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Lavanya Kakarla, Suresh Babu Katragadda, Ashok K Tiwari, K Srigiridhar Kotamraju, K Madhusudana, D Anand Kumar, Mahendran Botlagunta
BACKGROUND: Cyperus scariosus R. Br and Cyperus rotundus L are widely used in ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes and other diseases. The early literature, so far, does not indicate the presence of any bioactive principle isolated from these plants. OBJECTIVE: To identify free radical scavenging, anti-diabetic and anti- inflammatory principles from these two species. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The bioassay guided fractionation and isolation of active constituents was done by chromatographic techniques...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Carlos Walter Sobrado, Lucas Faraco Sobrado
Introduction: Acute severe colitis is a potentially lethal medical emergency and, even today, its treatment remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. Intravenous corticoid therapy, which was introduced into the therapeutic arsenal in the 1950s, continues to be the first-line treatment and, for patients who are refractory to this, the rescue therapy may consist of clinical measures or emergency colectomy. Objective: To evaluate the indications for and results from drug rescue therapy (cyclosporine, infliximab and tacrolimus), and to suggest a practical guide for clinical approaches...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Thahira Jamal Mohamed, Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen J Kerr, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Nik Khairulddin Nik Yusoff, Rawiwan Hansudewechakul, Penh Sun Ly, Lam Van Nguyen, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Pagakrong Lumbiganon, Viet Chau Do, Nia Kurniati, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Dewi Kumara Wati, Moy Siew Fong, Revathy Nallusamy, Azar Kariminia, Annette Sohn
<b>Background.</b> We sought to assess the impact of routine HIV viral load (VL) monitoring on the incidence of switching from a first- to a second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen, and to describe factors associated with switch. <b>Methods.</b> Data from a regional cohort of 16 clinical programs in 6 Asian countries were analyzed. Second-line switch was defined as a change from a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) to a protease inhibitor (PI) or vice versa, and >1 of the following: 1) reported treatment failure by local criteria, 2) switch of >1 additional drug, or 3) a preceding HIV viral load (VL) ≥1,000 copies/mL...
October 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Abdikarim Abdullahi, Mile Stanojcic, Alexandra Parousis, David Patsouris, Marc G Jeschke
The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a critical organelle that synthesizes secretory proteins and serves as the main calcium storage site of the cell. The accumulation of unfolded proteins at the ER results in ER stress. Although the association between ER stress and the pathogenesis of many metabolic conditions have been well characterized using both in vivo and in vitro models, no standardized model concerning ER stress exists. Here we report a standardized model of ER stress using two well characterized ER stress inducing agents, thapsigargin and tunicamycin...
October 17, 2016: Shock
Girish M Nair, Roshan Raut, Karan Bami, Pablo B Nery, Calum J Redpath, Mouhannad M Sadek, Martin S Green, David H Birnie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pulmonary vein reconnection leading to recurrence of atrial arrhythmias after pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for atrial fibrillation remains a significant challenge. A number of adjunctive measures during PVI have been used to attempt to reduce pulmonary vein reconnection and recurrence of atrial arrhythmias. We performed a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the efficacy of adjunctive measures used during PVI in reducing recurrent atrial arrhythmias...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Nazanin Ebrahimiadib, Bobeck S Modjtahedi, Samaneh Davoudi, C Stephen Foster
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of chlorambucil in the treatment of serpiginous choroiditis. METHODS: Patient records from the Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution (MERSI) were reviewed from over the past 10 years. In total, 17 patients with the diagnosis of serpiginous choroiditis treated with chlorambucil were identified. QuantiFERON gold was negative in all of them. Chlorambucil was started at 0.15 mg/kg and dosage was titrated up using weekly white blood cell (WBC) count to achieve a target cell number of 3...
October 18, 2016: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Alex Cheen Hoe Khoo, Fadzilah Hamzah, Choo Khoon Ong
Nonosseous uptake in Tc-hydroxymethylene bone scintigraphy should always be evaluated for any possibility of pathological changes. We share interesting images of a 60-year-old woman initially investigated for suspected osteomyelitis of the left femur but found to have an extraosseous uptake in the right hemithorax on bone scintigraphy. Plain chest radiograph followed by contrast-enhanced CT of the thorax revealed the presence of a lung mass in the right lower lobe with no lymphadenopathy. CT-guided biopsy yielded fibrocollagenous tissue, partly lined by benign pneumocytes...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Bing-Ying Xie, Ai-Wen Wu
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease; current research relies on cancer cell lines and animal cancer models, which may not precisely imitate inner human tumors and guide clinical medicine. The purpose of our study was to explore and further improve the process of producing three-dimensional (3D) organoid model and impel the development of personalized therapy. METHODS: We subcutaneously injected surgically resected CRC tissues from a patient into BALB/c-nu mice to build patient-derived xenografts (PDXs)...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Huawei Zhang, Phillip Crews, Karen Tenney, Frederick A Valeriote
BACKGROUND: A growing evidence indicates that marine sponge Phyllospongia sp. is one of rich sources of 20, 24-bishomoscalane sesterterpenes with potent biological activities. In order to search more bioactive 20, 24-bishomoscalane sesterterpenes for new drug discovery, chemical investigation was carried out on an Indonesian marine sponge P. papyrecea. METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out on its dichloromethane extract. And nine compounds were purified and isolated using HPLC...
October 7, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Ciara M Kelly, Yelena Y Janjigian
Gastric cancer is a biologically heterogeneous tumor. The identification of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) biomarker overexpression in gastric cancer represented a significant step towards unraveling the molecular complexity of this disease. Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy, in the first-line setting of patients with metastatic, HER2-positive gastric and gastroesophageal, represents the first targeted therapeutic to demonstrate improvement in response rate and survival in gastric cancer...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Mitsuhiro Kamiyoshihara, Takashi Ibe, Natsuko Kawatani, Fumi Ohsawa, Ryohei Yoshikawa, Kimihiro Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT)-guided lung needle marking is useful to identify pulmonary nodules. However, certain complications sometimes trigger severe after-effects or death. So, we present a convenient and safe method by which small pulmonary nodules can be identified using a particular dye [2% (w/v) gentian violet]. METHODS: A patient is initially placed in the lateral operative position. Under CT guidance, a "magic marker" is used to identify the skin above the pulmonary nodule...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
A Coetzer, A H Kidane, M Bekele, A D Hundera, E G Pieracci, M L Shiferaw, R Wallace, L H Nel
The Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) tool was developed through a joint effort of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC), to provide a standard mechanism for countries to assess their rabies situation and measure progress in eliminating the disease. Because the African continent has the highest per capita death rate from rabies, and Ethiopia is estimated to have the second largest number of rabies deaths of all African countries, Ethiopia undertook a self-assessment by means of the Stepwise Approach towards Rabies Elimination (SARE) tool...
October 13, 2016: Antiviral Research
Mateusz Kaduk, Christian Riegler, Oliver Lemp, Erik L L Sonnhammer
HieranoiDB ( is a freely available on-line database for hierarchical groups of orthologs inferred by the Hieranoid algorithm. It infers orthologs at each node in a species guide tree with the InParanoid algorithm as it progresses from the leaves to the root. Here we present a database HieranoiDB with a web interface that makes it easy to search and visualize the output of Hieranoid, and to download it in various formats. Searching can be performed using protein description, identifier or sequence...
October 13, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Cheng-Yu Hou, Wen-Chi Lee, Hsiao-Chun Chou, Ai-Ping Chen, Shu-Jen Chou, Ho-Ming Chen
High-throughput approaches for profiling the 5' ends of RNA degradation intermediates on a genome-wide scale are frequently applied to analyze and validate cleavage sites guided by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the complexity of the RNA degradome other than miRNA targets is currently largely uncharacterized, and this limits the application of RNA degradome studies. We conducted a global analysis of 5'-truncated mRNA ends that mapped to coding sequences (CDSs) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), rice (Oryza sativa) and soybean (Glycine max)...
October 14, 2016: Plant Cell
David van Duin, Paula D Strassle, Lauren M DiBiase, Anne M Lachiewicz, William A Rutala, Timothy Eitas, Robert Maile, Hajime Kanamori, David J Weber, Bruce A Cairns, Sonia Napravnik, Samuel W Jones
BACKGROUND: Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after burn injuries. Here, we describe the time line of infections and pathogens after burns. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in a large tertiary care burn center from 2004-2013. Analyses were performed on health care-associated infections (HAIs) meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria and on all positive cultures. Incidence rates per 1,000 days were calculated for specific HAI categories and pathogens and across hospitalization time (week 1, weeks 2-3, and week ≥4)...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
John A Heflin, Scott Ford, Peter Stevens
Blount's disease is commonly attributed to an intrinsic, idiopathic defect in the posteromedial proximal tibial physis resulting in progressive bowing of the leg, intoeing, and lateral knee thrust. Treatment has historically included bracing, physeal stapling, or corrective osteotomy, and was determined primarily by age at presentation. As we feel the pathology is not necessarily age dependent, we have elected to use the technique of guided growth using a lateral tension band plate to correct limb alignment as a first-line treatment in all patients presenting to our clinic as long as they had growth remaining and no evidence of a physeal bar...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Curtis H Weiss, Jerry A Krishnan, David H Au, Bruce G Bender, Shannon S Carson, Adithya Cattamanchi, Michelle M Cloutier, Colin R Cooke, Karen Erickson, Maureen George, Joe K Gerald, Lynn B Gerald, Christopher H Goss, Michael K Gould, Robert Hyzy, Jeremy M Kahn, Brian S Mittman, Erika M Mosesón, Richard A Mularski, Sairam Parthasarathy, Sanjay R Patel, Cynthia S Rand, Nancy S Redeker, Theodore F Reiss, Kristin A Riekert, Gordon D Rubenfeld, Judith A Tate, Kevin C Wilson, Carey C Thomson
BACKGROUND: Many advances in health care fail to reach patients. Implementation science is the study of novel approaches to mitigate this evidence-to-practice gap. METHODS: The American Thoracic Society (ATS) created a multidisciplinary ad hoc committee to develop a research statement on implementation science in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. The committee used an iterative consensus process to define implementation science and review the use of conceptual frameworks to guide implementation science for the pulmonary, critical care, and sleep community and to explore how professional medical societies such as the ATS can promote implementation science...
October 15, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Daisuke Nakano, Kenji Ishitsuka, Narumi Matsuda, Ai Kouguchi, Ryota Tsuchihashi, Masafumi Okawa, Hikaru Okabe, Kazuo Tamura, Junei Kinjo
During the course of our studies towards the identification of promising chemotherapeutic candidates from plants against two human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-infected T-cell lines (MT-1 and MT-2), we screened 17 extracts from 9 rutaceous plants against MT-1 and MT-2 cells. The extracts from the aerial parts and roots of Boenninghausenia japonica, as well as the leaves and roots of Ruta graveolens showed potent antiproliferative effects. After activity-guided fractionation, we isolated 44 compounds from two rutaceous plants, including three new compounds (1-3), which were classified into 26 coumarin analogs (13 coumarins, 8 furanocoumarins, 4 dihydrofuranocoumarins and one dihydropyranocoumarin), 15 alkaloid analogs (7 quinolone alkaloids, 4 acridone alkaloids, 3 furanoquinoline alkaloids and one tetrahydroacridone alkaloid) and 3 flavonoid glycosides...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Natural Medicines
Philip Robert Baker, Daniel Peter Francis, Noran Naqiah Mohd Hairi, Sajaratulnisah Othman, Wan Yuen Choo
There is evidence that elder abuse is a significant public health problem that is destined to grow as population age. Countries are considering how best to act and this requires an understanding of the complex causal mechanisms contributing to its occurrence and the identification of effective interventions which can potentially make a difference. Previously, a high quality synthesis of evidence for policy and practice has been missing. In this paper, we describe a new Cochrane review of interventions to prevent the occurrence or reoccurrence of elder abuse...
October 13, 2016: Age and Ageing
Rossana Rosa, Jacques Simkins, Jose F Camargo, Octavio Martinez, Lilian M Abbo
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to compare the antimicrobial susceptibility percentages in blood and urine bacterial isolates recovered from solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with those reported in the hospital-wide antibiogram. METHODS: Retrospective review of the antimicrobial susceptibilities of bacterial isolates recovered from SOT recipients at a 1550-bed hospital over a 2-year period. Antibiograms were categorized by anatomic site (blood and urine). Percentage of bacterial susceptibilities to specific antibiotics were compared with the hospital-wide antibiogram...
August 26, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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