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brain injury children

Andrew T Hale, Kelly Pekala, Benjamin Theobald, Katherine Kelly, Michael Wolf, John C Wellons, Truc Le, Chevis N Shannon
PURPOSE: In traumatic brain injury (TBI), hyperglycemia and hypothermia are thought to be associated with poor outcomes, but have not been systematically studied in children. Thus, our aim was to evaluate whether serum glucose and temperature at admission, among other clinical variables, were associated with need for post hospital-discharge seizure medication in children diagnosed with TBI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 1814 children who were diagnosed with TBI at a tertiary pediatric hospital...
March 21, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Amish Chinoy, Indraneel Banerjee, Sarah E Flanagan, Sian Ellard, Bing Han, Zainab Mohamed, Mark J Dunne, Stefania Bitetti
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the commonest cause of persistent and severe hypoglycemia in infancy due to unregulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Prompt early diagnosis is important, as insulin reduces glucose supply to the brain, resulting in significant brain injury and risk of death. Histologically, CHI has focal and diffuse forms; in focal CHI, an inappropriate level of insulin is secreted from localized β-cell hyperplasia. We report a 4-month-old male infant, who presented with sudden illness and collapse without a recognized cause and died...
January 1, 2018: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Gesa Cohrs, Monika Huhndorf, Nils Niemczyk, Lukas J Volz, Alexander Bernsmeier, Ash Singhal, Naomi Larsen, Michael Synowitz, Friederike Knerlich-Lukoschus
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive imaging tool which lacks the burden of ionizing radiation. It is not established as primary diagnostic tool in traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MRI as initial imaging modality in the emergency management of mild pediatric TBI. METHODS: Children (0-18 years, sub-divided in four age-groups) with mild TBI who received MRI in the emergency department were identified...
March 19, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Megan E Narad, Megan Kennelly, Nanhua Zhang, Shari L Wade, Keith Owen Yeates, H Gerry Taylor, Jeffery N Epstein, Brad G Kurowski
Importance: After traumatic brain injury (TBI), children often experience impairment when faced with tasks and situations of increasing complexity. Studies have failed to consider the potential for attention problems to develop many years after TBI or factors that may predict the development of secondary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (SADHD). Understanding these patterns will aid in timely identification of clinically significant problems and appropriate initiation of treatment with the hope of limiting additional functional impairment...
March 19, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Matthew Eisenberg, Rebekah Mannix
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concussion is an increasingly common injury in children. We aim to review the basic epidemiology and management of acute concussion and highlight recent studies that have contributed to our understanding of care for this injury. RECENT FINDINGS: While concussion is considered a 'mild' form of traumatic brain injury, recent evidence suggests that as many as 30% of children are still symptomatic 1 month after injury. Although there is increasing interest in finding objective measures of injury and recovery, emerging imaging and serum biomarkers are not ready for routine clinical use...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Mariia Karppinen, Atte Sjövall, Tuula Pelkonen, Luis Bernardino, Irmeli Roine, Anne Pitkäranta, Antti A Aarnisalo, Päivi Nevalainen, Leena Lauronen
Objective: To assess the role of single and repeated auditory brain stem response (ABR) in predicting mortality and severe neurological injury among children having bacterial meningitis (BM) in Luanda, Angola. Methods: The morphology of ABR traces of 221 children (aged 2 months to 12 years) from admission day was analyzed and compared with age-matched normative data. Absence and delay of traces were compared with mortality and mortality or severe neurological injury in subgroup analyses...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Ear, Nose and Throat
Maria Punchak, Jihad Abdelgadir, Oscar Obiga, Martha Itait, Josephine N Najjuma, Michael M Haglund, David Kitya
BACKGROUND: RTIs, falls and violence contribute to more than two thirds of pediatric TBIs in SSA. In this study, we sought to assess mechanisms of pediatric TBI in an effort to propose interventions for more effective pediatric head injury prevention. METHODS: A cohort of 100 patients who were <18 years treated at MRRH between November 2016 and June 2017 were enrolled in the study. Information on etiology of injury was obtained via a questionnaire administered to patient caretakers at the time of admission...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jesse T Fischer, H Julia Hannay, Candice A Alfano, Paul R Swank, Linda Ewing-Cobbs
OBJECTIVE: This prospective longitudinal study investigated sleep disturbance (SD) and internalizing problems after traumatic injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) or extracranial/bodily injury (EI) in children and adolescents, relative to typically developing (TD) children. We also examined longitudinal relations between SD and internalizing problems postinjury. METHOD: Participants (N = 87) ages 8-15 included youth with TBI, EI, and TD children. Injury groups were recruited from a Level 1 trauma center after sustaining vehicle-related injuries...
February 2018: Neuropsychology
Helena Verhelst, Catharine Vander Linden, Toon De Pauw, Guy Vingerhoets, Karen Caeyenberghs
Recent evidence has shown the presence of a "rich club" in the brain, which constitutes a core network of highly interconnected and spatially distributed brain regions, important for high-order cognitive processes. This study aimed to map the rich club organization in 17 young patients with moderate to severe TBI (15.71 ± 1.75 years) in the chronic stage of recovery and 17 age- and gender-matched controls. Probabilistic tractography was performed on diffusion weighted imaging data to construct the edges of the structural connectomes using number of streamlines as edge weight...
March 12, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Saeed Kayhanian, Adam M H Young, Rory J Piper, Joseph Donnelly, Daniel Scoffings, Matthew R Garnett, Helen M Fernandes, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka, Peter J Hutchinson, Shruti Agrawal
Radiological assessment of the head is a routine part of the management of traumatic brain injury. This assessment can help to determine the requirement for invasive intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The radiological correlates of elevated ICP have been widely studied in adults but far fewer specific pediatric studies have been conducted. There is, however, growing evidence that there are important differences in the radiological presentations of elevated ICP between children and adults; a reflection of the anatomical and physiological differences, as well as a difference in the pathophysiology of brain injury in children...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Lauren B Crawford, Meredith R Golomb
OBJECTIVE: Here we review the current literature regarding visual outcome after perinatal and childhood stroke. BACKGROUND: Visual deficits following stroke in adults are common and have been previously reviewed. Less is known about visual deficits following stroke in neonates and older children. Most of the literature regarding this subject has focused on preterm infants, or on other types of brain injury. This review summarizes the types of visual deficits seen in term infants following perinatal stroke and children following childhood stroke and predictors of outcome...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
Vinayak Narayan, Nasser Mohammed, Amey R Savardekar, Devi Prasad Patra, Christina Notarianni, Anil Nanda
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury [TBI] is a leading cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide and intracranial pressure [ICP] monitoring plays a crucial role in its management. Based on existing literature, the authors review the current practicing non-invasive ICP monitoring devices and their accuracy in predicting raised ICP in pediatric TBI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A thorough literature search was conducted on PubMed, Medline and Cochrane data base, articles were selected systematically, reviewed completely and relevant data was summarized and discussed...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Michelle Borzik Goreth, Michelle Palokas
The question of this review is: What is the association of premorbid neuropsychological conditions with mild traumatic brain injury/concussion recovery time and symptom severity in children?
March 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Lisa Letzkus, Nancy Addison, Lauren Turner, Mark Conaway, Beth Quatrara
PROBLEM: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a complicated phenomenon that presents as autonomic instability and muscle overactivity in individuals who experience severe brain injury. Identifying potential modifiable environmental nociceptive stimuli is necessary for developing interventions that impact clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify physical environmental nociceptive stimuli that could hinder recovery for children who experience PSH after severe brain injury...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Ida M Ki Moore, Kari M Koerner, Patricia M Gundy, David W Montgomery, Kathleen C Insel, Lynnette L Harris, Olga A Taylor, Marilyn J Hockenberry
Aggressive central nervous system (CNS)-directed treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most prevalent cancer among children and adolescents, prevents metastasis of leukemia cells into the brain. Up to 60% of survivors experience cognitive problems, but knowledge about risk factors for and mechanisms of neurologic injury is lacking. Objectives of the present study were to (1) quantify changes in oxidant defense and apoptosis over the course of ALL therapy and (2) elucidate risk factors for long-term cognitive problems...
January 1, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Taty Tshimangani, Jean Pongo, Joseph Bodi Mabiala, Marcel Yotebieng, Nicole F O'Brien
Empirical knowledge suggests that acute neurologic disorders are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but studies examining the true burden of these diseases in children are scarce. We performed this prospective, observational study to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment approaches, and outcomes of children suffering acute neurologic illness or injury (ANI) in an urban and rural site in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Over 12 months, 471 out of 6,563 children admitted met diagnostic criteria for ANI, giving a hospital-based prevalence of 72/1,000 admissions...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Norman Ma, Sarah Mills, Craig McBride, Roy Kimble, Michael Redmond
BACKGROUND: Skateboarding is a popular recreation among children and adolescents. Injuries that result in presentation to emergency departments are varied including head injuries. The study aims to assess the type and severity of neurological damage to the brain and spine in children from injuries incurred while using a skateboard. METHODS: After obtaining Ethics approval, a retrospective case review was performed of all admissions to all Brisbane, Australia public hospital neurosurgery departments of children 18 years and less who experienced injuries to the brain and spine for the years 2010-2014...
March 6, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2018: Lancet
Anwarul Haque, Zehra Dhanani, Amin Ali, Basit Salam, Qalab Abbas, Gohar Javed, Humaira Jurair
BACKGROUND: The Rotterdam Score (RS) on CT head is a new evolving clinical tool as a predictor of mortality in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). The objective of this study is to assess the outcome of children with TBI admitted in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a tertiary-care, university hospital by using RS. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study conducted on children (age: 1mo -16yr) with TBI admitted in PICU of Aga Khan University Hospital from 2013 to 2016...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
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