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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168614/eastern-gray-squirrels-are-consistent-shoppers-of-seed-traits-insights-from-discrete-choice-experiments
#1
Mekala Sundaram, Nathanael I Lichti, Nicole J Olynk Widmar, Robert K Swihart
Seeds of many hardwood trees are dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents, and this process is often mediated by the traits of seeds. Although numerous studies have linked seed traits to seed preference by rodents, little is known about how rodents forage for seeds when multiple desirable and undesirable seed traits are available simultaneously. Here, we adopt a novel method of designing choice experiments to study how eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) select for 6 traits (caloric value, protein content, tannin concentration, kernel mass, dormancy period and toughness of shell) among seeds...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161672/interpersonal-trauma-and-hoarding-the-mediating-role-of-aggression
#2
Brittany M Mathes, Amberly K Portero, Brittany A Gibby, Savannah L King, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature indicates that exposure to interpersonal trauma contributes to the onset or exacerbation of hoarding symptoms. However, little research has explored psychosocial factors that may help to explain the relationship between interpersonal trauma and hoarding symptoms. One outcome of trauma exposure that may be associated with hoarding symptoms is aggression, defined as the tendency to experience and express hostility and anger, and to engage in aggressive behavior...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154203/unbending-mind-individuals-with-hoarding-disorder-do-not-modify-decision-strategy-in-response-to-feedback-under-risk
#3
Helen Pushkarskaya, David F Tolin, Daniel Henick, Ifat Levy, Christopher Pittenger
Cognitive-behavioral models of hoarding disorder emphasize impairments in information processing and decision making in the genesis of hoarding symptomology. We propose and test the novel hypothesis that individuals with hoarding are maladaptively biased towards a deliberative decision style. While deliberative strategies are often considered normative, they are not always adaptable to the limitations imposed by many real-world decision contexts. We examined decision-making patterns in 19 individuals with hoarding and 19 healthy controls, using a behavioral task that quantifies selection of decision strategies in a novel environment with known probabilities (risk) in response to feedback...
November 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145187/diogenes-syndrome
#4
Frédéric Assal
Diogenes syndrome (DS) is not a specific disease but a real neurobehavioral syndrome, characterized by severe domestic squalor, pathological hoarding, lack of insight into the condition, and no need for help. DS can be secondary when associated to psychosis or bipolar disorder, or primary when it occurs as a single entity, usually in the elderly. DS is a clinically complex transnosographic syndrome for which multidimensional approaches need to be considered: medical, psychiatric, neurological, social, scientific, and ethical...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127561/the-role-of-public-health-in-the-development-of-a-collaborative-agreement-with-rural-and-semi-urban-partners-in-cases-of-severe-domestic-squalor-and-hoarding
#5
Marie-Claude Lacombe, Bruno Cossette
When confronted with complex situations of hoarding and severe domestic squalor, small municipal communities and their partners frequently feel overwhelmed due to limited resources at their disposal. Stakeholders often report these situations to Public Health Service and seek their support. In order to facilitate more effective and coordinated actions, the main stakeholders involved (municipal, fire, police, public health and the regional health center) must agree on the most appropriate intervention strategies...
November 10, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118416/protein-nutrition-governs-within-host-race-of-honey-bee-pathogens
#6
Manuel Tritschler, Jutta J Vollmann, Orlando Yañez, Nor Chejanovsky, Karl Crailsheim, Peter Neumann
Multiple infections are common in honey bees, Apis mellifera, but the possible role of nutrition in this regard is poorly understood. Microsporidian infections, which are promoted by protein-fed, can negatively correlate with virus infections, but the role of protein nutrition for the microsporidian-virus interface is unknown. Here, we challenged naturally deformed wing virus - B (DWV-B) infected adult honey bee workers fed with or without pollen ( = protein) in hoarding cages, with the microsporidian Nosema ceranae...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110334/frontotemporal-dementia-with-trans-activation-response-dna-binding-protein-43-presenting-with-catatonic-syndrome
#7
Ryohei Watanabe, Ito Kawakami, Mitsumoto Onaya, Shinji Higashi, Nobutaka Arai, Haruhiko Akiyama, Masato Hasegawa, Tetsuaki Arai
Catatonia is a clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms such as immobility, mutism, stupor, stereotypy, echophenomena, catalepsy, automatic obedience, posturing, negativism, gegenhalten and ambitendency. This syndrome occurs mostly in mood disorder and schizophrenic patients, and is related to neuronal dysfunction involving the frontal lobe. Some cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with catatonia have been reported, but these cases were not examined by autopsy. Here, we report on a FTD case which showed catatonia after the first episode of brief psychotic disorder...
November 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108463/td-the-case-of-diogenes-syndrome-deficit-or-denial
#8
Fiona Ashworth, Anita Rose, Barbara A Wilson
Diogenes Syndrome (DS) is characterised by extreme self-neglect, domestic squalor, hoarding, social withdrawal, and lack of concern and shame for the individual's residential situation. This paper describes TD who was unable to identify emotional expressions of disgust and was borderline-impaired for facial recognition associated with perceptual difficulties. Problems interpreting expressions of disgust were interesting as TD was living in squalor, neglecting himself, and lacked concern for his circumstances...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045417/effects-of-food-store-quality-on-hibernation-performance-in-common-hamsters
#9
Carina Siutz, Matthias Nemeth, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Ruth Quint, Thomas Ruf, Eva Millesi
Hibernating animals can adjust torpor expression according to available energy reserves. Besides the quantity, the quality of energy reserves could play an important role for overwintering strategies. Common hamsters are food-storing hibernators and show high individual variation in hibernation performance, which might be related to the quality of food hoards in the hibernacula. In this study, we tested the effects of food stores high in fat content, particularly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on hibernation patterns under laboratory conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044477/association-between-neighborhood-cohesion-and-self-neglect-in-chinese-american-older-adults
#10
Ailian Hei, XinQi Dong
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between neighborhood cohesion and risk of self-neglect in a community-dwelling Chinese-American older population. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Chinese-American older adults aged 60 and older interviewed from 2011 to 2013 (N = 3,159). DESIGN: Data were drawn from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly, a cross-sectional community-engaged study in the greater Chicago area...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033063/factor-analysis-of-symptom-profile-in-early-onset-and-late-onset-ocd
#11
Sandeep Grover, Siddharth Sarkar, Gourav Gupta, Natasha Kate, Abhishek Ghosh, Subho Chakrabarti, Ajit Avasthi
This study aimed to assess the factor structure of early and late onset OCD. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted in the same sample to assess the applicability of the factors. 345 participants were assessed with Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Patients were classified as early onset (onset of symptoms at age ≤ 18 years) and late onset (onset at age > 18 years) OCD depending upon the age of onset of the symptoms. Factor analysis and cluster analysis of early-onset and late-onset OCD was conducted...
October 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031552/agrp-knockdown-blocks-long-term-appetitive-but-not-consummatory-feeding-behaviors-in-siberian-hamsters
#12
REVIEW
M Alex Thomas, Vy Tran, Vitaly Ryu, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
Arcuate hypothalamus-derived agouti-related protein (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) are critical for maintaining energy homeostasis. Fasting markedly upregulates AgRP/NPY expression and circulating ghrelin, and exogenous ghrelin treatment robustly increases acute food foraging and food intake, and chronic food hoarding behaviors in Siberian hamsters. We previously demonstrated that 3rd ventricular AgRP injection robustly stimulates acute and chronic food hoarding, largely independent of food foraging and intake...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031550/mechanisms-for-agrp-neuron-mediated-regulation-of-appetitive-behaviors-in-rodents
#13
REVIEW
M Alex Thomas, Bingzhong Xue
The obesity epidemic is a major health and economic burden facing both developed and developing countries worldwide. Interrogation of the central and peripheral mechanisms regulating ingestive behaviors have primarily focused on food intake, and in the process uncovered a detailed neuroanatomical framework controlling this behavior. However, these studies have largely ignored the behaviors that bring animals, including humans, in contact with food. It is therefore useful to dichotomize ingestive behaviors as appetitive (motivation to find and store food) and consummatory (consumption of food once found), and utilize an animal model that naturally displays these behaviors...
October 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992103/maternal-programming-of-body-weight-in-syrian-hamsters
#14
Jeremy M Brozek, Jill E Schneider, Erin Rhinehart
Maternal programming of offspring energy balance has been viewed as an adaptation in which the gestational environment prepares the offspring to thrive and reproduce in that same postnatal environment. Programming might have the opposite effect, however, when gestational and postnatal environments are mismatched. Gestational programming would represent a trade-off if the mother can maximize fitness in one possible energetic future but cannot maximize fitness in another. The vast majority of research concerns rats, mice, or sheep, and dams are typically food restricted by 30-70% of ad libitum intake resulting in low birth weight and adult obesity in offspring...
September 14, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989788/caching-for-where-and-what-evidence-for-a-mnemonic-strategy-in-a-scatter-hoarder
#15
Mikel M Delgado, Lucia F Jacobs
Scatter-hoarding animals face the task of maximizing retrieval of their scattered food caches while minimizing loss to pilferers. This demand should select for mnemonics, such as chunking, i.e. a hierarchical cognitive representation that is known to improve recall. Spatial chunking, where caches with the same type of content are related to each other in physical location and memory, would be one such mechanism. Here we tested the hypothesis that scatter-hoarding eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are organizing their caches in spatial patterns consistent with a chunking strategy...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985338/rfamide-related-peptide-3-and-the-trade-off-between-reproductive-and-ingestive-behavior
#16
Jill E Schneider, Noah A Benton, Kim A Russo, Candice M Klingerman, Wilbur P Williams, Jessica Simberlund, Amir Abdulhay, Jeremy M Brozek, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Ingestive and sex behaviors are important for individual survival and reproductive success, but when environmental energy availability is limited, individuals of many different species make a trade-off, forfeiting sex for ingestive behavior. For example, food-deprived female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) forego vaginal scent marking and lordosis (sex behaviors) in favor of foraging, hoarding, and eating food (ingestive behavior). Reproductive processes tend to be energetically costly, and individual survival requires homeostasis in metabolic energy...
July 27, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980100/brief-report-repetitive-behaviour-profiles-in-williams-syndrome-cross-syndrome-comparisons-with-prader-willi-and-down-syndromes
#17
R Royston, C Oliver, J Moss, D Adams, K Berg, C Burbidge, P Howlin, L Nelson, C Stinton, J Waite
This study describes the profile of repetitive behaviour in individuals with Williams syndrome, utilising cross-syndrome comparisons with people with Prader-Willi and Down syndromes. The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire was administered to caregivers of adults with Williams (n = 96), Prader-Willi (n = 103) and Down (n = 78) syndromes. There were few group differences, although participants with Williams syndrome were more likely to show body stereotypies. Individuals with Williams syndrome also showed more hoarding and less tidying behaviours than those with Down syndrome...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939393/contributions-of-self-criticism-and-shame-to-hoarding
#18
Chia-Ying Chou, Janice Tsoh, Ofilio Vigil, David Bain, Soo Y Uhm, Gillian Howell, Joanne Chan, Monika Eckfield, Julian Plumadore, Elena Chan, Kiya Komaiko, Lauren Smith, John Franklin, Eduardo Vega, Kevin Delucchi, Carol A Mathews
Pathological hoarding-related beliefs, such as need to control possessions, and inflated sense of responsibility over possessions, have been used to explain the development of symptoms of hoarding disorder (HD). While these beliefs have been the focus of the current standard treatment for HD, it is of significant clinical interest to further examine other constructs that may be linked to, or may underliethese beliefs, as well as the pathology of HD. To this end, the current study aimed to build on existing findings regarding the relationship of compromised self-identity with HD...
September 13, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884650/communities-ready-for-takeoffintegrating-social-assets-for-biofuel-site-selection-modeling
#19
Sanne A M Rijkhoff, Season A Hoard, Michael J Gaffney, Paul M Smith
Although much of the social science literature supports the importance of community assets for success in many policy areas, these assets are often overlooked when selecting communities for new infrastructure facilities. Extensive collaboration is crucial for the success of environmental and economic projects, yet it often is not adequately addressed when making siting decisions for new projects. This article develops a social asset framework that includes social, creative, and human capital to inform site-selection decisions...
2017: Politics and the Life Sciences: the Journal of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864119/value-based-decision-making-under-uncertainty-in-hoarding-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorders
#20
Helen Pushkarskaya, David Tolin, Lital Ruderman, Daniel Henick, J MacLaren Kelly, Christopher Pittenger, Ifat Levy
Difficulties in decision making are a core impairment in a range of disease states. For instance, both obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding disorder (HD) are associated with indecisiveness, inefficient planning, and enhanced uncertainty intolerance, even in contexts unrelated to their core symptomology. We examined decision-making patterns in 19 individuals with OCD, 19 individuals with HD, 19 individuals with comorbid OCD and HD, and 57 individuals from the general population, using a well-validated choice task grounded in behavioral economic theory...
December 2017: Psychiatry Research
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