mucosal route are known to induce Th17 responses and provide superior protection against Mtb infection. However, already tested Th17-inducing mucosal adjuvants, such as heat-labile enterotoxins and cholera toxins, are not considered safe for use in humans...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256545/the-influence-of-haemoglobin-and-iron-on-in-vitro-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-assays
#17
Rachel Tanner, Matthew K O'Shea, Andrew D White, Julius Müller, Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Magali Matsumiya, Mike J Dennis, Eneida A Parizotto, Stephanie Harris, Elena Stylianou, Vivek Naranbhai, Paulo Bettencourt, Hal Drakesmith, Sally Sharpe, Helen A Fletcher, Helen McShane
The current vaccine against tuberculosis, live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG, has variable efficacy, but development of an effective alternative is severely hampered by the lack of an immune correlate of protection. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in functional in vitro mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIAs), which provide a measure of a range of different immune mechanisms and their interactions. We identified a positive correlation between mean corpuscular haemoglobin and in vitro growth of BCG in whole blood from healthy UK human volunteers...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251166/clinical-features-and-genetic-analysis-of-48-patients-with-chronic-granulomatous-disease-in-a-single-center-study-from-shanghai-china-2005-2015-new-studies-and-a-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Jing Wu, Wei-Fan Wang, Yi-Dan Zhang, Tong-Xin Chen
Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency, which is characterized by recurrent infections due to defective phagocyte NADPH oxidase enzyme. Nowadays, little is known about Chinese CGD patients. Here we report 48 CGD patients in our single center study, which is the largest cohort study from Mainland China. The ratio of male to female was 11 : 1. The mean onset age was 0.29 years old, and 52% patients had an onset within the 1st month of life. The mean diagnosis age was 2...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249638/comparison-of-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-qft-git-and-tuberculin-skin-test-tst-for-diagnosis-of-latent-tuberculosis-in-haemodialysis-hd-patients-a-meta-analysis-of-%C3%AE%C2%BA-estimates
#19
E Ayubi, A Doosti-Irani, A Sanjari Moghaddam, S Khazaei, K Mansori, S Safiri, M Sani, E Mostafavi
Diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a concern in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Many studies have compared QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) for detecting LTBI and reported the κ statistic of agreement between QFT-GIT and TST in HD patients. The present study aimed to systematically review this literature and conduct meta-analysis of individual studies that estimated the κ between QFT-GIT with TST among HD patients. All relevant published studies that were available as full-text were obtained by searching Medline (1950), Web of Sciences (1945), Scopus (1973) through May 2016...
March 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249177/tlr2-contributes-to-trigger-immune-response-of-pleural-mesothelial-cells-against-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-and-m-tuberculosis-infection
#20
Eun-Ha Hwanga, Tae-Hyoun Kim, Ji-Yeon Park, Jung Joo Hong, Dong-Hyun Kim, Sang-Jun Ha, Soo-Jin Yang, Sung Jae Shin, Jong-Hwan Park
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a causative agent leading to pleural effusion, characterized by the accumulation of fluid and immune cells in the pleural cavity. Although this phenomenon has been described before, detailed processes or mechanisms associated with the pleural effusion are still not well understood. Pleural mesothelial cells (PMCs) are specialized epithelial cells that cover the body wall and internal organs in pleural cavity playing a central role in pleural inflammation. Toll-like receptors are expressed in various cell types including mesothelial cells and initiate the recognition and defense against mycobacterial infection...
February 25, 2017: Cytokine
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