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microbiome and IBD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633443/nod2-genetic-variants-predispose-one-of-two-familial-adenomatous-polyposis-siblings-to-pouchitis-through-microbiome-dysbiosis
#1
Kathleen M Schieffer, Justin R Wright, Leonard R Harris, Sue Deiling, Zhaohai Yang, Regina Lamendella, Gregory S Yochum, Walter A Koltun
Background and Aims: Individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) may undergo a total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) to surgically treat their disease. Inflammation of the ileal pouch, termed pouchitis, is uncommon in FAP patients but prevalent in patients who received IPAA for ulcerative colitis, a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods and Results: We report on two FAP siblings, living in the same household, who underwent IPAA surgery within one week of each other...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632755/potassium-is-a-key-signal-in-host-microbiome-dysbiosis-in-periodontitis
#2
Susan Yost, Ana E Duran-Pinedo, Keerthana Krishnan, Jorge Frias-Lopez
Dysbiosis, or the imbalance in the structural and/or functional properties of the microbiome, is at the origin of important infectious inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and periodontal disease. Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that affects a large proportion of the world's population and has been associated with a wide variety of systemic health conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Dysbiosis has been identified as a key element in the development of the disease...
June 20, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546791/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-from-clostridium-difficile-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Robert J Gianotti, Alan C Moss
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has evolved from a case report in the medical literature to the basis of major innovations in the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and, potentially, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the clinical setting, FMT was noted to significantly lower the risk of recurrent CDI, likely by increasing microbial diversity and altering the metabolic environment in the intestinal tract of recipients. In parallel, advances in the ability to quantify and characterize microbial communities in fecal samples led to the association of IBD with a state of intestinal dysbiosis...
April 2017: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507982/the-role-of-carrageenan-and-carboxymethylcellulose-in-the-development-of-intestinal-inflammation
#4
REVIEW
John Vincent Martino, Johan Van Limbergen, Leah E Cahill
Although the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is influenced by the interplay between genetics, the immune system, and environmental factors such as diet. The commonly used food additives, carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), are used to develop intestinal inflammation in animal models. These food additives are excluded from current dietary approaches to induce disease remission in Crohn's disease such as exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) using a polymeric formula...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503135/the-gut-microbiota-and-autism-spectrum-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Qinrui Li, Ying Han, Angel Belle C Dy, Randi J Hagerman
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are a common comorbidity in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Many studies have shown alterations in the composition of the fecal flora and metabolic products of the gut microbiome in patients with ASD. The gut microbiota influences brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, an abnormal gut microbiota is associated with several diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ASD and mood disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494241/gut-microbiome-function-predicts-response-to-anti-integrin-biologic-therapy-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#6
Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan, Chengwei Luo, Vijay Yajnik, Hamed Khalili, John J Garber, Betsy W Stevens, Thomas Cleland, Ramnik J Xavier
The gut microbiome plays a central role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) pathogenesis and propagation. To determine whether the gut microbiome may predict responses to IBD therapy, we conducted a prospective study with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) patients initiating anti-integrin therapy (vedolizumab). Disease activity and stool metagenomes at baseline, and weeks 14, 30, and 54 after therapy initiation were assessed. Community α-diversity was significantly higher, and Roseburia inulinivorans and a Burkholderiales species were more abundant at baseline among CD patients achieving week 14 remission...
May 10, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468301/the-impact-of-exclusive-enteral-nutrition-een-on-the-gut-microbiome-in-crohn-s-disease-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Amber MacLellan, Jessica Moore-Connors, Shannan Grant, Leah Cahill, Morgan G I Langille, Johan Van Limbergen
Crohn's disease (CD), a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is thought to arise from a complex interaction of genetics, the gut microbiome, and environmental factors, such as diet. There is clear evidence that dietary intervention is successful in the treatment of CD-exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is able to induce remission in up to 80% of CD patients. While the mechanism of action of EEN is not clear, EEN is known to cause profound changes in the gut microbiome. Understanding how EEN modifies the gut microbiome to induce remission could provide insight into CD etiopathogenesis and aid the development of microbiome-targeted interventions to guide ongoing dietary therapy to sustain remission...
May 1, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465070/microbiome-and-colorectal-cancer-unraveling-host-microbiota-interactions-in-colitis-associated-colorectal-cancer-development
#8
REVIEW
Mingsong Kang, Alberto Martin
Dysbiosis of gut microbiota occurs in many human chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Reciprocally, uncontrolled immune responses, that may or may not be induced by dysbiosis, are central to the development of IBD and CAC. There has been a surge of interest in investigating the relationship between microbiota, inflammation and CAC. In this review, we discuss recent findings related to gut microbiota and chronic immune-mediated diseases, such as IBD and CAC...
April 29, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405140/diet-and-microbiota-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-the-gut-in-disharmony
#9
REVIEW
Davy C M Rapozo, Claudio Bernardazzi, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza
Bacterial colonization of the gut shapes both the local and the systemic immune response and is implicated in the modulation of immunity in both healthy and disease states. Recently, quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the gut microbiota have been detected in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, reinforcing the hypothesis of dysbiosis as a relevant mechanism underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis. Humans and microbes have co-existed and co-evolved for a long time in a mutually beneficial symbiotic association essential for maintaining homeostasis...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337900/the-fingerprint-of-the-human-gastrointestinal-tract-microbiota-a-hypothesis-of-molecular-mapping
#10
G Tomasello, M Mazzola, A Jurjus, F Cappello, F Carini, P Damiani, A Gerges Geagea, M N Zeenny, A Leone
The precise etiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IDB) remains unclear and several factors are believed to play a role in its development and progression, including the composition of microbial communities resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Human intestinal microbiota are extensive with at least 15,000-36,000 bacterial species. However, thanks to the new development in sequencing and molecular taxonomic methodologies, our understanding of the microbiota population composition, dynamics, and ecology has greatly increased...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293937/gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-update
#12
Grainne Holleran, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Silvia Pecere, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Cristina Graziani, Deirdre Mc Namara, Antonio Gasbarrini, Franco Scaldaferri
Major advances have occurred in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) over the last decade, and perhaps the most major, and clinically advantageous of these advances has been the discovery of the microbiome as a key multifaceted component of inflammation. The Gut microbiome is the largest known group of cells in the body, and is now recognised as an organ in its own right. Initial studies looking at a possible role of bacterial manipulation of the immune system in IBD, looked at identifying a specific bacterial species, and were not representative of a feasible model of inflammation in IBD overall...
March 14, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286741/sampling-strategies-for-three-dimensional-spatial-community-structures-in-ibd-microbiota-research
#13
REVIEW
Shaocun Zhang, Xiaocang Cao, He Huang
Identifying intestinal microbiota is arguably an important task that is performed to determine the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); thus, it is crucial to collect and analyze intestinally-associated microbiota. Analyzing a single niche to categorize individuals does not enable researchers to comprehensively study the spatial variations of the microbiota. Therefore, characterizing the spatial community structures of the inflammatory bowel disease microbiome is critical for advancing our understanding of the inflammatory landscape of IBD...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250469/gut-microbiota-diagnosing-ibd-with-the-gut-microbiome
#14
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191884/dynamics-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Jonas Halfvarson, Colin J Brislawn, Regina Lamendella, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, William A Walters, Lisa M Bramer, Mauro D'Amato, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Daniel McDonald, Antonio Gonzalez, Erin E McClure, Mitchell F Dunklebarger, Rob Knight, Janet K Jansson
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by flares of inflammation with a periodic need for increased medication and sometimes even surgery. The aetiology of IBD is partly attributed to a deregulated immune response to gut microbiome dysbiosis. Cross-sectional studies have revealed microbial signatures for different IBD subtypes, including ulcerative colitis, colonic Crohn's disease and ileal Crohn's disease. Although IBD is dynamic, microbiome studies have primarily focused on single time points or a few individuals...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185763/bariatric-surgery-attenuates-colitis-in-an-obese-murine-model
#16
Shiri Li, Alessio Vinci, Judith Behnsen, Chunmei Cheng, Stefan Jellbauer, Manuela Raffatellu, Kyle M Sousa, Robert Edwards, Ninh T Nguyen, Michael J Stamos, Alessio Pigazzi
BACKGROUND: Obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represent chronic inflammatory conditions. Bariatric surgery improves some obesity-related co-morbidities, but the effects of bariatric surgery on IBD have not been well studied. OBJECTIVES: To examine if bariatric surgery may attenuate colitis in an obese murine model of IBD and study the mechanisms underlying the postsurgical amelioration of intestinal inflammation. SETTING: University of California Irvine, Department of Surgery and Microbiology laboratories...
April 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179509/iga-coated-e-coli-enriched-in-crohn-s-disease-spondyloarthritis-promote-th17-dependent-inflammation
#17
Monica Viladomiu, Charles Kivolowitz, Ahmed Abdulhamid, Belgin Dogan, Daniel Victorio, Jim G Castellanos, Viola Woo, Fei Teng, Nhan L Tran, Andrew Sczesnak, Christina Chai, Myunghoo Kim, Gretchen E Diehl, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Xi K Zhou, Sergio Schwartzman, Lisa A Mandl, Meira Abramowitz, Vinita Jacob, Brian Bosworth, Adam Steinlauf, Ellen J Scherl, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu, Kenneth W Simpson, Randy S Longman
Peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a common extraintestinal manifestation in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by inflammatory enthesitis, dactylitis, or synovitis of nonaxial joints. However, a mechanistic understanding of the link between intestinal inflammation and SpA has yet to emerge. We evaluated and functionally characterized the fecal microbiome of IBD patients with or without peripheral SpA. Coupling the sorting of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-coated microbiota with 16S ribosomal RNA-based analysis (IgA-seq) revealed a selective enrichment in IgA-coated Escherichia coli in patients with Crohn's disease-associated SpA (CD-SpA) compared to CD alone...
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179361/a-microbial-signature-for-crohn-s-disease
#18
Victoria Pascal, Marta Pozuelo, Natalia Borruel, Francesc Casellas, David Campos, Alba Santiago, Xavier Martinez, Encarna Varela, Guillaume Sarrabayrouse, Kathleen Machiels, Severine Vermeire, Harry Sokol, Francisco Guarner, Chaysavanh Manichanh
OBJECTIVE: A decade of microbiome studies has linked IBD to an alteration in the gut microbial community of genetically predisposed subjects. However, existing profiles of gut microbiome dysbiosis in adult IBD patients are inconsistent among published studies, and did not allow the identification of microbial signatures for CD and UC. Here, we aimed to compare the faecal microbiome of CD with patients having UC and with non-IBD subjects in a longitudinal study. DESIGN: We analysed a cohort of 2045 non-IBD and IBD faecal samples from four countries (Spain, Belgium, the UK and Germany), applied a 16S rRNA sequencing approach and analysed a total dataset of 115 million sequences...
May 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175241/p789-microbiome-composition-is-altered-in-patients-with-ibd-independent-of-endoscopic-activity
#19
K Boland, W Turpin, A Mohammadi, K Borowski, M I Smith, G Nguyen, A H Steinhart, K Croitoru, M Silverberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147375/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
REVIEW
Walter Reinisch
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it is thought to arise from an aberrant immune response to a change in colonic environment in a genetically susceptible individual. The intestinal microbiota are located at the complex interface of the epithelial barrier and are sensitive to changes in environmental factors, such as diets, drugs or smoking and signals derived from the intestinal immune system and the gut-brain axis. In patients with IBD, an imbalance in the structural and/or functional configuration of the intestinal microbiota leading to the disruption of the host-microorganism homeostasis (dysbiosis) has been reproducibly reported...
2017: Digestive Diseases
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