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Yi Mou, Yaoran Li, Mary K Hoard, Lara D Nugent, Felicia W Chu, Jeffrey N Rouder, David C Geary
The conceptual insight that fractions represent magnitudes is a critical yet daunting step in children's mathematical development, and the knowledge of fraction magnitudes influences children's later mathematics learning including algebra. In this study, longitudinal data were analyzed to identify the mathematical knowledge and domain-general competencies that predicted 8(th) and 9(th) graders' (n=122) knowledge of fraction magnitudes and its cross-grade gains. Performance on the fraction magnitude measures predicted 9(th) grade algebra achievement...
July 2016: Cognitive Development
Dean McKay
Hoarding in children is associated with more severe ancillary psychopathology, and has poor treatment outcome. At present, there are no empirically established procedures for treating hoarding in youth. The present case illustration is of a 10-year old child ("Grace") who presented for treatment with significant hoarding related to academic concerns and additional unrelated symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Grace was treated with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) primarily comprising exposure with response prevention, behavioral experiments, and cognitive therapy, along with a program of reinforcement delivered by her parents to maintain her motivation for therapy...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Hongmao Zhang, Wei Chu, Zhibin Zhang
It is not well investigated that cultivated trees affect seeding regeneration of their wild relatives that share similar seed dispersers of animals. Here, we investigated the differences in seed fates of cultivated walnut (Juglans regia) and wild Manchurian walnut (J. mandshurica) trees under rodent predation and dispersal. J. regia seeds have higher nutritional value (large size, mass and kernel mass) and lower mechanical defensiveness (thin endocarp) than J. mandshurica seeds. We tracked seeds of J. regia and J...
October 13, 2016: Integrative Zoology
Miloš Buřič, Martin Fořt, Martin Bláha, Lukáš Veselý, Pavel Kozák, Antonín Kouba
Invertebrates are a very diverse group of animals, showing a wide spectrum of life strategies and adaptations. They often exhibit very complex behavioural and social patterns. In crayfish, the largest freshwater invertebrates, we found a new behavioural pattern, burying their own exuviae after moulting. Such a pattern may be an as yet unrecognized type of hoarding or caching. The buried exuvia is exhumed after 2 or 3 days (when the crayfish body is no longer as soft) and consumed. This behaviour is probably self-protective (hiding the mark of a helpless prey), as well as having mineral storage reasons...
2016: SpringerPlus
Kristin Naragon-Gainey, Jason M Prenoveau, Timothy A Brown, Richard E Zinbarg
Prominent structural models of depression and anxiety arise from 2 traditions: (a) the tripartite/integrative hierarchical model based on symptom dimensions, and (b) the fear/anxious-misery model based on diagnostic comorbidity data. The tri-level model of depression and anxiety was developed to synthesize these structural models, postulating that narrow (disorder-specific), intermediate (fear and anxious-misery), and broad (general distress) structural factors are needed to most fully account for covariation among these symptoms...
October 2016: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Motohisa Hirose, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Chihiro Sutoh, Kenichi Asano, Haruko Miyata, Junko Matsumoto, Michiko Nakazato, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by symptom dimensions. Although substantial numbers of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of brain abnormalities in OCD, their results are controversial. The clinical heterogeneity of OCD could be one of the reasons for this. It has been hypothesized that certain brain regions contributed to the respective obsessive-compulsive dimensions. In this study, we investigated the relationship between symptom dimensions of OCD and brain morphology using voxel-based morphometry to discover the specific regions showing alterations in the respective dimensions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Amanda M Raines, Mary E Oglesby, Nicholas P Allan, Nicole A Short, Norman B Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: Whereas a triple vulnerability model has been used to evaluate several anxiety- and mood-related conditions, no research has purposefully examined hoarding from this perspective. METHOD: Using a multivariate approach, the current study evaluated the unique relations between hoarding and a general biological (e.g., neuroticism), psychological (e.g., anxiety sensitivity), and hoarding-specific vulnerability (e.g., saving cognitions) within 526 individuals...
2016: Psychiatry
Biniam Paulos, Teferi Gedif Fenta, Daniel Bisrat, Kaleab Asres
BACKGROUND: Health seeking behavior of people around the globe is affected by different socio-cultural and economic factors. In Ethiopia, people living in rural areas in particular, are noted for their use of medicinal plants as a major component of their health care option. This study was conducted to document ethnopharmacological information of the Hamer semi-pastoralists ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out whereby information on demographic characteristics, prevalence of perceived illnesses, factors associated with preference of health care seeking options, medicinal plants used and hoarded as well as some healers' socio-economic characteristics were collected using two sets of semi-structured questionnaires - one for household (HH) heads and the other for traditional healers supplemented by focus group discussions (FGDs)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Dorian S Olivera, Heidi Hoard-Fruchey, Alfred M Sciuto
Therapeutic development against exposure to toxic gases is hindered by the lack of appropriate models to evaluate candidate compounds prior to animal efficacy studies. In this study, an in vitro, air-liquid interface exposure model has been tested to examine its potential application for screening treatments for phosgene (carbonyl chloride)-induced pulmonary injury. Epithelial cultures on Transwell® inserts, combined with a Vitrocell® exposure apparatus, provided a physiologically relevant exposure environment...
October 4, 2016: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
Giacomo Grassi, Laura Micheli, Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli, Elisa Compagno, Lorenzo Righi, Carla Ghelardini, Stefano Pallanti
Despite several studies suggested that inattention and impulsivity-compulsivity could represent two core dimensions of hoarding disorder (HD), only a small case series study investigated the effectiveness of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD) medications in HD. The aim of the present study was to target attentional and inhibitory control networks in HD patients through the ADHD medication atomoxetine, moving from a preclinical investigation on an animal model of compulsive-like behavior (marble burying test) to a clinical investigation on both medicated and unmedicated patients with a primary diagnosis of HD without ADHD...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Richard Cramer, Michel Vols
Hoarding is an internationally recognised disability. Those who suffer from hoarding behaviour can be comfortably brought within the definition of disability found in the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and should be provided with "reasonable accommodation" where doing so does not place an unjustified burden on others. However, hoarding also poses a threat to public health, and hoarders' behaviour may infringe on the rights of their neighbours and landlords. Thus, through their behaviour, hoarders may ultimately come into conflict with various areas of law, including neighbour law, housing law as well as administrative law...
September 21, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Juliana Braga Gomes, Aristides Volpato Cordioli, Cristiane Flôres Bortoncello, Daniela Tusi Braga, Francine Gonçalves, Elizeth Heldt
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) with the brief involvement of family members on family accommodation and to identify predictors of family accommodation reduction (patient and family member characteristics). This randomized clinical trial assessed 98 pairs of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and their family members: 52 (53.1%) were allocated to the intervention group (12 CBGT sessions - two with the family member), and 46 (46.9%) to a waiting list (control group)...
September 15, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Sareh Asadi, Azin Daraeian, Behrouz Rahmani, Atiye Kargari, Abolhassan Ahmadiani, Jamal Shams
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder. This study aimed to reach a comprehensive perspective of OCD symptoms in Iranian patients. Item-based factor analysis of Y-BOCS checklist from 216 outpatients resulted in five factors including aggression/checking, contamination/cleaning, symmetry/ordering/repeating/counting/hoarding, sexual and somatic. Regression analyses showed that miscellaneous items can be predicted by these factors. Results showed that OCD subtypes in Iranian patients resemble to those of other nations except the aggressive, sexual and religious obsessions; demonstrating the influence of the culture on obsession manifestation...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Michiyo Yagi, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Michiko Nakazato, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Kazuhiro Ishikawa, Chihiro Sutoh, Haruko Miyata, Junko Matsumoto, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Takayuki Obata, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu, Akiko Nakagawa
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the severities of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and white matter alterations. METHODS: We applied tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquired by 3T magnetic resonance imaging. First, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) between 20 OCD patients and 30 healthy controls (HC). Then, applying whole brain analysis, we searched the brain regions showing correlations between the severities of symptom dimensions assessed by Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and FA in all participants...
September 13, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Bronwen J A Jugg, Heidi Hoard-Fruchey, Cristin Rothwell, James F Dillman, Jonathan David, John Jenner, Alfred M Sciuto
Sulfur mustard (HD) is a vesicating and alkylating agent widely used on the battlefield during World War I and more recently in the Iran-Iraq War. It targets the eyes, skin, and lungs, producing skin burns, conjunctivitis, and compromised respiratory function; early acute effects lead to long-term consequences. However, it is the effects on the lungs that drive morbidity and eventual mortality. The temporal postexposure response to HD within lung tissue raises the question of whether toxicity is driven by the alkylating properties of HD on critical homeostatic pathways...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Zhen Wang, Yuan Wang, Qing Zhao, Kaida Jiang
Hoarding disorder, newly included as a separate diagnostic entity in the Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders section of DSM-5, has been reported to have significantly different symptoms and etiology than obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the validity of this new diagnosis in China - where the storing of possessions is sanctioned and normalized - remains to be proven. We considered available data about pathological hoarding in East Asia and found the condition to be relatively common and symptomatically similar to that reported in western countries...
April 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
Gregory A Hanley, Jennie Hoard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 23, 2016: Lab Animal
Amanda M Raines, Nicole A Short, Kelly L Fuller, Nicholas P Allan, Mary E Oglesby, Norman B Schmidt
Despite clear indications that hoarding behaviors contribute to social isolation and strained family relationships, no research to date has examined the associations between hoarding and several important interpersonal constructs (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness). Moreover, no research has examined how these various interpersonal needs may account for the associations between symptoms of hoarding and depression. Community participants (N = 125) with elevated hoarding symptoms were assessed on the interpersonal constructs of interest...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Maria O'Shaughnessy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Randy O Frost, Clarissa Ong, Gail Steketee, David F Tolin
An essential criterion for hoarding disorder (HD) is difficulty discarding or parting with possessions, yet few studies have examined reactions to actual discarding behaviors. The present study examined whether individuals with HD differed from non-hoarding community controls (CC) in discarding behavior and emotional reactions to discarding. A second purpose was to examine the course of experienced distress following discarding. A third purpose was to determine whether HD participants responded differently to a simple thought listing (TL) instruction or to a cognitive restructuring (CR) protocol...
October 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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