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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661928/identification-and-evaluation-of-novel-protective-antigens-for-the-development-of-a-candidate-tb-subunit-vaccine
#1
Elena Stylianou, Rachel Harrington-Kandt, Julia Beglov, Naomi Bull, Nawamin Pinpathomrat, Gwendolyn M Swarbrick, Deborah A Lewinsohn, David M Lewinsohn, Helen McShane
The development of a vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M.tb ), is urgently needed. The only currently available vaccine, BCG, has variable efficacy. One approach in the global vaccine development effort is focused on boosting BCG using subunit vaccines. The identification of novel antigens for inclusion in subunit vaccines is a critical step in the TB vaccine development pathway. We selected four novel mycobacterial antigens recognised during the course of human infection...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659820/recent-mouse-models-and-vaccine-candidates-for-preventing-chronic-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-its-reactivation
#2
César Pedroza-Roldán, Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge in public health worldwide. Until today, the only widely used and approved vaccine is the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). This vaccine provides a highly variable level of protection against the active, pulmonary form of tuberculosis, and practically none against the latent form of TB infection. This disparity in protection has been extensively studied, and for this reason, several groups have focused their research on the quest for attenuated vaccines based on M...
August 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655632/ag85a-specific-cd4-t-cell-lines-derived-after-boosting-bcg-vaccinated-cattle-with-ad5-85a-possess-both-mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-and-anti-inflammatory-properties
#3
Hannah J Metcalfe, Lucia Biffar, Sabine Steinbach, Efrain Guzman, Tim Connelley, Ivan Morrison, H Martin Vordermeier, Bernardo Villarreal-Ramos
There is a need to improve the efficacy of the BCG vaccine against human and bovine tuberculosis. Previous data showed that boosting bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle with a recombinant attenuated human type 5 adenovirally vectored subunit vaccine (Ad5-85A) increased BCG protection and was associated with increased frequency of Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cells post-boosting. Here, the capacity of Ag85A-specific CD4+ T cell lines - derived before and after viral boosting - to interact with BCG-infected macrophages was evaluated...
April 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650461/towards-designing-a-synthetic-antituberculosis-vaccine-the-rv3587c-peptide-inhibits-mycobacterial-entry-to-host-cells
#4
Mary Lilian Carabali-Isajar, Marisol Ocampo, Deisy Carolina Rodriguez, Magnolia Vanegas, Hernando Curtidor, Manuel Alfonso Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin Patarroyo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is considered one of the most successful pathogens in the history of mankind, having caused 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The amount of resistant and extensively resistant strains has increased; BCG has been the only vaccine to be produced in more than 100 years though it is still unable to prevent the disease's most disseminated form in adults; pulmonary tuberculosis. The search is thus still on-going for candidate antigens for an antituberculosis vaccine. This paper reports the use of a logical and rational methodology for finding such antigens, this time as peptides derived from the Rv3587c membrane protein...
April 4, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627232/protective-efficacy-of-recombinant-bcg-over-expressing-protective-stage-specific-antigens-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#5
Claudio Counoupas, Rachel Pinto, Gayathri Nagalingam, Warwick J Britton, James A Triccas
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, yet current control strategies, including the existing BCG vaccine, have had little impact on disease control. CysVac2, a fusion protein comprising stage-specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, provided superior protective efficacy against chronic M. tuberculosis infection in mice, compared to BCG. To determine if the delivery of CysVac2 in the context of BCG could improve BCG-induced immunity and protection, we generated a recombinant strain of BCG overexpressing CysVac2 (rBCG:CysVac2)...
April 4, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627126/vaccination-against-tuberculosis
#6
Carlos Martin, Nacho Aguilo, Jesús Gonzalo-Asensio
BCG (Bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccination is included in the immunization schedule for tuberculosis endemic countries with a global coverage at birth close to 90% worldwide. BCG was attenuated from Mycobacterium bovis almost a century ago, and provides a strong protection against disseminated forms of the disease, though very limited against pulmonary forms of tuberculosis, responsible for transmission. Novel prophylactic tuberculosis vaccines are in clinical development either to replace BCG or to improve its protection against respiratory forms of the disease...
April 4, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620541/screening-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-among-health-care-workers-working-in-hajj-pilgrimage-area-in-saudi-arabia-using-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test
#7
Zakeya A Bukhary, Soliman M Amer, Magdy M Emara, Mohammad E Abdalla, Sahar A Ali
BACKGROUND: Interferon gamma release assays (IGRA) is highly specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is the preferred test in BCG-vaccinated individuals. The few studies that have screened health care workers (HCWs) in Saudi Arabia for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using IGRA have varied in agreement with the traditional tuberculin skin test (TST). OBJECTIVE: Assess the prevalence of LTBI among HCWs working in the Hajj pilgrimage using IGRA and TST and measuring their agreement...
March 2018: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619443/cloning-and-expression-of-mce1a-gene-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-and-h37rv-strain-for-vaccine-candidate-development
#8
Desi Indriarini, Andriansjah Rukmana, Andi Yasmon
Background: Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death in the world, especially wherever poverty, malnutrition and poor housing prevail. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing strain is the most common strain that causes tuberculosis in Indonesia. The wide spread of tuberculosis has been further aggravated by HIV-AIDS and drug resistance. Unfortunately, Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) as the current vaccine has different protection function and efficacy. According to function analysis, mce1A gene was predicted to have a role in host invasion and survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619252/lepvax-a-defined-subunit-vaccine-that-provides-effective-pre-exposure-and-post-exposure-prophylaxis-of-m-leprae-infection
#9
Malcolm S Duthie, Maria T Pena, Gigi J Ebenezer, Thomas P Gillis, Rahul Sharma, Kelly Cunningham, Michael Polydefkis, Yumi Maeda, Masahiko Makino, Richard W Truman, Steven G Reed
Sustained elimination of leprosy as a global health concern likely requires a vaccine. The current standard, BCG, confers only partial protection and precipitates paucibacillary (PB) disease in some instances. When injected into mice with the T helper 1 (Th1)-biasing adjuvant formulation Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant in stable emulsion (GLA-SE), a cocktail of three prioritized antigens (ML2055, ML2380 and ML2028) reduced M. leprae infection levels. Recognition and protective efficacy of a single chimeric fusion protein incorporating these antigens, LEP-F1, was confirmed in similar experiments...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618733/use-of-soluble-extracellular-regions-of-mmpl-serom-as-vaccines-for-tuberculosis
#10
Emily J Strong, Nicholas P West
The current vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) is a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) and while effective at reducing the potential for disseminated TB in young children its disease protection rates in adults is highly variable while it confers little protection against latent TB. With these limitations a new vaccine is desperately needed. We investigated the efficacy of three members of the mycobacterial membrane protein Large (MmpL) family as potential subunit vaccines for TB. MmpLs are large, multifunctional integral membrane proteins, and as such are recalcitrant to purification...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618445/assessment-of-children-immunization-pattern-in-children-hospital-lahore-pakistan
#11
Kalsoom Tariq, Rukiya Tariq
The basic aim is to assess immunization pattern of children up to 15 months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 immunized children in Children hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Single dose 0.05ml to 0.1ml of BCG was recommended at the time of birth. Three doses of 0.5ml of Pneumococcal vaccine was given, coupled with the Penta-valent vaccine was given at 6 week, 10 week and 14 weeks of age. Two doses 0.5ml of measles vaccine was given at 9 & 15 months. Respondent's sex, age and the vaccinated children against diseases were analyzed in the form of percentages and frequency tables through statistical analysis in the software called SPSS version 16...
March 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609965/bcg-vaccine-who-position-paper-february-2018-recommendations
#12
World Health Organization
This article presented the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of on Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine excerpted from the BCG vaccines: WHO position paper - February 2018 published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record [1]. This position paper replaces the 2004 WHO position paper on Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine [2] and the 2007 WHO revised BCG vaccination guidelines for infants at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection [3]. It incorporates recent developments in the tuberculosis (TB) field, provides revised guidance on the immunization of children infected with HIV, and re-emphasizes the importance of the birth dose...
March 30, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606518/factors-associated-with-routine-immunization-coverage-of-children-under-one-year-old-in-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#13
Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Eiko Yamamoto, Anonh Xeuatvongsa, Viengsakhone Louangpradith, Bounxou Keohavong, Yu Mon Saw, Nobuyuki Hamajima
BACKGROUND: Routine vaccination is administered free of charge to all children under one year old in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) and the national goal is to achieve at least 95% coverage with all vaccines included in the national immunization program by 2025. In this study, factors related to the immunization system and characteristics of provinces and districts in Lao PDR were examined to evaluate the association with routine immunization coverage. METHODS: Coverage rates for Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis-Hepatitis B (DTP-HepB), DTP-HepB-Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type B), polio (OPV), and measles (MCV1) vaccines from 2002 to 2014 collected through regular reporting system, were used to identify the immunization coverage trends in Lao PDR...
March 29, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602704/sequential-pulmonary-immunization-with-heterologous-recombinant-influenza-a-virus-tuberculosis-vaccines-protects-against-murine-m-tuberculosis-infection
#14
H Muflihah, M Flórido, L C W Lin, Y Xia, J A Triccas, J Stambas, W J Britton
Tuberculosis (TB) infection affects a quarter of the global population resulting in a large burden of TB disease and mortality. The long-term control of TB requires vaccines with greater efficacy and durability than the current Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Pulmonary immunization may increase and prolong immunity at the site of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We have investigated recombinant influenza A viruses (rIAVs) expressing the p25 CD4+ T cell epitope of M. tuberculosis Ag85B240-254 for single and sequential immunization against M...
March 27, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601253/the-current-status-challenges-and-future-developments-of-new-tuberculosis-vaccines
#15
Wenping Gong, Yan Liang, Xueqiong Wu
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causes tuberculosis (TB), one of the top 10 causes of death worldwide. TB results in more fatalities than multi-drug resistant (MDR) HIV strain related coinfection. Vaccines play a key role in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. Unfortunately, the only licensed preventive vaccine against TB, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is ineffective for prevention of pulmonary TB in adults. Therefore, it is very important to develop novel vaccines for TB prevention and control...
March 30, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595510/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-the-novel-tuberculosis-vaccine-id93-gla-se-in-bcg-vaccinated-healthy-adults-in-south-africa-a-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1-trial
#16
Adam Penn-Nicholson, Michele Tameris, Erica Smit, Tracey A Day, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Lakshmi Jayashankar, Julie Vergara, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Hendrik Geldenhuys, Angelique Kany-Kany Luabeya, Ruth Ellis, Ann M Ginsberg, Willem A Hanekom, Steven G Reed, Rhea N Coler, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
BACKGROUND: A vaccine that prevents pulmonary tuberculosis in adults is needed to halt transmission in endemic regions. This trial aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of three administrations at varying doses of antigen and adjuvant of an investigational vaccine (ID93 + GLA-SE) compared with placebo in previously BCG-vaccinated healthy adults in a tuberculosis endemic country. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial, we enrolled HIV-negative, previously BCG-vaccinated adults (aged 18-50 years), with no evidence of previous or current tuberculosis disease, from among community volunteers in the Worcester region of Western Cape, South Africa...
April 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593708/mucosal-delivery-of-fusion-proteins-with-bacillus-subtilis-spores-enhances-protection-against-tuberculosis-by-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin
#17
Alastair Copland, Gil R Diogo, Peter Hart, Shane Harris, Andy C Tran, Mathew J Paul, Mahavir Singh, Simon M Cutting, Rajko Reljic
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most deadly infectious disease in existence, and the only available vaccine, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), is almost a century old and poorly protective. The immunological complexity of TB, coupled with rising resistance to antimicrobial therapies, necessitates a pipeline of diverse novel vaccines. Here, we show that Bacillus subtilis spores can be coated with a fusion protein 1 ("FP1") consisting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens Ag85B, ACR, and HBHA. The resultant vaccine, Spore-FP1, was tested in a murine low-dose Mtb aerosol challenge model...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589578/universal-screening-for-latent-and-active-tuberculosis-tb-in-asylum-seeking-children-bochum-and-hamburg-germany-september-2015-to-november-2016
#18
Maya Mueller-Hermelink, Robin Kobbe, Benedikt Methling, Cornelius Rau, Ulf Schulze-Sturm, Isa Auer, Frank Ahrens, Folke Brinkmann
BackgroundIn Germany, the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in children has been on the rise since 2009. High numbers of foreign-born asylum seekers have contributed considerably to the disease burden. Therefore, effective screening strategies for latent TB infection (LTBI) and active TB in asylum seeking children are needed. Aim: Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of LTBI and active TB in asylum seeking children up to 15 years of age in two geographic regions in Germany. Methods: Screening for TB was performed in children in asylum seeker reception centres by tuberculin skin test (TST) or interferon gamma release assay (IGRA)...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589181/mendelian-susceptibility-to-mycobacterial-disease-caused-by-a-novel-founder-il12b-mutation-in-saudi-arabia
#19
Abdulrahman N Alodayani, Abdulnasir M Al-Otaibi, Caroline Deswarte, Husn Habib Frayha, Matthieu Bouaziz, Maryam AlHelale, Tom Le Voyer, Alejandro Nieto-Patlan, Vimel Rattina, Mofareh AlZahrani, Rabih Halwani, Fahad Al Sohime, Hamoud Al-Mousa, Saleh Al-Muhsen, Sami H Alhajjar, Nabil S Dhayhi, Laurent Abel, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Ibrahim Bin-Hussain, May S AlBarrak, Suliman A Al-Jumaah, Jacinta Bustamante
PURPOSE: Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency predisposing congenitally affected individuals to diseases caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine strains and environmental mycobacteria. IL-12p40 deficiency is a genetic etiology of MSMD resulting in impaired IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity. Most of the reported patients with IL-12p40 deficiency originate from Saudi Arabia (30 of 52) and carry the recurrent IL12B mutation c...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584893/increase-in-childhood-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infections-after-bcg-coverage-drop-a-nationwide-population-based-retrospective-study-finland-1995-to-2016
#20
Antti Kontturi, Hanna Soini, Jukka Ollgren, Eeva Salo
Background: Epidemiological data on childhood nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease is scarce and the protective effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination remains debated. In 2006 the BCG policy in Finland changed from universal to selective. We aimed to study the effect of the BCG coverage decrease on the incidence of childhood NTM infections in Finland. Methods: We conducted a nationwide, population-based, retrospective study of NTM notifications recorded to the National Infectious Diseases Register between 1995 and 2016 and identified native-born children aged 0-4 years infected with NTM...
March 23, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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