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bcg vaccination

Timothy Lahey, C Fordham von Reyn
Tuberculosis infects millions of people worldwide and remains a leading global killer despite widespread neonatal administration of the tuberculosis vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). BCG has clear and sustained efficacy, but after 10 years, its efficacy appears to wane, at least in some populations. Fortunately, there are many new tuberculosis vaccines in development today, some in advanced stages of clinical trial testing. Here we review the epidemiological need for tuberculosis vaccination, including evolving standards for administration to at risk individuals in developing countries...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Patricia Rubio Reyes, Natalie A Parlane, D Neil Wedlock, Bernd H A Rehm
Traditional approaches to vaccine development have failed to identify better vaccines to replace or supplement BCG for the control of tuberculosis (TB). Subunit vaccines offer a safer and more reproducible alternative for the prevention of diseases. In this study, the immunogenicity of bacterially derived polyester beads displaying three different Rv antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated. Polyester beads displaying the antigens Rv1626, Rv2032, Rv1789, respectively, were produced in an endotoxin-free Escherichia coli strain...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Jiangan Xie, Christopher Codd, Kevin Mo, Yongqun He
M. bovis strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been the only licensed live attenuated vaccine against tuberculosis (TB) for nearly one century and has also been approved as a therapeutic vaccine for bladder cancer treatment since 1990. During its long time usage, different adverse events (AEs) have been reported. However, the AEs associated with the BCG preventive TB vaccine and therapeutic cancer vaccine have not been systematically compared. In this study, we systematically collected various BCG AE data mined from the US VAERS database and PubMed literature reports, identified statistically significant BCG-associated AEs, and ontologically classified and compared these AEs related to these two types of BCG vaccine...
2016: PloS One
Roberta Petrucci, Giulia Lombardi, Ilaria Corsini, Maria Letizia Bacchi Reggiani, Francesca Visciotti, Filippo Bernardi, Maria Paola Landini, Salvatore Cazzato, Paola Dal Monte
BACKGROUND: The diagnostic accuracy of Quantiferon-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT) is uncertain in the pediatric population, while tuberculin skin test (TST) is still conventionally used despite its limitations. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of QFT-IT with TST in a large cohort of children screened for TB infection because of contact tracing, suspected TB, arrival from endemic country or immunosuppressive therapy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 517 children 0-14 years of age evaluated at the pediatric unit of the S...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Peter Aaby, Jens Nielsen, Christine S Benn, Jean-François Trape
BACKGROUND: Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be associated with increased female mortality; the effect of co-administration with BCG is not known. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1997, we examined female and male mortality rates in rural Senegal where 7824 infants received the first dose of DTP and inactivated polio vaccine (DTP-IPV) with BCG. Subsequent doses of DTP-IPV were administered alone. We analysed mortality according to sex and number of doses of DTP-IPV vaccine...
October 13, 2016: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Maureen O'Leary, Karen Edmond, Sian Floyd, Lisa Hurt, Caitlin Shannon, Gyan Thomas, Sam Newton, Betty Kirkwood, Sara Thomas
OBJECTIVES: Global vaccination policy advocates for identifying and targeting groups who are underserved by vaccination to increase equity and uptake. We investigated whether birth weight and other factors are determinants of neonatal BCG vaccination in order to identify infants underserved by vaccination. METHODS: We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted ORs (AORs) for the association between birth weight (categorised as non-low birth weight (NLBW) (≥2...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Julian P T Higgins, Karla Soares-Weiser, José A López-López, Artemisia Kakourou, Katherine Chaplin, Hannah Christensen, Natasha K Martin, Jonathan A C Sterne, Arthur L Reingold
OBJECTIVES:  To evaluate the effects on non-specific and all cause mortality, in children under 5, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP), and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV); to examine internal validity of the studies; and to examine any modifying effects of sex, age, vaccine sequence, and co-administration of vitamin A. DESIGN:  Systematic review, including assessment of risk of bias, and meta-analyses of similar studies...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Rama Kandasamy, Merryn Voysey, Fiona McQuaid, Karlijn de Nie, Rebecca Ryan, Olivia Orr, Ulrike Uhlig, Charles Sande, Daniel O'Connor, Andrew J Pollard
OBJECTIVE:  To identify and characterise non-specific immunological effects after routine childhood vaccines against BCG, measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. DESIGN:  Systematic review of randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, and case-control studies. DATA SOURCES:  Embase, PubMed, Cochrane library, and Trip searched between 1947 and January 2014. Publications submitted by a panel of experts in the specialty were also included...
October 13, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Siroon Bekkering, Bastiaan A Blok, Leo A B Joosten, Niels P Riksen, Reinout van Crevel, Mihai G Netea
BACKGROUND: Innate immune memory or 'trained immunity' has recently been described as an important property of cells of the innate immune system. Due to the increased interest in this important new field of immunological investigation we sought to determine the optimal conditions for an in-vitro experimental protocol of monocyte training using three of the most commonly used training stimuli from the literature: β-glucan, the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, and oxidized LDL (oxLDL)...
October 12, 2016: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
M B Huante, S Gupta, V C Calderon, S J Koo, M Sinha, B A Luxon, N J Garg, J J Endsley
Pathogens frequently exploit or evade inflammasome activation in order to survive and proliferate. Alternatively, inadequate inflammasome activation by attenuated microorganisms or adjuvanted subunit vaccines may contribute to poor longevity of protection. To further understand these pathways, we determined the differential inflammasome transcriptome of human THP monocyte-derived macrophages in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG, as compared to LPS or Trypanosoma cruzi. The results identify the highly specific innate recognition programs associated with inflammasome activation by human macrophages exposed to these microbial stimuli...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Wilson Kwong, Thomas Krahn, Ann Cleland, Janet Gordon, Wendy Wobeser
BACKGROUND: Current Canadian guidelines suggest that neonatal Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination does not result in false-positive tuberculosis (TB) skin tests, despite a growing body of evidence that interferon-γ release assays may be a more specific alternative in identifying latent tuberculosis infections in vaccinated populations. We set out to evaluate the relationship between TB skin tests and interferon-γ release assays in patients who previously received neonatal BCG vaccine...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Saroochi Agarwal, Duc T Nguyen, Justin D Lew, Larry D Teeter, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Blanca I Restrepo, Eric L Brown, Susan E Dorman, Edward A Graviss
BACKGROUND: The TSPOT.TB (TSPOT) diagnostic test for latent tuberculosis infection is based on a cell-mediated response to the Mycobacteria tuberculosis antigens, ESAT-6 and/or CFP-10, producing an "interferon-gamma footprint". We investigated the within-sample and within-subject variability of positive TSPOT assays due to the individual assay antigens' reactivity. METHODS: Positive TSPOT assay frequencies due to ESAT-6 or CFP-10 among health care workers (HCWs) at 6-month intervals for 18 months were compared...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Shen-An Hwang, Marian L Kruzel, Jeffrey K Actor
Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein found in mammalian mucosal secretions and granules of neutrophils, possesses several immune modulatory properties. Published reports indicate that lactoferrin enhances the efficacy of the tuberculosis vaccine, BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin), both by increasing macrophage and dendritic cell ability to stimulate receptive T cells and by modulating the inflammatory response. This report is the first to demonstrate the effects of a recombinant human lactoferrin (10 μg/mL) on human PBMC derived CD14(+) and CD16(+) macrophages stimulated with a strong (LPS, 10 ng/mL) or weaker (BCG, MOI 1:1) stimulator of inflammation...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Kishore Das, Tima Thomas, Omar Garnica, Subramanian Dhandayuthapani
Tuberculosis continues to be a great cause of morbidity and mortality in different parts of the world. Unfortunately, the current BCG vaccine being administered is not fully protective against tuberculosis; therefore, there is a great need for alternate vaccines. With an aim to develop such vaccines, we have analyzed the utility of Bacillus subtilis spores for the expression of two major immunodominant antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Ag85B and CFP10. We created three recombinant B. subtilis strains to express a truncated fusion of Ag85B191-325 and CFP101-70 antigens (T85BCFP), either on the spore coat (MTAG1 strain) or in the cytosol of B...
September 28, 2016: Tuberculosis
Laetitia Duval, François-Charles Wolff, Martin McKee, Bayard Roberts
AIM: To investigate differences in vaccination coverage between Roma and otherwise comparable non-Roma children, including factors associated with the vaccination gap, health care access and discrimination faced by Roma. METHODS: We analyse data from the Roma Regional Survey 2011 implemented in twelve countries of Central and South-East Europe. Our sample comprises 8233 children aged up to 6 with 7072 Roma children and 1161 non-Roma children. Estimates of the Roma vaccination gap are estimated using Logit regressions...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
Q Zhao, X Xiao, W Lu, L-X Qiu, C-M Zhou, W-L Jiang, B Xu, V Diwan
OBJECTIVES: To understand the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity in rural China and to identify factors associated with TB-DM comorbidity and screening efficacy. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in four counties in eastern rural China. All TB patients newly registered from April 2013 to March 2014 were screened for DM using fasting blood glucose (FBG). Screening-positive patients were further examined using glycosylated haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c)...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Erik Tenland, Gisela Håkansson, Nader Alaridah, Nataliya Lutay, Anna Rönnholm, Oskar Hallgren, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson, Gabriela Godaly
Mycobacterium bovis bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is used as a benchmark to compare the immunogenicity of new vaccines against tuberculosis. This live vaccine is administered intradermal, but several new studies show that changing the route to mucosal immunisation represents an improved strategy. We analysed the immunomodulatory functions of BCG on human neutrophils and primary airway epithelial cells (AECs), as the early events of mucosal immune activation are unclear. Neutrophils and the primary epithelial cells were found to express the IL-17A receptor subunit IL-17RA, while the expression of IL-17RE was only observed on epithelial cells...
2016: PloS One
Martin Tobias Speth, Urska Repnik, Gareth Griffiths
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major disease burden globally causing more than 1.5 million deaths per year. The attenuated live vaccine strain Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), although providing protection against childhood TB, is largely ineffective against adult pulmonary TB. A major aim therefore is to increase the potency of the BCG vaccine to generate stronger and more sustained immunity against TB. Here, we investigated the use of layer-by-layer (LbL) nanocoating of the surface of live BCG with several layers of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a strong inducer of cell-mediated immunity, and the biodegradable polysaccharide chitosan to enhance BCG immunogenicity...
December 2016: Biomaterials
Margret Johansson Gudjónsdóttir, Karsten Kötz, Ruth Stangebye Nielsen, Philip Wilmar, Sofia Olausson, Daniel Wallmyr, Birger Trollfors
BACKGROUND: Immigrants from countries with high incidence of tuberculosis (TB) are usually offered screening when they arrive to low incidence countries. The tuberculin skin test (TST) is often used. The interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) are more specific and not affected by BCG vaccination. The aims of this study were 1. To see if there if there is a correlation between a positive IGRA (QFT) and presence of a BCG scar in children with TST ≥10 mm, 2. To compare the TST diameter with QFT result, 3...
October 6, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Mangalakumari Jeyanathan, Daniela Damjanovic, Yushi Yao, Jonathan Bramson, Fiona Smaill, Zhou Xing
BACKGROUND:  Whether a candidate TB vaccine induces clinically relevant protective T cell repertoires in humans is not known until the completion of costly efficacy clinical trials. METHODS:  We have developed an integrated immunologic approach to investigate the clinical relevance of a novel TB vaccine-induced T cells in a phase 1 trial. This approach consists of screening for likely dominant T cell epitopes, establishing Ag-specific memory T cell lines for identifying CD8 and CD4 T cell epitopes, determining the ability of vaccine-induced T cells to inhibit mycobacterial growth in infected cells, and examining the genetic diversity of HLA recognition and clinical relevance of identified T cell epitopes...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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