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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777342/selective-predation-on-acorn-weevils-by-seed-caching-siberian-chipmunk-tamias-sibiricus-in-a-tripartite-interaction
#1
Yueqin Yang, Zhenyu Wang, Chuan Yan, Yihao Zhang, Dongyuan Zhang, Xianfeng Yi
Although food-hoarding animals benefit plant seeds by generating predation pressure on granivorous insects, we lack experimental evidence of whether the tripartite interactions maintain a mutualistic relationship between the third trophic level and primary producers. Relying on the behavior of shelling, Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) selectively consumed weevil larvae infested in acorns of Mongolian oak (Quercus mongolica) but chose the non-infested acorns to scatter-hoard. Shelling not only reduced volatile emission from acorns but also decreased cache loss to pilferers, weevil larvae and fungi, allowing T...
May 19, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768075/evaluating-mice-lacking-serum-carboxylesterase-as-a-behavioral-model-for-nerve-agent-intoxication
#2
Emily N Dunn, Teresa M Ferrara-Bowens, Mark E Chachich, Cary L Honnold, Cristin C Rothwell, Heidi M Hoard-Fruchey, Catherine A Lesyna, Erik A Johnson, Douglas M Cerasoli, John H McDonough, C Linn Cadieux
Mice and other rodents are typically utilized for chemical warfare nerve agent research. Rodents have large amounts of carboxylesterase in their blood, while humans do not. Carboxylesterase non-specifically binds to and detoxifies nerve agent. The presence of this natural bioscavenger makes mice and other rodents poor models for studies identifying therapeutics to treat humans exposed to nerve agents. To obviate this problem, a serum carboxylesterase knockout (Es1 KO) mouse was created. In this study, Es1 KO and wild type (WT) mice were assessed for differences in gene expression, nerve agent (soman; GD) median lethal dose (MLD) values, and behavior prior to and following nerve agent exposure...
May 16, 2018: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754020/the-relationship-between-schizotypal-traits-and-hoarding-symptoms-an-examination-of-symptom-specificity-and-the-role-of-perceived-cognitive-failures
#3
Marc J Weintraub, Caitlin A Brown, Kiara R Timpano
BACKGROUND: Hoarding disorder presents significant individual and interpersonal consequences. Because hoarding has only recently been added to the DSM, relatively little is known about associated comorbidity patterns. Several researchers have postulated a relationship between hoarding and schizotypy. To date, however, no investigations have considered which specific types of schizotypal traits relate to hoarding symptoms. METHODS: We examined the association between hoarding and schizotypal symptoms using multivariate analyses in two samples-a sample of 120 young adults and a community sample of 291 individuals recruited from Mechanical Turk's online crowdsourcing system...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751168/subjective-cognitive-function-in-hoarding-disorder
#4
David F Tolin, Lauren S Hallion, Bethany M Wootton, Hannah C Levy, Amber L Billingsley, Akanksha Das, Benjamin W Katz, Michael C Stevens
The aim of the present study was to examine subjective cognitive impairment among adult patients with hoarding disorder (HD). Eighty-three patients with HD and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy control (HC) participants received a diagnostic interview and completed measures of subjective cognitive functioning and motivations for saving behavior, as well as measures of hoarding severity, depression, anxiety, stress, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. The HD group reported more impairment than did the HC group in domains of memory, distractibility, blunders, memory for names, and inattention...
May 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660644/scared-and-surrounded-by-clutter-the-influence-of-emotional-reactivity
#5
Cassandra Crone, Melissa M Norberg
BACKGROUND: Home visits can improve treatment outcomes for hoarding disorder, but factors influencing the success of home visits remain unknown. As home visits expose individuals to clutter and fear, the present study examined the effect that fear and emotional reactivity have on the relationship between clutter and discarding behaviour. METHODS: Participants with at least subclinical discarding problems (n = 143) were asked to save or discard personal possessions of varying value following an emotional induction that took place in either a tidy or cluttered context...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652103/a-10-year-follow-up-study-of-japanese-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#6
Akihiro Nakajima, Naomi Matsuura, Keiichiro Mukai, Kyosuke Yamanishi, Hisashi Yamada, Kensei Maebayashi, Kazuhisa Hayashida, Hisato Matsunaga
AIM: Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a well-known chronic illness. This study retrospectively investigated 10-year outcomes and associated clinical factors in Japanese obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. We focused on the impact of several sociocultural factors, including medical expenses and insurance systems specific to each country, on the differences or biases in follow-up procedures of obsessive-compulsive disorder. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder who received a standardized combination of treatments for 10 continuous years were divided into three groups according to their improvement rates on the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale after 10 years of treatment...
April 13, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608213/my-possessions-need-me-anthropomorphism-and-hoarding
#7
Alexandra M Burgess, Lucy M Graves, Randy O Frost
Hoarding disorder (HD), a new DSM-5 classification, is characterized by difficulty discarding and the excessive acquisition of possessions to the extent that living spaces are compromised by clutter. Individuals with hoarding difficulties have a variety of motivations for object ownership, including emotional attachment towards their possessions which sometimes manifests through imbuing possessions with human-like terms. Limited extant evidence suggests that anthropomorphism, attributing human qualities to non-human objects, is related to hoarding, possibly because of difficulties with interpersonal attachment and social isolation...
April 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601478/did-harvey-learn-from-katrina-initial-observations-of-the-response-to-companion-animals-during-hurricane-harvey
#8
Steve Glassey
The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 became the genesis of animal emergency management and created significant reforms in the US particularly the passage of the Pets Emergency and Transportation Standards Act in 2006 that required state and local emergency management arrangements to be pet- and service animal-inclusive. More than a decade later Hurricane Harvey struck the Gulf states with all 68 directly related deaths occurring in the state of Texas. In this study, six key officials involved in the response underwent a semi-structured interview to investigate the impact of the PETS Act on preparedness and response...
March 30, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578575/hybrid-chickadees-are-deficient-in-learning-and-memory
#9
Michael A McQuillan, Timothy C Roth Ii, Alex V Huynh, Amber M Rice
Identifying the phenotypes underlying postzygotic reproductive isolation is crucial for fully understanding the evolution and maintenance of species. One potential postzygotic isolating barrier that has rarely been examined is learning and memory ability in hybrids. Learning and memory are important fitness-related traits, especially in scatter-hoarding species, where accurate retrieval of hoarded food is vital for winter survival. Here, we test the hypothesis that learning and memory ability can act as a postzygotic isolating barrier by comparing these traits among two scatter-hoarding songbird species, black-capped (Poecile atricapillus), Carolina chickadees (Poecile carolinensis), and their naturally occurring hybrids...
March 26, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522839/the-ontogeny-of-food-caching-behaviour-in-new-zealand-robins-petroica-longipes
#10
Lisabertha L Clark, Rachael C Shaw
Hoarding or caching behaviour is a widely-used paradigm for examining a range of cognitive processes in birds, such as social cognition and spatial memory. However, much is still unknown about how caching develops in young birds, especially in the wild. Studying the ontogeny of caching in the wild will help researchers to identify the mechanisms that shape this advantageous foraging strategy. We examined the ontogeny of food caching behaviour in a wild New Zealand passerine, the North Island robin (Petroica longipes)...
June 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514723/how-foraging-works-uncertainty-magnifies-food-seeking-motivation
#11
Patrick Anselme, Onur Güntürkün
Food uncertainty has the effect of invigorating food-related responses. Psychologists have noted that mammals and birds respond more to a conditioned stimulus that unreliably predicts food delivery, and ecologists have shown that animals (especially small passerines) consume and/or hoard more food and can get fatter when access to that resource is unpredictable. Are these phenomena related? We think they are. Psychologists have proposed several mechanistic interpretations, while ecologists have suggested a functional interpretation: the effect of unpredictability on fat reserves and hoarding behavior is an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply...
March 8, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508639/a-transcultural-study-of-hoarding-disorder-insights-from-the-united-kingdom-spain-japan-and-brazil
#12
Ashley E Nordsletten, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Elena Aluco, Pino Alonso, Clara López-Solà, José M Menchón, Tomohiro Nakao, Masumi Kuwano, Satoshi Yamada, Leonardo F Fontenelle, André Luís Campos-Lima, David Mataix-Cols
Though problematic hoarding is believed to be a universal human behavior, investigations of clinically-defined hoarding disorder (HD) have been confined almost exclusively to Western countries. The current investigation sought to describe and directly compare the features of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for HD across four distinct cultural settings. Participants were 82 individuals meeting DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for HD, recruited and assessed by trained clinicians at one of four project sites: London, Barcelona, Fukuoka, and Rio de Janeiro...
April 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491996/spatially-biased-dispersal-of-acorns-by-a-scatter-hoarding-corvid-may-accelerate-passive-restoration-of-oak-habitat-on-california-s-largest-island
#13
Mario B Pesendorfer, T Scott Sillett, Scott A Morrison
Scatter hoarding by corvids (crows, jays, magpies, and nutcrackers) provides seed dispersal for many large-seeded plants, including oaks and pines. When hoarding seeds, corvids often choose nonrandom locations throughout the landscape, resulting in differential survival of seeds. In the context of habitat restoration, such disproportional storing of seeds in areas suitable for germination and establishment can accelerate expansion and recovery of large-seeded tree populations and their associated ecosystems...
August 2017: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444605/anxious-attachment-and-excessive-acquisition-the-mediating-roles-of-anthropomorphism-and-distress-intolerance
#14
Melissa M Norberg, Cassandra Crone, Cathy Kwok, Jessica R Grisham
Background and aims Most individuals with hoarding disorder (HD) are prone to excessively acquiring new possessions. Understanding the factors that contribute to this collecting behavior will allow us to develop better treatment approaches for HD. The aim of this study was to test our assumption that an anxious attachment style is associated with a tendency to anthropomorphize comforting objects and an inability to tolerate distress, which in turn leads to excessive acquisition. Methods A total of 361 participants with subclinical to clinical acquisition problems (77...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436775/the-effects-of-rodent-abundance-and-richness-on-cache-pilfering
#15
Jacob W Dittel, Stephen B Vander Wall
Scatter hoarding is a common behavioral strategy to conserve food during periods of scarcity, but this type of food storage is vulnerable to theft or pilferage. A variety of environmental factors and cache characteristics influence the rate of pilferage. Here we investigate two environmental factors, which heretofore have not received much attention: the abundance and species richness of scatter-hoarding animals in the vicinity of scatter-hoarded seeds. We measured the rate of cache pilferage at seven sites that differed in the number and species composition of granivorous rodents in western Nevada using local native seeds and sunflower seeds...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411356/enhancing-group-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-hoarding-disorder-with-between-session-internet-based-clinician-support-a-feasibility-study
#16
Volen Z Ivanov, Jesper Enander, David Mataix-Cols, Eva Serlachius, Kristoffer N T Månsson, Gerhard Andersson, Oskar Flygare, David Tolin, Christian Rück
OBJECTIVE: Hoarding disorder (HD) is difficult to treat. In an effort to increase efficacy and engagement in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), we developed and evaluated a novel intervention comprising group CBT combined with between-session Internet-based clinician support for people with HD. METHOD: Twenty participants with HD received group CBT combined with an Internet-support system enabling therapist-participant communication between group sessions. RESULTS: The treatment was associated with a significant reduction on the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R) and a large effect size (Cohen's d = 1...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408159/a-naturalistic-exploratory-study-of-obsessive-compulsive-bipolar-comorbidity-in-youth
#17
Gabriele Masi, Stefano Berloffa, Maria Mucci, Chiara Pfanner, Giulia D'Acunto, Francesca Lenzi, Francesca Liboni, Azzurra Manfredi, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence supports the comorbidity between bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. Our aim is to further explore clinical and treatment implications of this comorbidity, as it appears in clinical practice. METHOD: The sample included 429 consecutive patients with BD and/or OCD as primary diagnoses, followed for a mean period of 6 months (range 4-9 months), 172 with BD (102 males, mean age 13.7±2...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353402/factors-affecting-the-referral-rate-of-the-hoarding-disorder-at-primary-mental-health-care-in-quebec
#18
Yuliya Bodryzlova, Kieron O'Connor
Hoarding disorder (HD) places an important burden on people with HD, on their family members and society. In this paper we evaluate help-seeking in HD at primary mental health, measured in referral rate, together with its individual, environmental and structural correlates. We conducted an aggregate study by combining existing official data with our own survey data at the catchment area level. We found a mean annual referral rate of 1.58 (SD = 1.79) cases of HD in primary mental health facilities per 10,000 of adult population...
January 20, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316800/pro-dopamine-regulator-kb220z-attenuates-hoarding-and-shopping-behavior-in-a-female-diagnosed-with-sud-and-adhd
#19
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Bruce Steinberg, Edward J Modestino, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Background Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution. Case presentation C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301668/brain-structural-correlates-of-subclinical-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-healthy-children
#20
Maria Suñol, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Marta Subirà, Jesús Pujol, Jordi Sunyer, Carles Soriano-Mas
OBJECTIVE: Subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms are frequently observed in children and have been reported to predict a subsequent diagnosis of OC disorder (OCD). Therefore, identifying the putative neurobiological signatures of such risk is crucial, because it would allow for the characterization of the underpinnings of OCD without the interfering effects of chronicity, medication, or comorbidities, especially when interpreted within the context of OCD clinical heterogeneity and taking into account normal neurodevelopmental changes...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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