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Sheng-Li Niu, Da-Hong Li, Xin-Yu Li, Yue-Tong Wang, Sheng-Ge Li, Jiao Bai, Yue-Hu Pei, Yong-Kui Jing, Zhan-Lin Li, Hui-Ming Hua
With bioassay- and chemistry-guided fractionation, seven new caged prenylxanthones including two scalemic mixtures, epiisobractatin (1), 13-hydroxyisobractatin (2), 13-hydroxyepiisobractatin (3), 8-methoxy-8,8a-dihydrobractatin (4), 8-ethoxy-8,8a-dihydrobractatin (5), garcibracteatone (6), and 8-methoxy-8,8a-dihydroneobractiatin (7), and the eight known compounds 8-15 were isolated from the leaves of Garcinia bracteata. The structures were unambiguously elucidated through analysis of spectroscopic data. The 2D structures and relative configurations of 1 and 5 were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
Bamigboye J Taiwo, Olujide O Olubiyi, Fanie R van Heerden
Nigerian medicinal plants have been demonstrated to be veritable source of lead compounds for drug discovery efforts. One such example is mangiferin. Mangiferin was originally isolated from the Nigerian plant Ceiba pentandra (Mombacaceae), after which its structure was elucidated with the aid of spectroscopy. Mangiferin, a xanthone glycoside, has also been reported in certain other plant families including Gentianaceae and Anacardiaceae. In certain other climes and different parts of the world, folkloric and traditional medicine has extensively employed Mangifera indica (another source of mangiferin) in treating different diseases...
March 20, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
I Gkouveris, N Nikitakis, A Sklavounou
p38 protein belongs to Mitogen-activated protein kinases family that link extracellular stimuli with intracellular responses participating in numerous of fundamental cell processes. Persistent activation of STAT3 has been associated with cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study examines the effects of p38 modulation on STAT3 signaling and cellular activities in OSCC cells and investigates possible correlation of p38 expression with tumor degree of differentiation...
March 21, 2018: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
Geum Seon Sohn, SiHyun Cho, Yong Man Kim, Chi-Heum Cho, Mee-Ran Kim, Sa Ra Lee
Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas or myomas), benign monoclonal tumors, are the most common benign tumors in women. Heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding, abnormal uterine bleeding, resultant anemia, pelvic pain, infertility, and/or recurrent pregnancy loss are generally associated with uterine fibroids. Although curative treatment of this tumor relies on surgical therapies, medical treatments are considered the first-line treatment to preserve fertility and avoid or delay surgery. The aim of this review is to provide available and emerging medical treatment options for symptomatic uterine fibroids...
March 2018: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
Molly Vora, Emily Curry, Amanda Chipman, Elizabeth Matzkin, Xinning Li
Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is one of the most common causes of knee pain and is present in females disproportionately more relative to males. PFPS causes tend to be multifactorial in nature and are described in this review. From a review of the current literature, it is clear that there needs to be further research on PFPS in order to better understand the complex etiology of this disorder in both males and females. It is known that females with patellofemoral pain syndrome demonstrate a decrease in abduction, external rotation and extension strength of the affected side compared with healthy patients...
December 14, 2017: Orthopedic Reviews
Michael Schuster, Oliver Bayer, Florian Heid, Rita Laufenberg-Feldmann
BACKGROUND: Rotating several different WHO level III opioid drugs is a therapeutic option for patients with chronic cancer-related pain who suffer from inadequate analgesia and/or intolerable side effects. The evidence favoring opioid rotation is controversial, and the current guidelines in Germany and other countries contain only weak recommendations for it. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a systematic review of the literature on opioid rotation for adult patients with chronic cancerrelated pain who are regularly taking WHO level III opioids by the oral or trans - dermal route...
March 2, 2018: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
Feng Liu, Priyatanu Roy, Qi Shao, Chunlan Jiang, Jeunghwan Choi, Connie Chung, Dushyant Mehra, Dr John Bischof
Atrial fibrillation affects millions of people in the US. Focal therapy is an attractive treatment for atrial fibrillation that avoids the debilitating effects of drugs for disease control. Perhaps the most widely used focal therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF) is heat-based radiofrequency (heating), although cryotherapy (cryo) is rapidly replacing it due to a reduction in side effects and positive clinical outcomes. A third focal therapy, irreversible electroporation (IRE), is also being considered. This study was designed to help guide treatment thresholds and compare mechanism of action across heating, cryo, and IRE...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Matthew R Greer, Scott Carney, Rick A McPheeters, Phillip Aguiniga, Stephanie Rubio, Jason Lee
Introduction: Arterial lines are important for monitoring critically ill patients. They are placed most commonly in either femoral or radial sites, though there is little evidence to guide site preference. Methods: This is an ambispective, observational, cohort study to determine variance in failure rates between femoral and radial arterial lines. This study took place from 2012 to 2016 and included all arterial lines placed in adult patients at a single institution...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Olivia Samotus, Jack Lee, Mandar Jog
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections is the accepted first-line therapy for cervical dystonia (CD), however, numerous patients discontinue treatment early due to perceived sub-optimal relief. To improve BoNT-A therapy for CD, proper assessment of neck motion and selection of relevant muscles and dosing must be met. Kinematic technology may improve treatment outcomes by guiding physicians to better tailor muscle selection and BoNT-A dosing for CD therapy. METHODS: 28 CD participants were placed into either group: expert injector determined injection patterns by visual assessment ("vb") versus injection patterns based on kinematics interpreted by an expert injector ("kb")...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Jiehua Zhou, Daniel Lazar, Haitang Li, Xin Xia, Sangeetha Satheesan, Paige Charlins, Denis O'Mealy, Ramesh Akkina, Sheena Saayman, Marc S Weinberg, John J Rossi, Kevin V Morris
Gene-based therapies represent a promising therapeutic paradigm for the treatment of HIV-1, as they have the potential to maintain sustained viral inhibition with reduced treatment interventions. Such an option may represent a long-term treatment alternative to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Methods: We previously described a therapeutic approach, referred to as transcriptional gene silencing (TGS), whereby small noncoding RNAs directly inhibit the transcriptional activity of HIV-1 by targeting sites within the viral promoter, specifically the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR)...
2018: Theranostics
M Charpentier, A H Y Khedher, S Menoret, A Brion, K Lamribet, E Dardillac, C Boix, L Perrouault, L Tesson, S Geny, A De Cian, J M Itier, I Anegon, B Lopez, C Giovannangeli, J P Concordet
In genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9, transgene integration often remains challenging. Here, we present an approach for increasing the efficiency of transgene integration by homology-dependent repair (HDR). CtIP, a key protein in early steps of homologous recombination, is fused to Cas9 and stimulates transgene integration by HDR at the human AAVS1 safe harbor locus. A minimal N-terminal fragment of CtIP, designated HE for HDR enhancer, is sufficient to stimulate HDR and this depends on CDK phosphorylation sites and the multimerization domain essential for CtIP activity in homologous recombination...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Malin Bogren, Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy, Kerstin Erlandsson, Halima Akhter, Dalia Akter, Momtaz Begum, Merry Chowdhury, Lucky Das, Rehana Akter, Sufia Begum, Renoara Akter, Syeada Yesmin, Yamin Ara Khatun
OBJECTIVE: using the International Confederation of Midwives (ICM) Global Standards for Midwifery Education as a conceptual framework, the aim of this study was to explore and describe important 'must haves' for inclusion in a context-specific accreditation assessment tool in Bangladesh. DESIGN: A questionnaire study was conducted using a Likert rating scale and 111 closed-response single items on adherence to accreditation-related statements, ending with an open-ended question...
February 21, 2018: Midwifery
Mengyao Wu, Senquan Liu, Yongxing Gao, Hao Bai, Vasiliki Machairaki, Gang Li, Tong Chen, Linzhao Cheng
Precise genome editing in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) significantly enhances our capability to use human iPSCs for disease modeling, drug testing and screening as well as investigation of human cell biology. In this study, we seek to achieve conditional expression of the CD55 gene in order to interrogate its functions. We used two human iPSC lines that have unique genotypes, and constructed an inducible Cas9 gene expression system that is integrated at the AAVS1 safe harbor site in the human genome...
March 10, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Said Alyacoubi, Yousef Abuowda, Loai Albarqouni, Bettina Böttcher, Khamis Elessi
BACKGROUND: Disease severity scores such as CURB-65 are often used to guide the management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Early and adequate empirical antibiotic treatment reduces mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the severity assessment and management of patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia at the European Gaza Hospital in the Gaza Strip and to compare this to the best available evidence. METHODS: Medical records of all patients admitted to the European Gaza Hospital with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia between Dec 1, 2015, and March 31, 2016, were reviewed retrospectively...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ines Kallel, Eya Moussaoui, Fadwa Chtioui, Nabiha Douki
According to the American Association of Endodontists, "a 'true' vertical root fracture is defined as a complete or incomplete fracture initiated from the root at any level, usually directed buccolingually." Vertical root fracture (VRF) usually starts from an internal dentinal crack and develops over time, due to masticatory forces and occlusal loads. When they occur in teeth, those types of fractures can present difficulties in diagnosis, and there are however many clinic and radiographical signs which can guide clinicians to the existence of the fracture...
2018: Case Reports in Dentistry
Derrick S Haslem, Ingo Chakravarty, Gail Fulde, Heather Gilbert, Brian P Tudor, Karen Lin, James M Ford, Lincoln D Nadauld
The impact of precision oncology on guiding treatment decisions of late-stage cancer patients was previously studied in a retrospective analysis. However, the overall survival and costs were not previously evaluated. We report the overall survival and healthcare costs associated with precision oncology in these patients with advanced cancer. Building on a matched cohort study of 44 patients with metastatic cancer who received all of their care within a single institution, we evaluated the overall survival and healthcare costs for each patient...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Chia-Chun Wu, Jen-Der Lin, Jeng-Ting Chen, Chih-Min Chang, Hsiao-Fen Weng, Chuen Hsueh, Hui-Ping Chien, Jau-Song Yu
Thyroid ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (USG/FNA) biopsy are currently used for diagnosing papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), but their detection limit could be improved by combining other biomarkers. To discover novel PTC biomarkers, we herein applied a GeLC-MS/MS strategy to analyze the proteome profiles of serum-abundant-protein-depleted FNA cystic fluid from benign and PTC patients, as well as two PTC cell line secretomes. From them, we identified 346, 488, and 2105 proteins, respectively...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Dipen D Patel, Marta Rosenberg, Laura Rosenberg, Guillermo Foncerrada, Clark R Andersen, Karel D Capek, Jesus Leal, Jong O Lee, Carlos Jimenez, Ludwik Branski, Walter J Meyer, David N Herndon
INTRODUCTION: Children 5 and younger are at risk for sustaining serious burn injuries. The causes of burns vary depending on demographic, cultural and socioeconomic variables. At this pediatric burn center we provided medical care to children from Mexico with severe injuries. The purpose of this study was to understand the impact of demographic distribution and modifiable risk factors of burns in young children to help guide prevention. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed with children 5 and younger from Mexico who were injured from 2000-2013...
March 7, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Julia K Nussbacher, Gene W Yeo
RNA binding proteins (RBPs) interact with primary, precursor, and mature microRNAs (miRs) to influence mature miR levels, which in turn affect critical aspects of human development and disease. To understand how RBPs contribute to miR biogenesis, we analyzed human enhanced UV crosslinking followed by immunoprecipitation (eCLIP) datasets for 126 RBPs to discover miR-encoding genomic loci that are statistically enriched for RBP binding. We find that 92% of RBPs interact directly with at least one miR locus, and that some interactions are cell line specific despite expression of the miR locus in both cell lines evaluated...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Cell
Aloma L D'Souza, John R Chevillet, Pejman Ghanouni, Xinrui Yan, Muneesh Tewari, Sanjiv S Gambhir
We have previously shown that low frequency ultrasound can release biomarkers from cells into the murine circulation enabling an amplification and localization of the released biomarker that could be used as a blood-based method to detect cancer earlier and monitor therapy. In this study, we further demonstrate that this technique could be used for characterization of tumors and/or identification of cellular masses of unknown origin due to the release of multiple protein and nucleic acid biomarkers in cells in culture, mice and patients...
2018: PloS One
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