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microbiome and IBD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337900/the-fingerprint-of-the-human-gastrointestinal-tract-microbiota-a-hypothesis-of-molecular-mapping
#1
G Tomasello, M Mazzola, A Jurjus, F Cappello, F Carini, P Damiani, A Gerges Geagea, M N Zeenny, A Leone
The precise etiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IDB) remains unclear and several factors are believed to play a role in its development and progression, including the composition of microbial communities resident in the gastrointestinal tract. Human intestinal microbiota are extensive with at least 15,000-36,000 bacterial species. However, thanks to the new development in sequencing and molecular taxonomic methodologies, our understanding of the microbiota population composition, dynamics, and ecology has greatly increased...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316376/the-role-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-in-inflammatory-disorders-of-gastrointestinal-tract
#2
REVIEW
Jan Bilski, Agnieszka Mazur-Bialy, Dagmara Wojcik, Janina Zahradnik-Bilska, Bartosz Brzozowski, Marcin Magierowski, Tomasz Mach, Katarzyna Magierowska, Tomasz Brzozowski
Over the past few years, the role of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) as a crucial mucosal defence factor essential for maintaining gut homeostasis has been established. IAP is an important apical brush border enzyme expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and secreted both into the intestinal lumen and into the bloodstream. IAP exerts its effects through dephosphorylation of proinflammatory molecules including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), flagellin, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from cells during stressful events...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293937/gut-microbiota-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease-an-update
#3
Grainne Holleran, Loris R Lopetuso, Gianluca Ianiro, Silvia Pecere, Marco Pizzoferrato, Valentina Petito, Cristina Graziani, Deirdre Mc Namara, Antonio Gasbarrini, Franco Scaldaferri
Major advances have occurred in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) over the last decade, and perhaps the most major, and clinically advantageous of these advances has been the discovery of the microbiome as a key multifaceted component of inflammation. The Gut microbiome is the largest known group of cells in the body, and is now recognised as an organ in its own right. Initial studies looking at a possible role of bacterial manipulation of the immune system in IBD, looked at identifying a specific bacterial species, and were not representative of a feasible model of inflammation in IBD overall...
March 14, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286741/sampling-strategies-for-three-dimensional-spatial-community-structures-in-ibd-microbiota-research
#4
REVIEW
Shaocun Zhang, Xiaocang Cao, He Huang
Identifying intestinal microbiota is arguably an important task that is performed to determine the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); thus, it is crucial to collect and analyze intestinally-associated microbiota. Analyzing a single niche to categorize individuals does not enable researchers to comprehensively study the spatial variations of the microbiota. Therefore, characterizing the spatial community structures of the inflammatory bowel disease microbiome is critical for advancing our understanding of the inflammatory landscape of IBD...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250469/gut-microbiota-diagnosing-ibd-with-the-gut-microbiome
#5
Iain Dickson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191884/dynamics-of-the-human-gut-microbiome-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Jonas Halfvarson, Colin J Brislawn, Regina Lamendella, Yoshiki Vázquez-Baeza, William A Walters, Lisa M Bramer, Mauro D'Amato, Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Daniel McDonald, Antonio Gonzalez, Erin E McClure, Mitchell F Dunklebarger, Rob Knight, Janet K Jansson
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by flares of inflammation with a periodic need for increased medication and sometimes even surgery. The aetiology of IBD is partly attributed to a deregulated immune response to gut microbiome dysbiosis. Cross-sectional studies have revealed microbial signatures for different IBD subtypes, including ulcerative colitis, colonic Crohn's disease and ileal Crohn's disease. Although IBD is dynamic, microbiome studies have primarily focused on single time points or a few individuals...
February 13, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185763/bariatric-surgery-attenuates-colitis-in-an-obese-murine-model
#7
Shiri Li, Alessio Vinci, Judith Behnsen, Chunmei Cheng, Stefan Jellbauer, Manuela Raffatellu, Kyle M Sousa, Robert Edwards, Ninh T Nguyen, Michael J Stamos, Alessio Pigazzi
BACKGROUND: Obesity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represent chronic inflammatory conditions. Bariatric surgery improves some obesity-related co-morbidities, but the effects of bariatric surgery on IBD have not been well studied. OBJECTIVES: To examine if bariatric surgery may attenuate colitis in an obese murine model of IBD and study the mechanisms underlying the postsurgical amelioration of intestinal inflammation. SETTING: University of California Irvine, Department of Surgery and Microbiology laboratories...
December 20, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179509/iga-coated-e-coli-enriched-in-crohn-s-disease-spondyloarthritis-promote-th17-dependent-inflammation
#8
Monica Viladomiu, Charles Kivolowitz, Ahmed Abdulhamid, Belgin Dogan, Daniel Victorio, Jim G Castellanos, Viola Woo, Fei Teng, Nhan L Tran, Andrew Sczesnak, Christina Chai, Myunghoo Kim, Gretchen E Diehl, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Xi K Zhou, Sergio Schwartzman, Lisa A Mandl, Meira Abramowitz, Vinita Jacob, Brian Bosworth, Adam Steinlauf, Ellen J Scherl, Hsin-Jung Joyce Wu, Kenneth W Simpson, Randy S Longman
Peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a common extraintestinal manifestation in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterized by inflammatory enthesitis, dactylitis, or synovitis of nonaxial joints. However, a mechanistic understanding of the link between intestinal inflammation and SpA has yet to emerge. We evaluated and functionally characterized the fecal microbiome of IBD patients with or without peripheral SpA. Coupling the sorting of immunoglobulin A (IgA)-coated microbiota with 16S ribosomal RNA-based analysis (IgA-seq) revealed a selective enrichment in IgA-coated Escherichia coli in patients with Crohn's disease-associated SpA (CD-SpA) compared to CD alone...
February 8, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179361/a-microbial-signature-for-crohn-s-disease
#9
Victoria Pascal, Marta Pozuelo, Natalia Borruel, Francesc Casellas, David Campos, Alba Santiago, Xavier Martinez, Encarna Varela, Guillaume Sarrabayrouse, Kathleen Machiels, Severine Vermeire, Harry Sokol, Francisco Guarner, Chaysavanh Manichanh
OBJECTIVE: A decade of microbiome studies has linked IBD to an alteration in the gut microbial community of genetically predisposed subjects. However, existing profiles of gut microbiome dysbiosis in adult IBD patients are inconsistent among published studies, and did not allow the identification of microbial signatures for CD and UC. Here, we aimed to compare the faecal microbiome of CD with patients having UC and with non-IBD subjects in a longitudinal study. DESIGN: We analysed a cohort of 2045 non-IBD and IBD faecal samples from four countries (Spain, Belgium, the UK and Germany), applied a 16S rRNA sequencing approach and analysed a total dataset of 115 million sequences...
February 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175241/p789-microbiome-composition-is-altered-in-patients-with-ibd-independent-of-endoscopic-activity
#10
K Boland, W Turpin, A Mohammadi, K Borowski, M I Smith, G Nguyen, A H Steinhart, K Croitoru, M Silverberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147375/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
REVIEW
Walter Reinisch
The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it is thought to arise from an aberrant immune response to a change in colonic environment in a genetically susceptible individual. The intestinal microbiota are located at the complex interface of the epithelial barrier and are sensitive to changes in environmental factors, such as diets, drugs or smoking and signals derived from the intestinal immune system and the gut-brain axis. In patients with IBD, an imbalance in the structural and/or functional configuration of the intestinal microbiota leading to the disruption of the host-microorganism homeostasis (dysbiosis) has been reproducibly reported...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125558/o-010-microbial-metabolites-establish-a-gradient-of-protons-which-mediate-interkingdom-host-microbiome-cross-talk-and-maintain-intestinal-homeostasis-via-two-proton-sensing-gprs
#12
Ashfaqul Alam, Huixia Wu, Jason Matthews, Bejan Saeedi, Rheinallt Jones, Andrew Neish
BACKGROUND: The mammalian intestine houses a complex microbial community, which fundamentally influences the development and activation of the immune system, and is integral to the repair of damaged intestinal mucosa. Intestinal damage is observed in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), enteric infections, as well as following surgical trauma, and environmental insults. Tissue restitution is a complex but coordinated cellular process to repair gut mucosa, which involves both cellular proliferation and migration...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058011/fecal-microbial-transplant-for-the-treatment-of-pediatric-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
REVIEW
Alice Yuxin Wang, Jelena Popov, Nikhil Pai
The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) in the treatment of pediatric gastrointestinal disease has become increasingly popular among pediatric practitioners, patients, and parents. The success of FMT for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI) has bolstered interest in its potential application to other disease states, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). FMT has particular interest in pediatrics, given the concerns of patients and parents about rates of adverse events with existing therapeutic options, and the greater cumulative medication burden associated with childhood-onset disease...
December 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057210/epigenetic-changes-in-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#14
O Fogel, C Richard-Miceli, J Tost
The number of people diagnosed with chronic inflammatory diseases has increased noteworthy in the last 40 years. Spondyloarthritis (SpA), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and psoriasis are the most frequent chronic inflammatory diseases, resulting from a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. Epigenetic modifications include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small and long noncoding RNAs. They are influenced by environmental exposure, life-style, and aging and have recently been shown to be altered in many complex diseases including inflammatory diseases...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052195/quantitative-metaproteomics-and-activity-based-probe-enrichment-reveals-significant-alterations-in-protein-expression-from-a-mouse-model-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Michael D Mayers, Clara Moon, Gregory S Stupp, Andrew I Su, Dennis W Wolan
Tandem mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics of distal gut microbiomes is exceedingly difficult due to the inherent complexity and taxonomic diversity of the samples. We introduce two new methodologies to improve metaproteomic studies of microbiome samples. These methods include the stable isotope labeling in mammals to permit protein quantitation across two mouse cohorts as well as the application of activity-based probes to enrich and analyze both host and microbial proteins with specific functionalities...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#16
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034915/early-life-antibiotic-treatment-enhances-the-pathogenicity-of-cd4-t-cells-during-intestinal-inflammation
#17
Sebastian Scheer, Tiago S Medina, Alex Murison, Matthew D Taves, Frann Antignano, Alistair Chenery, Kiran K Soma, Georgia Perona-Wright, Mathieu Lupien, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Daniel D De Carvalho, Colby Zaph
The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has steadily increased in recent decades-a phenomenon that cannot be explained by genetic mutations alone. Other factors, including the composition of the intestinal microbiome, are potentially important contributors to the increased occurrence of this group of diseases. Previous reports have shown a correlation between early-life antibiotic (Abx) treatment and an increased incidence of IBD. In this report, we investigated the effects of early-life Abx treatments on the pathogenicity of CD4(+) T cells using an experimental T cell transfer model of IBD...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030510/clinical-and-fecal-microbial-changes-with-diet-therapy-in-active-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
David L Suskind, Stanley A Cohen, Mitchell J Brittnacher, Ghassan Wahbeh, Dale Lee, Michele L Shaffer, Kimberly Braly, Hillary S Hayden, Jani Klein, Benjamin Gold, Matthew Giefer, Angela Stallworth, Samuel I Miller
GOAL: To determine the effect of the specific carbohydrate diet (SCD) on active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). BACKGROUND: IBD is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory intestinal disorder associated with fecal dysbiosis. Diet is a potential therapeutic option for IBD based on the hypothesis that changing the fecal dysbiosis could decrease intestinal inflammation. STUDY: Pediatric patients with mild to moderate IBD defined by pediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI 10-45) or pediatric ulcerative colitis activity index (PUCAI 10-65) were enrolled into a prospective study of the SCD...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981307/microbiota-small-rnas-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#19
REVIEW
Anca T Filip, Ovidiu Balacescu, Catalin Marian, Andrei Anghel
MiRNAs are a class of potential gene regulators of critical importance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). This review aims to present the connection between gut microbiota, probiotics administration and microRNA (miRNA) expression in IBD. It also brings into question cross-kingdom RNAi (RNA interference). Not only that gut host cells garden the intestinal microbiome via miRNA, but also strong evidence supports the idea that different species of bacteria have an impact on the intestinal immune response by modulating miRNA expression...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980034/qsec-inhibition-as-an-antivirulence-approach-for-colitis-associated-bacteria
#20
Michelle G Rooks, Patrick Veiga, Analise Z Reeves, Sydney Lavoie, Koji Yasuda, Yasunari Asano, Kazufumi Yoshihara, Monia Michaud, Leslie Wardwell-Scott, Carey Ann Gallini, Jonathan N Glickman, Nobuyuki Sudo, Curtis Huttenhower, Cammie F Lesser, Wendy S Garrett
Hosts and their microbes have established a sophisticated communication system over many millennia. Within mammalian hosts, this dynamic cross-talk is essential for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. In a genetically susceptible host, dysbiosis of the gut microbiome and dysregulated immune responses are central to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous surveys of stool from the T-bet(-/-)Rag2(-/-) IBD mouse model revealed microbial features that discriminate between health and disease states...
January 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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