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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779223/gene-editing-vectors-for-studying-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-cholinergic-transmission
#1
Can Peng, Yijin Yan, Veronica J Kim, Staci E Engle, Jennifer N Berry, J Michael McIntosh, Rachael L Neve, Ryan M Drenan
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), prototype members of the cys-loop ligand gated ion channel family, are key mediators of cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Despite their importance, technical gaps exist in our ability to dissect the function of individual subunits in the brain. To overcome these barriers, we designed CRISPR/Cas9 small guide RNA sequences (sgRNAs) for production of loss-of-function alleles in mouse nAChR genes. These sgRNAs were validated in vitro via deep sequencing...
May 19, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779129/practical-impact-of-a-decision-support-for-goal-directed-fluid-therapy-on-protocol-adherence-a-clinical-implementation-study-in-patients-undergoing-major-abdominal-surgery
#2
Alexandre Joosten, Reda Hafiane, Marco Pustetto, Luc Van Obbergh, Thierry Quackels, Alexis Buggenhout, Jean-Louis Vincent, Brigitte Ickx, Joseph Rinehart
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of using a real time clinical decision-support system, "Assisted Fluid Management" (AFM), to guide goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) during major abdominal surgery. We compared a group of patients managed using the AFM system with a historical cohort of patients (control group) who had been managed using a manual GDFT strategy. Adherence to the protocol was defined as the relative intraoperative time spent with a stroke volume variation (SVV) < 13%...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774792/hypofractionated-radiotherapy-is-superior-to-conventional-fractionation-in-an-orthotopic-model-of-anaplastic-thyroid-cancer
#3
Ayman J Oweida, Andy Phan, Benjamin Vancourt, Tyler Robin, Mohammad K Hararah, Shilpa Bhatia, Dallin Milner, Shelby Lennon, Laura Pike, David Raben, Bryan R Haugen, Nikita Pozdeyev, Rebecca E Schweppe, Sana D Karam
Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an aggressive and highly lethal disease with poor outcomes and resistance to therapy. Despite multimodality treatment including radiation therapy and chemotherapy, response rates remain below 15% with a median time to progression of less than 3 months. Recent advances in radiotherapy delivery and gene-expression profiling may help guide patient selection for personalized therapy. The purpose of this study was to characterize the response to radiation in a panel of ATC cell lines and to test alternative radiotherapy fractionation schedules for overcoming radioresistance...
May 18, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773895/crispr-cas9-system-targeting-regulatory-genes-of-hiv-1-inhibits-viral-replication-in-infected-t-cell-cultures
#4
Youdiil Ophinni, Mari Inoue, Tomohiro Kotaki, Masanori Kameoka
The CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a novel and promising tool for editing the HIV-1 proviral genome. We designed RNA-guided CRISPR/Cas9 targeting the HIV-1 regulatory genes tat and rev with guide RNAs (gRNA) selected from each gene based on CRISPR specificity and sequence conservation across six major HIV-1 subtypes. Each gRNA was cloned into lentiCRISPRv2 before co-transfection to create a lentiviral vector and transduction into target cells. CRISPR/Cas9 transduction into 293 T and HeLa cells stably expressing Tat and Rev proteins successfully abolished the expression of each protein relative to that in non-transduced and gRNA-absent vector-transduced cells...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773790/crispr-cas9-mediated-gene-targeting-in-arabidopsis-using-sequential-transformation
#5
Daisuke Miki, Wenxin Zhang, Wenjie Zeng, Zhengyan Feng, Jian-Kang Zhu
Homologous recombination-based gene targeting is a powerful tool for precise genome modification and has been widely used in organisms ranging from yeast to higher organisms such as Drosophila and mouse. However, gene targeting in higher plants, including the most widely used model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, remains challenging. Here we report a sequential transformation method for gene targeting in Arabidopsis. We find that parental lines expressing the bacterial endonuclease Cas9 from the egg cell- and early embryo-specific DD45 gene promoter can improve the frequency of single-guide RNA-targeted gene knock-ins and sequence replacements via homologous recombination at several endogenous sites in the Arabidopsis genome...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771773/endobronchial-ultrasound-guided-transbronchial-needle-aspiration-with-a-19-g-needle-device
#6
Alain Tremblay, Seamus McFadden, Martina Bonifazi, Valentina Luzzi, Samuel V Kemp, Stefano Gasparini, Alex Chee, Paul MacEachern, Elaine Dumoulin, Christopher A Hergott, Pallav L Shah
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is a well-established first-line minimally invasive modality for mediastinal lymph node sampling. Although results are excellent overall, the technique underperforms in certain situations. We aimed to describe our results using a new 19-G EBUS-guided transbronchial needle aspiration device to determine safety and feasibility of this approach. METHODS: We completed a retrospective chart review of all cases performed to the time of data analysis at each of 3 study sites...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770453/determinants-of-wheat-noodle-color
#7
REVIEW
Craig F Morris
Noodles are a leading food in the world, and color is a key determinant of consumer acceptance. In this review the two prominent forms of wheat noodles are considered, white salted and alkaline. Many of the preparation and evaluation strategies are the same for both, with prominence placed on 'brightness' (L*) or a lack of discoloration (ΔL*), and the absence of 'specks'. All raw noodles darken over time. Increasing protein content of flours almost always translates into darker noodles. Greater discoloration is also associated with higher flour extraction rates, higher ash contents and higher starch damage...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769099/circulating-esr1-mutations-at-the-end-of-aromatase-inhibitor-adjuvant-treatment-and-after-relapse-in-breast-cancer-patients
#8
Violette Allouchery, Ludivine Beaussire, Anne Perdrix, David Sefrioui, Laetitia Augusto, Cécile Guillemet, Nasrin Sarafan-Vasseur, Frédéric Di Fiore, Florian Clatot
BACKGROUND: Detection of circulating ESR1 mutations is associated with acquired resistance to aromatase inhibitor (AI) in metastatic breast cancer. Until now, the presence of circulating ESR1 mutations at the end of adjuvant treatment by AI in early breast cancer had never been clearly established. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the circulating ESR1 mutation frequency at the end of adjuvant treatment and after relapse. METHODS: This monocentric retrospective study was based on available stored plasmas and included all early breast cancer patients who completed at least 2 years of AI adjuvant treatment and experienced a documented relapse after the end of their treatment...
May 16, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768484/herbivory-responsive-calmodulin-like-protein-cml9-does-not-guide-jasmonate-mediated-defenses-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#9
Monika Heyer, Sandra S Scholz, Dagmar Voigt, Michael Reichelt, Didier Aldon, Ralf Oelmüller, Wilhelm Boland, Axel Mithöfer
Calcium is an important second messenger in plants that is released into the cytosol early after recognition of various environmental stimuli. Decoding of such calcium signals by calcium sensors is the key for the plant to react appropriately to each stimulus. Several members of Calmodulin-like proteins (CMLs) act as calcium sensors and some are known to mediate both abiotic and biotic stress responses. Here, we study the role of the Arabidopsis thaliana CML9 in different stress responses. CML9 was reported earlier as defense regulator against Pseudomonas syringae...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766231/available-bone-morphology-and-status-of-neural-structures-in-the-mandibular-interforaminal-region-three-dimensional-analysis-of-anatomical-structures
#10
Duygu Goller Bulut, Emre Köse
PURPOSE: This study aimed to clarify the size and morphology of the mandible and to determine state of neural structures for the planning of the dental implantation using cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Of the 252 patients, CBCT images of 48 selected patients were evaluated. The bone height and width were measured and the type of the mental portion of the inferior alveolar canal, the anterior loop length (ALL), the location of the incisive canal and lingual foramen were identified with cross-sectional and multiplane reformatted CBCT images...
May 15, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763906/the-therapeutic-effect-of-icam-1-overexpressing-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#11
Bo Tang, Xue Li, Yuanlin Liu, Xiuhui Chen, Ximei Li, Yanan Chu, Heng Zhu, Weijiang Liu, Fenfen Xu, Fan Zhou, Yi Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) do not readily migrate to appropriate sites, and this creates a major obstacle for their use in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) can guide the homing of various immune cells to the proper anatomical location within secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), which are the major niches for generating immune responses or tolerance. MSCs rarely migrate to SLOs after intravenous infusion, and are constitutively low expression of ICAM-1...
May 7, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762716/crispor-intuitive-guide-selection-for-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-experiments-and-screens
#12
Jean-Paul Concordet, Maximilian Haeussler
CRISPOR.org is a web tool for genome editing experiments with the CRISPR-Cas9 system. It finds guide RNAs in an input sequence and ranks them according to different scores that evaluate potential off-targets in the genome of interest and predict on-target activity. The list of genomes is continuously expanded, with more 150 genomes added in the last two years. CRISPOR tries to provide a comprehensive solution from selection, cloning and expression of guide RNA as well as providing primers needed for testing guide activity and potential off-targets...
May 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762138/theranostic-gold-magnetite-hybrid-nanoparticles-for-mri-guided-radiosensitization
#13
Devid Maniglio, Filippo Benetti, Luca Minati, Jorge Jovicich, Aldo Valentini, G Speranza, Claudio Migliaresi
The main limitation of drug-enhanced radiotherapy concerns the difficulty to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer targeting after drug administration hindering the standardization of therapies based on current radiosensitizing compounds. The challenge regards the development of systems able to combine imaging and radiotherapy enhancement in order to perform highly reliable cancer theragnosis. For these reasons, gold-magnetite hybrid nanoparticles are proposed as innovative theranostic nanotools for imaging-guided radiosensitization in cancer treatment...
May 15, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761891/processed-electroencephalogram-and-evoked-potential-techniques-for-amelioration-of-postoperative-delirium-and-cognitive-dysfunction-following-non-cardiac-and-non-neurosurgical-procedures-in-adults
#14
REVIEW
Yodying Punjasawadwong, Waraporn Chau-In, Malinee Laopaiboon, Sirivimol Punjasawadwong, Pathomporn Pin-On
BACKGROUND: Postoperative delirium (POD) and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) may complicate a patient's postoperative recovery in several ways. Monitoring of processed electroencephalogram (EEG) or evoked potential (EP) indices may prevent or minimize POD and POCD, probably through optimization of anaesthetic doses. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether the use of processed EEG or auditory evoked potential (AEP) indices (bispectral index (BIS), narcotrend index, cerebral state index, state entropy and response entropy, patient state index, index of consciousness, A-line autoregressive index, and auditory evoked potentials (AEP index)) as guides to anaesthetic delivery can reduce the risk of POD and POCD in non-cardiac surgical or non-neurosurgical adult patients undergoing general anaesthesia compared with standard practice where only clinical signs are used...
May 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761638/ultra-sound-guided-neurolysis-of-six-genicular-nerves-of-knee-for-intractable-pain-from-knee-osteoarthritis-a-case-series
#15
Arif Ahmed, Divesh Arora
INTRODUCTION: Among the elderly populations, the chronic osteoarthritis of knee joint is one of the leading cause of disability and causes considerable pain, joint stiffness and functional limitations. Although knee replacement is a good option for the grade IV osteoarthritis, but many patients failed to undergo surgery due to co-morbidities or other reasons. METHODS: Four patient with severe pain from grade III and IV osteoarthritis of knee joint had underwent ultrasound guided alcohol neurolysis of the six genicular nerves of knee joint after a positive genicular nerve block with local anesthetics...
May 14, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761462/navigating-xenbase-an-integrated-xenopus-genomics-and-gene-expression-database
#16
Christina James-Zorn, Virgilio Ponferrada, Malcolm E Fisher, Kevin Burns, Joshua Fortriede, Erik Segerdell, Kamran Karimi, Vaneet Lotay, Dong Zhuo Wang, Stanley Chu, Troy Pells, Ying Wang, Peter D Vize, Aaron Zorn
Xenbase is the Xenopus model organism database ( www.xenbase.org ), a web-accessible resource that integrates the diverse genomic and biological data for Xenopus research. It hosts a variety of content including current and archived genomes for both X. laevis and X. tropicalis, bioinformatic tools for comparative genetic analyses including BLAST and GBrowse, annotated Xenopus literature, and catalogs of reagents including antibodies, ORFeome clones, morpholinos, and transgenic lines. Xenbase compiles gene-specific pages which include manually curated gene expression images, functional information including gene ontology (GO), disease associations, and links to other major data sources such as NCBI:Entrez, UniProtKB, and Ensembl...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760780/derivative-chromosomes-involving-5p-large-rearranged-segments-went-unnoticed-with-the-use-of-conventional-cytogenetics
#17
Emiy Yokoyama, Victoria Del Castillo, Silvia Sánchez, Sandra Ramos, Bertha Molina, Leda Torres, María José Navarro, Silvia Avila, José Luis Castrillo, Benilde García-De Teresa, Bárbara Asch, Sara Frías
Background: In countries where comparative genomic hybridization arrays (aCGH) and next generation sequencing are not widely available due to accessibility and economic constraints, conventional 400-500-band karyotyping is the first-line choice for the etiological diagnosis of patients with congenital malformations and intellectual disability. Conventional karyotype analysis can rule out chromosomal alterations greater than 10 Mb. However, some large structural abnormalities, such as derivative chromosomes, may go undetected when the analysis is performed at less than a 550-band resolution and the size and banding pattern of the interchanged segments are similar...
2018: Molecular Cytogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760061/methylglucosylation-of-aromatic-amino-and-phenolic-moieties-of-drug-like-biosynthons-by-combinatorial-biosynthesis
#18
Linan Xie, Liwen Zhang, Chen Wang, Xiaojing Wang, Ya-Ming Xu, Hefen Yu, Ping Wu, Shenglan Li, Lida Han, A A Leslie Gunatilaka, Xiaoyi Wei, Min Lin, István Molnár, Yuquan Xu
Glycosylation is a prominent strategy to optimize the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drug-like small-molecule scaffolds by modulating their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and bioactivity. Glycosyltransferases applicable for "sugarcoating" various small-molecule acceptors have been isolated and characterized from plants and bacteria, but remained cryptic from filamentous fungi until recently, despite the frequent use of some fungi for whole-cell biocatalytic glycosylations...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759622/5-year-outcome-of-pulmonary-vein-isolation-by-loss-of-pace-capture-on-the-ablation-line-versus-electrical-circumferential-pulmonary-vein-isolation
#19
Julia Moser, Arian Sultan, Jakob Lüker, Helge Servatius, Tim Salzbrunn, Manuel Altenburg, Benjamin Schäffer, Doreen Schreiber, Ruken Ö Akbulak, Julia Vogler, Boris A Hoffmann, Stephan Willems, Daniel Steven
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare long-term arrhythmia-free survival between electrical circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and PVI with the endpoint of unexcitability along the ablation line. BACKGROUND: PVI is the standard ablation strategy of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, although arrhythmia recurrence in long-term follow-up (FU) is high. The endpoint of unexcitability along the ablation line results in decreased arrhythmia recurrence compared to electrical PVI in 1-year FU...
November 2017: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759589/ultrasound-guided-subacromial-subdeltoid-bursa-corticosteroid-injections-a-study-of-short-and-long-term-outcomes
#20
R Fawcett, A Grainger, P Robinson, M Jafari, E Rowbotham
AIM: To assess shoulder pain and disability in patients undergoing corticosteroid injection into the subacromial-subdeltoid (SA-SD) bursa under ultrasound guidance, evaluating both short and long-term outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, longitudinal, analytical study 376 patients referred for SA-SD bursa injection during a 6 month period were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing shoulder pain and disability in the form of the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI)...
May 11, 2018: Clinical Radiology
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