Read by QxMD icon Read


Lotta K Stenman, Markus J Lehtinen, Nils Meland, Jeffrey E Christensen, Nicolas Yeung, Markku T Saarinen, Michael Courtney, Rémy Burcelin, Marja-Leena Lähdeaho, Jüri Linros, Dan Apter, Mika Scheinin, Hilde Kloster Smerud, Aila Rissanen, Sampo Lahtinen
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota is interlinked with obesity, but direct evidence of effects of its modulation on body fat mass is still scarce. We investigated the possible effects of Bifidobacterium animalisssp. lactis 420 (B420) and the dietary fiber Litesse® Ultra polydextrose (LU) on body fat mass and other obesity-related parameters. METHODS: 225 healthy volunteers (healthy, BMI 28-34.9) were randomized into four groups (1:1:1:1), using a computer-generated sequence, for 6months of double-blind, parallel treatment: 1) Placebo, microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 2) LU, 12g/d; 3) B420, 10(10)CFU/d in microcrystalline cellulose, 12g/d; 4) LU+B420, 12g+10(10)CFU/d...
October 26, 2016: EBioMedicine
Agnieszka Mika, Heidi E W Day, Alexander Martinez, Nicole L Rumian, Benjamin N Greenwood, Maciej Chichlowski, Brian M Berg, Monika Fleshner
Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health-promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviours such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioural and biological responses to stress later in life...
October 20, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Mariane Moreira Ramiro do Carmo, Julia Clara Leite Walker, Daiana Novello, Valeria Maria Caselato, Valdemiro Carlos Sgarbieri, Arthur C Ouwehand, Nelson Adami Andreollo, Priscila Aiko Hiane, Elisvânia Freitas Dos Santos
Polydextrose (PDX) is a non-digestible oligosaccharide used widely across most sectors of the food industry. It is a randomly linked glucose oligomer containing small amounts of sorbitol and citric acid. The random bonds in PDX prevent mammalian digestive enzymes from readily hydrolyzing the molecule and it has a reported energy value of 1 kcal/g. These properties have led to the acceptance in many countries that PDX provides similar physiological effects as other dietary fibers and has shown prebiotic potential...
2016: Nutrients
Rosaline V Waworuntu, Taleen Hanania, Steven R Boikess, Christopher S Rex, Brian M Berg
Early life nutrition plays an important role in brain development. Emerging research in rodents, piglets and humans suggest that prebiotics, milk fat globule membrane and lactoferrin may each play unique roles in brain development and cognitive functions. However, knowledge of their combined impact is lacking. We show here that providing weanling rats with a diet containing milk fat globule membrane, lactoferrin and a polydextrose/galactooligosaccharide prebiotic blend led to a significant increase in total dendritic spine density in hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons...
September 4, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Christine M Crincoli, Andrey I Nikiforov, Marisa O Rihner, Elizabeth A Lambert, Melanie A Greeley, Justin Godsey, Alex K Eapen, Jennifer L G van de Ligt
The potential toxicity of corn starch fiber was assessed and compared to polydextrose, a commonly used bulking agent with a long history of safe use in the food supply. Groups of male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (control), 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day corn starch fiber in the diet for 90 days. The polydextrose reference article was offered on a comparable regimen at 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Following a single gavage dose of [(14)C]-corn starch fiber on study day 13 or 90, the mass balance of the test article was assessed by analysis of excreta samples collected from 0 to 168 h post-dose...
August 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Stephanie Collins, Gregor Reid
The gut microbiome is being more widely recognized for its association with positive health outcomes, including those distant to the gastrointestinal system. This has given the ability to maintain and restore microbial homeostasis a new significance. Prebiotic compounds are appealing for this purpose as they are generally food-grade substances only degraded by microbes, such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, from which beneficial short-chain fatty acids are produced. Saccharides such as inulin and other fructo-oligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, and polydextrose have been widely used to improve gastrointestinal outcomes, but they appear to also influence distant sites...
2016: Nutrients
Renata Trindade Rigon, Caciano P Zapata Noreña
Blackberry aqueous extract acidified with 2 % citric acid was spray-dried using gum Arabic (GA) and polydextrose (PD) as encapsulating agents at concentrations of 10 and 15 % and temperatures of 140 to 160 °C. All powders presented high solubility, ranging from 88.2 to 97.4 %, and the encapsulation conditions did not significantly affect the hygroscopicity. The powders produced with gum Arabic showed higher brightness than those with polydextrose. The anthocyanins retention in the microcapsules was 878...
March 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Sneha Sehwag, Madhusweta Das
Whole jamun based functional confection (WJFC) was developed from an optimized blend (through response surface methodology) containing 26.585 % paste of jamun pulp with adhering skin, 2 % jamun seed powder, hydrocolloid mixture (2.289 % agar, 1.890 % pectin and 27.236 % polydextrose), antimicrobials (0.022 % benzoic acid and 0.085 % sorbic acid), and 40 % added water. The confection also contained 0.08 % sucralose, 0.06 % citric acid and 100 mg CaCl2.2H2O/g pectin. The confection was found to be rich in minerals like Ca, Mg, K, Na and P, with prebiotic activity and low glycemic index (48...
June 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Kaisa Olli, Markku T Saarinen, Sofia D Forssten, Mari Madetoja, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Kirsti Tiihonen
Obesity is related to the consumption of energy-dense foods in addition to changes in the microbiome where a higher abundance of gut Bacteroidetes can be found in lean subjects or after weight loss. Lactitol, a sweet-tasting sugar alcohol, is a common sugar-replacement in foods. Polydextrose (PDX), a highly branched glucose polymer, is known to reduce energy intake. Here, we test if the combined effects of lactitol or PDX in combination with Bacteroides species will have a beneficial metabolic response in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
Christine M Crincoli, Vicenta Garcia-Campayo, Marisa O Rihner, Andrey I Nikiforov, DeAnn Liska, Jennifer L G van de Ligt
Two independent clinical studies were conducted to compare the gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability of corn starch fiber, a novel dietary fiber, at up to 50 g/day (single-dose study) or 90 g/day (multiple-serving study) with a negative control (no fiber) and a positive control (50 or 90 g polydextrose, for single- and multiple-serving studies, respectively) in generally healthy study volunteers. Flatulence and borborygmus were the primary symptoms reported at the higher doses of corn starch fiber and for the positive control interventions...
November 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Yean Yean Soong, Wen Xin Lim, Melvin Khee Shing Leow, Phei Ching Siow, Ai Ling Teh, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
The short-term effect of soya protein, polydextrose and their combination on energy intake (EI) was investigated in Chinese. In total, twenty-seven healthy, normotensive and lean Chinese men aged 21-40 years were given four different soyabean curd preloads with or without polydextrose. The study was a repeated-measure, randomised, cross-over design. The consumption of high-protein soyabean curd alone or in addition with polydextrose as a preload led to greater reduction in EI at a subsequent meal. A similar observation was also found after intake of low-protein soyabean curd with polydextrose...
June 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Kirsten Berding, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Lindsey S Alexander, Austin T Mudd, Maciej Chichlowski, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Michael J Miller, Ryan N Dilger, Sharon M Donovan
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that the addition of prebiotics and 2 functional milk ingredients to infant formula would maintain normal growth and gut development, and modify microbiota composition and neurotransmitter gene expression in neonatal piglets. METHODS: Two-day-old male piglets (n = 24) were fed formula (CONT) or formula with polydextrose (1.2 g/100 g diet), galactooligosaccharides (3.5 g/100 g diet), bovine lactoferrin (0.3 g/100 g diet), and milk fat globule membrane-10 (2...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Jayadev Raju, Jennifer Roberts, QiXuan Chen, Syed A Aziz, Don Caldwell, Ranjana P Bird, Kylie A Scoggan, Stephen Pj Brooks
BACKGROUND: The role of fermentation compared with the source or type of the fermentable material in colon tumorigenesis remains an issue in refining the definition of dietary fiber (DF). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation and source-specific effects of various carbohydrates in a medium-term colon tumorigenesis model. METHODS: Six-week-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups (n = 36/group) to receive either AIN-93G (control) or diets containing fructooligosaccharides, wheat bran (WB), oat bran (OB), polydextrose, or high-amylose maize starch (HAMS), each adjusted to contain a total DF concentration of 7% (wt:wt) and have a fermentability of 3% (wt:wt)...
March 9, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
M V Pontes, T C M Ribeiro, H Ribeiro, A P de Mattos, I R Almeida, V M Leal, G N Cabral, S Stolz, W Zhuang, D M F Scalabrin
BACKGROUND: Nutrients such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), prebiotics and β-glucan have been associated with reduced incidence of respiratory illnesses and allergic manifestations (AM). Our objective was to assess if consumption of a cow's milk-based beverage with these and other nutrients supports respiratory, gastrointestinal, and skin health in otherwise well-nourished, healthy children. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, healthy children (1-4 years of age) from two daycare centers in Brazil were fed three servings/day of a cow's milk-based beverage (CMBB; n = 125) containing DHA, the prebiotics polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS), β-glucan, and other key nutrients, or a control cow's milk-based beverage (control; n = 131) for up to 28 weeks...
2016: Nutrition Journal
Alvin Ibarra, Nerys M Astbury, Kaisa Olli, Esa Alhoniemi, Kirsti Tiihonen
INTRODUCTION: Subjective feelings of appetite are measured using visual analogue scales (VAS) in controlled trials. However, the methods used to analyze VAS during the Satiation (pre- to post-meal) and Satiety (post-meal to subsequent meal) periods vary broadly, making it difficult to compare results amongst independent studies testing the same product. This review proposes a methodology to analyze VAS during both the Satiation and Satiety periods, allowing us to compare results in a meta-analysis...
January 14, 2016: Nutrients
Sheila K Jacobi, Tanya Yatsunenko, Dongpei Li, Somsankar Dasgupta, Robert K Yu, Brian M Berg, Maciej Chichlowski, Jack Odle
BACKGROUND: Sialyllactose is a key human milk oligosaccharide and consists of sialic acid (SA) bound to a lactose molecule. Breastfed infants have increased accumulation of ganglioside-bound SA compared with formula-fed infants. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether different isomers of sialyllactose enrich brain SA and modulate the microbiome of developing neonatal piglets. METHODS: Day-old pigs were randomly allocated to 6 diets (control, 2 or 4 g 3'-sialyllactose/L, 2 or 4 g 6'-sialyllactose/L, or 2 g polydextrose/L + 2 g galacto-oligosaccharides/L; n = 9) and fed 3 times/d for 21 d...
February 2016: Journal of Nutrition
William H Johnston, Claude Ashley, Michael Yeiser, Cheryl L Harris, Suzanne I Stolz, Jennifer L Wampler, Anja Wittke, Timothy R Cooper
BACKGROUND: Human milk provides necessary macronutrients (protein, carbohydrate, fat) required for infant nutrition. Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional iron-binding protein predominant in human milk, shares similar protein sequence, structure, and bioactivity with bovine Lf (bLf). This large-scale pediatric nutrition study was designed to evaluate growth and tolerance in healthy infants who received study formulas with bLf at concentrations within the range of mature human milk. METHODS: In this multi-center, double-blind, parallel-designed, gender-stratified prospective study 480 infants were randomized to receive a marketed routine cow's milk-based infant formula (Control; n = 155) or one of two investigational formulas with bLf at 0...
2015: BMC Pediatrics
Luiza Siede Kuck, Caciano Pelayo Zapata Noreña
Bordo grape skin extract was microencapsulated by spray-drying and freeze-drying, using gum arabic (GA), partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), and polydextrose (PD) as encapsulating agents. Total phenolics and total monomeric anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, color, moisture, water activity (aw), solubility, hygroscopicity, glass transition temperature (Tg), particle size, and microstructure of the powders were evaluated. The retention of phenolics and anthocyanins ranged from 81.4% to 95.3%, and 80.8% to 99...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Sofia D Forssten, Henna Röytiö, Ashley A Hibberd, Arthur C Ouwehand
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile is a natural resident of the intestinal microbiota; however, it becomes harmful when the normal intestinal microbiota is disrupted, and overgrowth and toxin production occurs. The toxins can cause bloating and diarrhoea, which may cause severe disease and have the potential to cause outbreaks in hospitals and other healthcare settings. Normally, antibiotic agents are used for treatment, although for some of the patients, these treatments provide only a temporary relief with a recurrence of C...
2015: Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease
Mikiko Shimada, Nobuo Nagano, Saori Goto, Kyoko Ito, Takaaki Tsutsui, Tetsuo Ando, Hiroharu Kamioka, Tetsuya Ogawa
The objective of the present study was to evaluate bowel habits induced by ingestion of 10 g polydextrose (PDX) fed to Japanese hemodialysis (HD) patients. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind, parallel-group controlled, 8-wk study. A total of 50 HD outpatients capable of self-management (51-79 y of age) were recruited at H Clinic, Japan. Inclusion criteria for participation in the study were ingestion of one or more laxative tablets for more than 3 mo and having received HD for more than 6 mo...
2015: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"