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Lisabertha L Clark, Rachael C Shaw
Hoarding or caching behaviour is a widely-used paradigm for examining a range of cognitive processes in birds, such as social cognition and spatial memory. However, much is still unknown about how caching develops in young birds, especially in the wild. Studying the ontogeny of caching in the wild will help researchers to identify the mechanisms that shape this advantageous foraging strategy. We examined the ontogeny of food caching behaviour in a wild New Zealand passerine, the North Island robin (Petroica longipes)...
March 6, 2018: Behavioural Processes
Patrick Anselme, Onur Güntürkün
Food uncertainty has the effect of invigorating food-related responses. Psychologists have noted that mammals and birds respond more to a conditioned stimulus that unreliably predicts food delivery, and ecologists have shown that animals (especially small passerines) consume and/or hoard more food and can get fatter when access to that resource is unpredictable. Are these phenomena related? We think they are. Psychologists have proposed several mechanistic interpretations, while ecologists have suggested a functional interpretation: the effect of unpredictability on fat reserves and hoarding behavior is an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply...
March 8, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Ashley E Nordsletten, Lorena Fernández de la Cruz, Elena Aluco, Pino Alonso, Clara López-Solà, José M Menchón, Tomohiro Nakao, Masumi Kuwano, Satoshi Yamada, Leonardo F Fontenelle, André Luís Campos-Lima, David Mataix-Cols
Though problematic hoarding is believed to be a universal human behavior, investigations of clinically-defined hoarding disorder (HD) have been confined almost exclusively to Western countries. The current investigation sought to describe and directly compare the features of individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for HD across four distinct cultural settings. Participants were 82 individuals meeting DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for HD, recruited and assessed by trained clinicians at one of four project sites: London, Barcelona, Fukuoka, and Rio de Janeiro...
January 1, 2018: Transcultural Psychiatry
Mario B Pesendorfer, T Scott Sillett, Scott A Morrison
Scatter hoarding by corvids (crows, jays, magpies, and nutcrackers) provides seed dispersal for many large-seeded plants, including oaks and pines. When hoarding seeds, corvids often choose nonrandom locations throughout the landscape, resulting in differential survival of seeds. In the context of habitat restoration, such disproportional storing of seeds in areas suitable for germination and establishment can accelerate expansion and recovery of large-seeded tree populations and their associated ecosystems...
August 2017: Current Zoology
Melissa M Norberg, Cassandra Crone, Cathy Kwok, Jessica R Grisham
Background and aims Most individuals with hoarding disorder (HD) are prone to excessively acquiring new possessions. Understanding the factors that contribute to this collecting behavior will allow us to develop better treatment approaches for HD. The aim of this study was to test our assumption that an anxious attachment style is associated with a tendency to anthropomorphize comforting objects and an inability to tolerate distress, which in turn leads to excessive acquisition. Methods A total of 361 participants with subclinical to clinical acquisition problems (77...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Jacob W Dittel, Stephen B Vander Wall
Scatter hoarding is a common behavioral strategy to conserve food during periods of scarcity, but this type of food storage is vulnerable to theft or pilferage. A variety of environmental factors and cache characteristics influence the rate of pilferage. Here we investigate two environmental factors, which heretofore have not received much attention: the abundance and species richness of scatter-hoarding animals in the vicinity of scatter-hoarded seeds. We measured the rate of cache pilferage at seven sites that differed in the number and species composition of granivorous rodents in western Nevada using local native seeds and sunflower seeds...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
Volen Z Ivanov, Jesper Enander, David Mataix-Cols, Eva Serlachius, Kristoffer N T Månsson, Gerhard Andersson, Oskar Flygare, David Tolin, Christian Rück
OBJECTIVE: Hoarding disorder (HD) is difficult to treat. In an effort to increase efficacy and engagement in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), we developed and evaluated a novel intervention comprising group CBT combined with between-session Internet-based clinician support for people with HD. METHOD: Twenty participants with HD received group CBT combined with an Internet-support system enabling therapist-participant communication between group sessions. RESULTS: The treatment was associated with a significant reduction on the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R) and a large effect size (Cohen's d = 1...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Gabriele Masi, Stefano Berloffa, Maria Mucci, Chiara Pfanner, Giulia D'Acunto, Francesca Lenzi, Francesca Liboni, Azzurra Manfredi, Annarita Milone
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence supports the comorbidity between bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in children and adolescents. Our aim is to further explore clinical and treatment implications of this comorbidity, as it appears in clinical practice. METHOD: The sample included 429 consecutive patients with BD and/or OCD as primary diagnoses, followed for a mean period of 6 months (range 4-9 months), 172 with BD (102 males, mean age 13.7±2...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Yuliya Bodryzlova, Kieron O'Connor
Hoarding disorder (HD) places an important burden on people with HD, on their family members and society. In this paper we evaluate help-seeking in HD at primary mental health, measured in referral rate, together with its individual, environmental and structural correlates. We conducted an aggregate study by combining existing official data with our own survey data at the catchment area level. We found a mean annual referral rate of 1.58 (SD = 1.79) cases of HD in primary mental health facilities per 10,000 of adult population...
January 20, 2018: Community Mental Health Journal
Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Bruce Steinberg, Edward J Modestino, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Eric R Braverman, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
Background Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution. Case presentation C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Maria Suñol, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Marta Subirà, Jesús Pujol, Jordi Sunyer, Carles Soriano-Mas
OBJECTIVE: Subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms are frequently observed in children and have been reported to predict a subsequent diagnosis of OC disorder (OCD). Therefore, identifying the putative neurobiological signatures of such risk is crucial, because it would allow for the characterization of the underpinnings of OCD without the interfering effects of chronicity, medication, or comorbidities, especially when interpreted within the context of OCD clinical heterogeneity and taking into account normal neurodevelopmental changes...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Isaac Karimi, Shima Motamedi, Lora A Becker
The crucial role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) gene and its active isoform, xanthine oxidase (XO), in purine metabolism and cellular oxidative status led us to investigative their fluctuations in food deprivation induced food hoarding in mice. After, 10 h food deprivation, mice that hoarded lesser than 5 g were considered as 'low-hoarders' while mice that hoarded higher than 20 g were considered as 'high-hoarders'. Mice who hoarded between 5 to 20 g of food were excluded from study. An increase (1.133-fold) in encephalic XOR expression has been found in high-hoarders compared with low-hoarders without sex consideration...
December 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Benjamin Wong, Rebecca Lewandowski, Justin Tressler, Katherine Sherman, Jaclynn Andres, Jennifer Devorak, Cristin Rothwell, Tracey Hamilton, Heidi Hoard-Fruchey, Alfred M Sciuto
Phosphine (PH3) is a toxidrome-spanning chemical that is widely used as an insecticide and rodenticide. Exposure to PH3 causes a host of target organ and systemic effects, including oxidative stress, cardiopulmonary toxicity, seizure-like activity and overall metabolic disturbance. A custom dynamic inhalation gas exposure system was designed for the whole-body exposure of conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) to PH3. An integrated plethysmography system was used to collect respiratory parameters in real-time before, during and after PH3 exposure...
December 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Vlasios Brakoulias, Iain E Perkes, Emmanouil Tsalamanios
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that many people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have subclinical symptoms years before the development of their disorder and that early treatment may reduce its severity. AIM: To explore prevention and early intervention strategies for OCD. METHODS: A narrative literature review was conducted. RESULTS: The literature in relation to the prevention of OCD is sparse. Genetic and environmental factors appear to be relevant to the aetiology of OCD, for example, the observation that hoarding symptoms and contamination/cleaning symptoms are more likely to also be present in first-degree relatives...
December 14, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
David M R Orr, Michael Preston-Shoot, Suzy Braye
Hoarding has become increasingly prominent in clinical practice and popular culture in recent years, giving rise to extensive research and commentary. Critical responses in the social sciences have criticised the cultural assumptions built in to the construct of 'hoarding disorder' and expressed fears that it may generate stigma outweighing its benefits; however, few of these studies have engaged directly with 'hoarders' themselves. This paper reports on in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 10 individuals living in England, who received assessment and intervention for hoarding from Social Services...
December 12, 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
Jordan Wilson, Erik Wilkerson, Maria Filippou-Frye, Carolyn Rodriguez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
David C Geary, Kristy vanMarle, Felicia W Chu, Jeffrey Rouder, Mary K Hoard, Lara Nugent
We demonstrate a link between preschoolers' quantitative competencies and their school-entry knowledge of the relations among numbers (number-system knowledge). The quantitative competencies of 141 children (69 boys) were assessed at the beginning of preschool and throughout the next 2 years of preschool, as was their mathematics and reading achievement at the end of kindergarten and their number-system knowledge at the beginning of first grade. A combination of Bayes analyses and standard regressions revealed that the age at which the children had the conceptual insight that number words represent specific quantities (cardinal value) was strongly related to their later number-system knowledge and was more consistently related to broader mathematics than to reading achievement, controlling for intelligence, executive function, and parental education levels...
February 2018: Psychological Science
Claire Patry, Sylvain Closier, Élise Lafon, Corine Carlier-Verhaeghe, Angélique Kerrien, Armelle Bertrand, Emmanuelle Caudron
Diogenes syndrome is a chronic condition often affecting elderly people, especially those living in isolation. It is characterised by self-neglect and compulsive hoarding. Medico-social professionals working with people in their home, have reflected on levers to help improve the complex support of these patients.
December 2017: Revue de L'infirmière
Hannah C Levy, Blaise L Worden, Christina M Gilliam, Christine D'Urso, Gail Steketee, Randy O Frost, David F Tolin
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an empirically-supported treatment for hoarding disorder (HD). However, meta-analytic studies suggest that CBT is only modestly effective, and a significant number of individuals with HD remain symptomatic following treatment. To inform the development of more effective and targeted treatments, it will be important to clarify the mechanisms of treatment response in CBT for HD. To this end, the current study examined whether change in maladaptive saving beliefs mediated symptom change in CBT for HD...
July 2017: Journal of Obsessive-compulsive and related Disorders
Mekala Sundaram, Nathanael I Lichti, Nicole J Olynk Widmar, Robert K Swihart
Seeds of many hardwood trees are dispersed by scatter-hoarding rodents, and this process is often mediated by the traits of seeds. Although numerous studies have linked seed traits to seed preference by rodents, little is known about how rodents forage for seeds when multiple desirable and undesirable seed traits are available simultaneously. Here, we adopt a novel method of designing choice experiments to study how eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) select for 6 traits (caloric value, protein content, tannin concentration, kernel mass, dormancy period and toughness of shell) among seeds...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
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