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microbiome and IBD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884149/sasa-quelpaertensis-leaf-extract-regulates-microbial-dysbiosis-by-modulating-the-composition-and-diversity-of-the-microbiota-in-dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced-colitis-mice
#1
Yiseul Yeom, Bong-Soo Kim, Se-Jae Kim, Yuri Kim
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are related to a dysfunction of the mucosal immune system and they result from complex interactions between genetics and environmental factors, including lifestyle, diet, and the gut microbiome. Therefore, the effect of Sasa quelpaertensis leaf extract (SQE) on gut microbiota in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model was investigated with pyrosequencing of fecal samples. METHODS: Three groups of animals were examined: i) a control group, ii) a group that was received 2...
November 25, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874308/microbial-metabolomic-and-immunologic-dynamics-in-a-relapsing-genetic-mouse-model-of-colitis-induced-by-t-synthase-deficiency
#2
Jonathan P Jacobs, Lin Lin, Maryam Goudarzi, Paul Ruegger, Dermot P B McGovern, Albert J Fornace, James Borneman, Lijun Xia, Jonathan Braun
Intestinal dysbiosis is thought to confer susceptibility to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but it is unknown whether dynamic changes in the microbiome contribute to fluctuations in disease activity. We explored this question using mice with intestine-specific deletion of C1galt1 (also known as T-synthase) (Tsyn mice). These mice develop spontaneous microbiota-dependent colitis with a remitting/relapsing course due to loss of mucin core-1 derived O-glycans. 16S rRNA sequencing and untargeted metabolomics demonstrated age-specific perturbations in the intestinal microbiome and metabolome of Tsyn mice compare with littermate controls at weeks 3 (disease onset), 5 (during remission), and 9 (after relapse)...
November 22, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824648/fecal-microbiota-and-metabolome-in-a-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-chronic-colitis-relevance-to-human-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Ainsley M Robinson, Shakuntla V Gondalia, Avinash V Karpe, Rajaraman Eri, David J Beale, Paul D Morrison, Enzo A Palombo, Kulmira Nurgali
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanisms underlying the role of the intestinal microbiome and metabolome in IBD onset and its alteration during active treatment and recovery remain unknown. Animal models of chronic intestinal inflammation with similar microbial and metabolomic profiles would enable investigation of these mechanisms and development of more effective treatments. Recently, the Winnie mouse model of colitis closely representing the clinical symptoms and characteristics of human IBD has been developed...
November 7, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821485/dietary-emulsifier-induced-low-grade-inflammation-promotes-colon-carcinogenesis
#4
Emilie Viennois, Didier Merlin, Andrew T Gewirtz, Benoit Chassaing
The increased risks conferred by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) gave rise to the term "colitis-associated cancer" and the concept that inflammation promotes colon tumorigenesis. A condition more common than IBD is low-grade inflammation, which correlates with altered gut microbiota composition and metabolic syndrome, both present in many cases of CRC. Recent findings suggest that low-grade inflammation in the intestine is promoted by consumption of dietary emulsifiers, a ubiquitous component of processed foods which alter the composition of gut microbiota...
November 7, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795980/functional-characterization-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-associated-gut-dysbiosis-in-gnotobiotic-mice
#5
Hiroko Nagao-Kitamoto, Andrew B Shreiner, Merritt G Gillilland, Sho Kitamoto, Chiharu Ishii, Akiyoshi Hirayama, Peter Kuffa, Mohamad El-Zaatari, Helmut Grasberger, Anna M Seekatz, Peter D R Higgins, Vincent B Young, Shinji Fukuda, John Y Kao, Nobuhiko Kamada
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gut dysbiosis is closely involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it remains unclear whether IBD-associated gut dysbiosis contributes to disease pathogenesis or is merely secondary to intestinal inflammation. We established a humanized gnotobiotic (hGB) mouse system to assess the functional role of gut dysbiosis associated with 2 types of IBD: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Germ-free mice were colonized by the gut microbiota isolated from patients with CD and UC, and healthy controls...
July 2016: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793607/understanding-and-preventing-the-global-increase-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Gilaad G Kaplan, Siew C Ng
The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are contemporary conditions of industrialized societies. The prevalence of IBD continues to increase steadily in Western countries, and newly industrialized countries have a rapidly increasing incidence. The global spread of IBD appears to associate with Westernization of diets and environments, which affects the intestinal microbiome and increases risk of IBD in genetically susceptible individuals. It is important to increase our understanding of these events to slow progression of IBD...
October 25, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785786/the-genetic-background-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease-from-correlation-to-causality
#7
REVIEW
Werna T C Uniken Venema, Michiel D Voskuil, Gerard Dijkstra, Rinse K Weersma, Eleonora A M Festen
Recent studies have greatly improved our insight into the genetic background of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). New high throughput technologies and large-scale international collaborations have contributed to the identification of 200 independent genetic risk loci for IBD. However, in most of these loci it is unclear which gene conveys the risk for IBD. More importantly, it is unclear which variant within or near the gene is causal to the disease. Using targeted GWAS, imputation, re-sequencing of risk loci and in silico fine-mapping of densely typed loci, several causal variants have been identified in IBD risk genes, and various pathological pathways have been uncovered...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779499/an-overview-of-the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#8
Matthew C Choy, Kumar Visvanathan, Peter De Cruz
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are thought to develop as a result of complex interactions between host genetics, the immune system and the environment including the gut microbiome. Although an improved knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of IBDs has led to great advances in therapy such as the highly effective anti-tumor necrosis factor class of medications, a significant proportion of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis do not respond to anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies. Further understanding of the different immune pathways involved in the genesis of chronic intestinal inflammation is required to help find effective treatments for IBDs...
October 21, 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769810/roles-for-intestinal-bacteria-viruses-and-fungi-in-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-therapeutic-approaches
#9
R Balfour Sartor, Gary D Wu
Intestinal microbiota are involved in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and pouchitis. We review the mechanisms by which these gut bacteria, fungi, and viruses mediate mucosal homeostasis, via their composite genes (metagenome) and metabolic products (metabolome). We explain how alterations to their profiles and functions under conditions of dysbiosis contribute to inflammation and effector immune responses that mediate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in humans and enterocolitis in mice...
October 18, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760077/the-gut-microbiome-of-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-patients-differs-from-healthy-controls-in-genes-that-can-influence-the-balance-between-a-healthy-and-dysregulated-immune-response
#10
Katherine A Dunn, Jessica Moore-Connors, Brad MacIntyre, Andrew Stadnyk, Nikhil A Thomas, Angela Noble, Gamal Mahdi, Mohsin Rashid, Anthony R Otley, Joseph P Bielawski, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is a first-line therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) thought to induce remission through changes in the gut microbiome. With microbiome assessment largely focused on microbial taxonomy and diversity, it remains unclear to what extent EEN induces functional changes that thereby contribute to its therapeutic effect. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 15 pediatric CD patients prior to and after EEN treatment, as well as from 5 healthy controls...
November 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743467/therapeutic-modulation-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-ibd-more-questions-to-be-answered
#11
Yu Qi Qiao, Chen Wen Cai, Zhi Hua Ran
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients exhibit impaired control of the microbiome in the gut. "Dysbiosis" is commonly observed. A Western diet is a risk factor for the development of IBD but may have different effects on the gut microbiota in IBD and non-IBD individuals. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) can induce remission in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD) with a decrease in gut microbiome diversity after EEN treatment. Although there are some theoretical benefits, the actual treatment effects of prebiotics and probiotics in IBD patients can vary...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704622/the-human-gastrointestinal-tract-and-oral-microbiota-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-state-of-the-science-review
#12
Rosario Lucas López, María José Grande Burgos, Antonio Gálvez, Rubén Pérez Pulido
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes a spectrum of diseases from ulcerative colitis (UC) to Crohn's disease (CD). Many studies have addressed the changes in the microbiota of individuals affected by UC and CD. A decrease in biodiversity and depletion of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes has been reported, among others. Changes in microbial composition also result in changes in the metabolites generated in the gut from microbial activity that may involve the amount of butyrate and other metabolites such as H2 S being produced...
October 5, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699268/paneth-cell-defects-in-crohn-s-disease-patients-promote-dysbiosis
#13
Ta-Chiang Liu, Bhaskar Gurram, Megan T Baldridge, Richard Head, Vy Lam, Chengwei Luo, Yumei Cao, Pippa Simpson, Michael Hayward, Mary L Holtz, Pavlos Bousounis, Joshua Noe, Diana Lerner, Jose Cabrera, Vincent Biank, Michael Stephens, Curtis Huttenhower, Dermot P B McGovern, Ramnik J Xavier, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Nita H Salzman
BACKGROUND: Paneth cell dysfunction has been implicated in a subset of Crohn's disease (CD) patients. We previously stratified clinical outcomes of CD patients by using Paneth cell phenotypes, which we defined by the intracellular distribution of antimicrobial proteins. Animal studies suggest that Paneth cells shape the intestinal microbiome. However, it is unclear whether Paneth cell phenotypes alter the microbiome complexity in CD subjects. Therefore, we analyzed the correlation of Paneth cell phenotypes with mucosal microbiome composition and ileal RNA expression in pediatric CD and noninflammatory bowel disease (non-IBD) patients...
June 2, 2016: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694142/uncoupling-of-mucosal-gene-regulation-mrna-splicing-and-adherent-microbiota-signatures-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Robert Häsler, Raheleh Sheibani-Tezerji, Anupam Sinha, Matthias Barann, Ateequr Rehman, Daniela Esser, Konrad Aden, Carolin Knecht, Berenice Brandt, Susanna Nikolaus, Sascha Schäuble, Christoph Kaleta, Andre Franke, Christoph Fretter, Werner Müller, Marc-Thorsten Hütt, Michael Krawczak, Stefan Schreiber, Philip Rosenstiel
OBJECTIVE: An inadequate host response to the intestinal microbiota likely contributes to the manifestation and progression of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, molecular approaches to unravelling the nature of the defective crosstalk and its consequences for intestinal metabolic and immunological networks are lacking. We assessed the mucosal transcript levels, splicing architecture and mucosa-attached microbial communities of patients with IBD to obtain a comprehensive view of the underlying, hitherto poorly characterised interactions, and how these are altered in IBD...
September 30, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687331/the-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease-activity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Michelle Prosberg, Flemming Bendtsen, Ida Vind, Andreas M Petersen, Lise L Gluud
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based on a published protocol. Included patients had ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) classified as active or in remission. We selected bacteria assessed in at least three studies identified through electronic and manual searches (November 2015)...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681914/microbiome-metabolome-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
REVIEW
Ishfaq Ahmed, Badal C Roy, Salman A Khan, Seth Septer, Shahid Umar
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disorder that conceptually occurs as a result of altered immune responses to commensal and/or pathogenic gut microbes in individuals most susceptible to the disease. During Crohn's Disease (CD) or Ulcerative Colitis (UC), two components of the human IBD, distinct stages define the disease onset, severity, progression and remission. Epigenetic, environmental (microbiome, metabolome) and nutritional factors are important in IBD pathogenesis. While the dysbiotic microbiota has been proposed to play a role in disease pathogenesis, the data on IBD and diet are still less convincing...
June 15, 2016: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673381/translating-nutritional-immunology-into-drug-development-for-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#17
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To highlight recent advances in the understanding of nutritional immunology and in the development of novel therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). RECENT FINDINGS: We highlight the variety of factors that contribute to the interaction of the immune system and nutrition including the microbiome and the nervous system stimulation of the gut. We describe the potential for therapeutic development in IBD. Further, we review the cellular metabolic effects on immune activation and promising therapeutic targets...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670602/biomarkers-in-search-of-precision-medicine-in-ibd
#18
Ray K Boyapati, Rahul Kalla, Jack Satsangi, Gwo-Tzer Ho
The completion of the human genome project in 2003 represented a major scientific landmark, ushering in a new era with hopes and expectations of fresh insights into disease mechanisms and treatments. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), many important discoveries soon followed, notably the identification of >200 genetic susceptibility loci and characterization of the gut microbiome. As "big data", driven by advances in technology, becomes increasingly available and affordable, individuals with IBD and clinicians alike yearn for tangible outcomes from the promise of "precision medicine"-precise diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment...
September 27, 2016: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662587/colonic-biogeography-in-health-and-ulcerative-colitis
#19
Aonghus Lavelle, Grainne Lennon, Desmond C Winter, P Ronan O'Connell
The relevance of biogeography to the distal gut microbiota has been investigated in both health and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however multiple factors, including sample type and methodology, microbiota characterization and interpersonal variability make the construction of a core model of colonic biogeography challenging. In addition, how phylogenetic classification relates to immunogenicity and whether consistent alterations in the microbiota are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) remain open questions...
September 2, 2016: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648810/interleukin-15-promotes-intestinal-dysbiosis-with-butyrate-deficiency-associated-with-increased-susceptibility-to-colitis
#20
Marlies Meisel, Toufic Mayassi, Hannah Fehlner-Peach, Jason C Koval, Sarah L O'Brien, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Kathryn Lesko, Sangman Kim, Romain Bouziat, Li Chen, Christopher R Weber, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Bana Jabri, Dionysios A Antonopoulos
Dysbiosis resulting in gut-microbiome alterations with reduced butyrate production are thought to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis and promote complex immune disorders. However, whether and how dysbiosis develops before the onset of overt pathology remains poorly defined. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is upregulated in distressed tissue and its overexpression is thought to predispose susceptible individuals to and have a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the immunological roles of IL-15 have been largely studied, its potential impact on the microbiota remains unexplored...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
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