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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098413/dermatomal-spread-following-posterior-transversus-abdominis-plane-block-in-pediatric-patients-our-initial-experience
#1
Maria A Hernandez, Tricia Vecchione, Karen Boretsky
INTRODUCTION: Several techniques for the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block have been described. The extent of sensory changes using an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block (pTAP) remains unclear in pediatric patients. The primary aim of this study was to report the extent of sensory changes achieved with pTAP; specifically the highest thoracic dermatome anesthetized. Secondary outcomes were pain scores (PS), opioid consumption, and complications. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients less than 21 years of age undergoing abdominal surgery with a unilateral or bilateral pTAP(s) for postoperative analgesia...
January 18, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096354/loss-of-get-pathway-orthologs-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-causes-root-hair-growth-defects-and-affects-snare-abundance
#2
Shuping Xing, Dietmar Gerald Mehlhorn, Niklas Wallmeroth, Lisa Yasmin Asseck, Ritwika Kar, Alessa Voss, Philipp Denninger, Vanessa Aphaia Fiona Schmidt, Markus Schwarzländer, York-Dieter Stierhof, Guido Grossmann, Christopher Grefen
Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins are key players in cellular trafficking and coordinate vital cellular processes, such as cytokinesis, pathogen defense, and ion transport regulation. With few exceptions, SNAREs are tail-anchored (TA) proteins, bearing a C-terminal hydrophobic domain that is essential for their membrane integration. Recently, the Guided Entry of Tail-anchored proteins (GET) pathway was described in mammalian and yeast cells that serve as a blueprint of TA protein insertion [Schuldiner M, et al...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093892/multinucleated-giant-cells-in-the-implant-bed-of-bone-substitutes-are-foreign-body-giant-cells-new-insights-into-the-material-mediated-healing-process
#3
Mike Barbeck, Patrick Booms, Ronald Unger, Verena Hoffmann, Robert Sader, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Shahram Ghanaati
In addition to macrophages, multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs) are involved in the tissue reaction to a variety of biomaterials. Especially in the case of bone substitute materials it has been assumed that the MNGCs are osteoclasts, based on the chemical and physical similarity of many materials to the calcified matrix and the bony environment in which they are used. However, many studies indicate that these cells belong to the cell line of the foreign body giant cells (FBGCs), which are of "inflammatory origin", although they have been shown to possess both a pro- and also anti-inflammatory phenotype...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092989/therapeutic-complement-inhibition-a-promising-approach-for-treatment-of-neuroimmunological-diseases
#4
Kjara S Pilch, Peter Spaeth, Yuki Nobuhiro, Benjamin R Wakerley
Autoimmunity is an important cause of disease both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Aetiologies and clinical manifestations are complex and heterogeneous. Inappropriate control of complement activation at inappropriate sites has been recognized as a major determinant in several neurological conditions, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and neuromyelitis optica. In each case pathogenesis is thought to be associated with generation of autoantibodies which upon binding guide activation of the complement system to self-tissue...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092975/characterisation-of-the-antiproliferative-constituents-and-activity-of-ficus-exasperata-vahl-on-ovarian-cancer-cells-a-preliminary-investigation
#5
Enitome E Bafor, Jennifer McKenna, Edward G Rowan, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common gynaecological cancers today. This study therefore investigates the anticancer effects of Ficus exasperata extracts and fractions on ovarian cancer cells. The antiproliferative activity of the crude extracts (1 mg/mL) was assessed using the MTT assay on A2780 (ovarian cancer) cell line. Bio-activity guided fractionation was performed and preliminary identification was further achieved using high resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 17, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091612/ribosome-profiling-guided-depletion-of-an-mrna-increases-cell-growth-rate-and-protein-secretion
#6
Thomas Beuchert Kallehauge, Shangzhong Li, Lasse Ebdrup Pedersen, Tae Kwang Ha, Daniel Ley, Mikael Rørdam Andersen, Helene Faustrup Kildegaard, Gyun Min Lee, Nathan E Lewis
Recombinant protein production coopts the host cell machinery to provide high protein yields of industrial enzymes or biotherapeutics. However, since protein translation is energetically expensive and tightly controlled, it is unclear if highly expressed recombinant genes are translated as efficiently as host genes. Furthermore, it is unclear how the high expression impacts global translation. Here, we present the first genome-wide view of protein translation in an IgG-producing CHO cell line, measured with ribosome profiling...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089716/a-characterization-of-the-antimalarial-activity-of-the-bark-of-cylicodiscus-gabunensis-harms
#7
Omar Aldulaimi, Fidelia I Uche, Hamza Hameed, Haddijatou Mbye, Imran Ullah, Falko Drijfhout, Timothy D W Claridge, Paul Horrocks, Wen-Wu Li
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE AND AIM: A decoction of the bark of Cylicodiscus gabunensis Harms is used as a traditional medicine in the treatment of malaria in Nigeria. This study aims to validate the antimalarial potency of this decoction in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum and define potential bioactive constituents within the C. gabunensis bark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bioassay-guided separation and fractionation protocol was applied to C. gabunensis extracts, exploiting the use of a Malaria Sybr Green I Fluorescence assay method to monitor antiproliferative effects on parasites as well as define 50% inhibition concentrations...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089598/impact-of-focused-intraoperative-transthoracic-echocardiography-by-anesthesiologists-on-management-in-hemodynamically-unstable-high-risk-noncardiac-surgery-patients
#8
Thomas Kratz, Thorsten Steinfeldt, Maik Exner, Marco Campo Dell Orto, Nina Timmesfeld, Caroline Kratz, Martin Skrodzki, Hinnerk Wulf, Martin Zoremba
OBJECTIVES: Focused transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is used perioperatively for surgical patients. Intraoperative application of TTE is feasible, but its benefits remain unclear. The intention of this study was to investigate the effect of intraoperative TTE on the management of high-risk noncardiac surgery patients. DESIGN: A prospective interventional study. SETTING: Single-center university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty consecutive hemodynamically unstable high-risk patients anesthetized for noncardiac surgery...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088309/-new-therapy-outlooks-in-hodgkin-lymphoma
#9
REVIEW
Cédric Rossi, René-Olivier Casasnovas
Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a curable disease in 80% of advanced and 90% of localized stages. An improvement of the HL curability is still possible with the emergence of first-line therapy with a better balance between efficacy and toxicity and early identification patients with high risk of failure requiring specific treatment. 18FDG PET-CT gained a major role in the baseline staging and response assessment to HL treatment. The prognostic value of early PET-CT allowed to develop PET-CT guided therapies able to optimize the balance between efficacy and toxicity including the modulation of the chemotherapy intensity or the omission of radiotherapy for some localized diseases...
January 11, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087821/selection-of-first-line-therapy-in-multiple-sclerosis-using-risk-benefit-decision-analysis
#10
David Bargiela, Matthew T Bianchi, M Brandon Westover, Lori B Chibnik, Brian C Healy, Philip L De Jager, Zongqi Xia
OBJECTIVE: To integrate long-term measures of disease-modifying drug efficacy and risk to guide selection of first-line treatment of multiple sclerosis. METHODS: We created a Markov decision model to evaluate disability worsening and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) risk in patients receiving natalizumab (NTZ), fingolimod (FGL), or glatiramer acetate (GA) over 30 years. Leveraging publicly available data, we integrated treatment utility, disability worsening, and risk of PML into quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087710/targeting-argonaute-to-chromatin
#11
Jered M Wendte, Craig S Pikaard
In many eukaryotes, siRNAs bound to Argonaute proteins guide chromatin-modifying enzymes to complementary loci, resulting in transcriptional gene silencing. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that siRNAs base-pair with longer RNAs produced at target loci, but the possibility that siRNAs base-pair directly with DNA remains an attractive hypothesis. In a recent study, Shimada et al. (pp. 2571-2580) conducted experiments that address these alternative hypotheses, yielding additional evidence that fission yeast siRNA-Argonaute silencing complexes are recruited to target loci exclusively via interactions with nascent transcripts...
December 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078374/-anaesthesia-procedures-and-invasive-vascular-access-in-severely-injured-patients-at-trauma-room-admission-in-germany-an-online-survey
#12
M F Struck, P Hilbert-Carius, B Hossfeld, J Hinkelbein, M Bernhard, T Wurmb
BACKGROUND: The continuous monitoring of vital parameters and subsequent therapy belong to the core duties of anaesthetists during acute trauma resuscitation in the trauma room. Important procedures may include placement of arterial lines and central venous catheters (CVCs). Knowledge of indication, performance and localization of invasive catheterisation of trauma care in Germany is scarce. METHODS: After approval of the German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine we conducted an online survey about arterial and central venous catheterisation of severely injured patients with consideration of common practice used by anaesthetists in German trauma rooms...
January 11, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077739/the-emergence-of-undergraduate-majors-in-global-health-systematic-review-of-programs-and-recommendations-for-future-directions
#13
Paul K Drain, Charles Mock, David Toole, Anne Rosenwald, Megan Jehn, Thomas Csordas, Laura Ferguson, Caryl Waggett, Chinekwu Obidoa, Judith N Wasserheit
Global health education has been expanding rapidly and several universities have created an undergraduate major degree (bachelor's degree) in global heath or global health studies. Because there are currently no national guidelines for undergraduate degrees in global health, each of these programs was developed along individual lines. To guide the development of future global health majors, we conducted a systematic review of undergraduate majors in global health. We identified eight programs and invited program directors or representatives to a symposium at the Consortium of Universities for Global Health 2016 conference to review their existing undergraduate major in global health and to discuss lessons learned and recommendations for other colleges and universities seeking to develop undergraduate degrees in global health...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077117/topoisomerase-i-copy-number-alterations-as-biomarker-for-irinotecan-efficacy-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#14
Jesper Andreas Palshof, Estrid Vilma Solyom Høgdall, Tim Svenstrup Poulsen, Dorte Linnemann, Benny Vittrup Jensen, Per Pfeiffer, Line Schmidt Tarpgaard, Nils Brünner, Jan Stenvang, Mette Yilmaz, Dorte Lisbet Nielsen
BACKGROUND: No biomarker exists to guide the optimal choice of chemotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We examined the copy numbers (CN) of topoisomerase I (TOP1) as well as the ratios of TOP1/CEN-20 and TOP1/CEN-2 as biomarkers for irinotecan efficacy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. METHODS: From a national cohort, we identified 163 patients treated every third week with irinotecan 350 mg/m(2) as second-line therapy. Among these 108 were eligible for analyses and thus entered the study...
January 11, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074451/ercp-with-stenting-of-traumatic-pancreatic-duct-transection-a-case-report
#15
Deepa Prashant Makhija, Jayesh Desale, Charu Tiwari, Hemanshi Shah
Pancreatic injuries, though rare, are associated with high morbidity because of location of pancreas adjacent to the various hollow and solid organs. Difficulty in early diagnosis adds to morbidity. Condition of the pancreatic duct is an important factor in grading the injury and deciding upon course of management. Conservative management is the line of treatment in lower grade injuries. Higher grades of pancreatic injuries are usually managed surgically. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) has recently emerged as an effective diagnostic as well as therapeutic modality for hepatobiliary and pancreatic pathologies...
November 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072976/-establishment-and-validation-of-human-cancer-cell-lines-with-stable-cas9-expression
#16
X C Bian, Z L Yang, H L Feng, X M Zhao, B Gu, J Li, H Sun, Y Q Liu
Objective: To establish human cancer cell strains with stable Cas9 expression, and to validate the gene editing activity of Cas9 for simple gene editing in future study. Methods: Fifteen cancer cell lines of different tissue origins were infected with pLv-EF1α-Cas9-Flag-Neo or pLv-EF1α-Cas9-Flag-Puro by lentivirus and clone selection was employed to screen Cas9 stably expressed cancer cell lines. Afterward designed guide RNA vectors targeting TSC22 gene were transiently transfected into 3 of cell lines, and subsequently the gene editing activity of Cas9 was evaluated by genomic PCR, sequencing and Western blot...
January 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072730/bortezomib-combined-with-lenalidomide-as-the-first-line-treatment-for-the-rare-synchronous-occurrence-of-multiple-myeloma-and-pulmonary-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report
#17
Wenli Zuo, Xinghu Zhu, Jingke Yang, Zhenyang Mei, Mei Deng, Quande Lin, Yongping Song, Qingsong Yin
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous multiple myeloma (MM) and pulmonary adenocarcinoma is a rare occurrence, and thus, treatment is a challenge. This study reports on 1 such case of MM with concurrent lung cancer, where an accurate diagnosis was made and the patient underwent treatment for both cancers. CASE SUMMARY: A 68-year-old man presented with 2 months of progressive lower back pain. Visualization with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple collapsed vertebrae from T12 to S3, as well as an altered signal intensity at the T3 vertebra...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072603/dyserythropoiesis-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#18
Carine Lefèvre, Sabrina Bondu, Salomé Le Goff, Olivier Kosmider, Michaela Fontenay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous diseases of the hematopoietic stem cell in the elderly. Anemia is the main symptom that mostly correlates with dysplastic erythropoiesis in the bone marrow. We will review the recent advances in understanding the diverse mechanisms of dyserythropoiesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Dyserythropoiesis defined as 10% dysplastic erythroid cells in the bone marrow is found in more than 80% of early MDS. Immature erythroblasts accumulate at the expense of mature erythroblasts due to differentiation arrest and apoptosis...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072555/on-constructing-ensembles-for-combinatorial-optimisation
#19
Emma Hart, Kevin Sim
Although the use of ensemble methods in machine-learning is ubiquitous due to their proven ability to outperform their constituent algorithms, ensembles of optimisation algorithms have received relatively little attention. Existing approaches lag behind machine-learning in both theory and practice, with no principled design guide-lines available. In this paper, we address fundamental questions regarding ensemble composition in optimisation using the domain of bin-packing as a example; in particular we investigate the trade-off between accuracy and diversity, and whether diversity metrics can be used as a proxy for constructing an ensemble, proposing a number of novel metrics for comparing algorithm diversity...
January 10, 2017: Evolutionary Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072424/a-theoretical-and-experimental-investigation-of-mechanical-damage-to-rodent-sperm-generated-by-microscale-ice-formation
#20
X Han, J K Critser
:   BACKGROUND: Rodent sperm cryopreservation is of critical importance for the maintenance of lines or strains of genetically engineered mice and rats. However, rodent sperm are extremely mechanically sensitive due to their unusual morphology, and are severely damaged using current methods of cryopreservation. Those methods result in poor post thaw motility (PTM) for mouse. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mechanism of mechanical damage introduced to rodent sperm during freezing, a micro-mechanical model was established to analyze the sperm radial and axial thermal stresses generated by microscale extracellular ice formation...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
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