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microbiome and IBD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777041/evolving-role-of-diet-in-the-pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Arie Levine, Rotem Sigall Boneh, Eytan Wine
Recent advances in basic and clinical science over the last 3 years have dramatically altered our appreciation of the role of diet in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The marked increase in incidence of these diseases along with the important role of non-genetic susceptibility among patients with IBD has highlighted that these diseases have a strong environmental component. Progress in the field of microbiome and IBD has demonstrated that microbiome appears to play an important role in pathogenesis, and that diet may in turn impact the composition and functionality of the microbiome...
May 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766049/interleukin-1%C3%AE-deficient-mice-have-an-altered-gut-microbiota-leading-to-protection-from-dextran-sodium-sulfate-induced-colitis
#2
Moran Nunberg, Nir Werbner, Hadar Neuman, Marina Bersudsky, Alex Braiman, Moshe Ben-Shoshan, Meirav Ben Izhak, Yoram Louzoun, Ron N Apte, Elena Voronov, Omry Koren
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestine, with as-yet-unclear etiologies, affecting over a million people in the United States alone. With the emergence of microbiome research, numerous studies have shown a connection between shifts in the gut microbiota composition (dysbiosis) and patterns of IBD development. In a previous study, we showed that interleukin 1α (IL-1α) deficiency in IL-1α knockout (KO) mice results in moderate dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis compared to that of wild-type (WT) mice, characterized by reduced inflammation and complete healing, as shown by parameters of weight loss, disease activity index (DAI) score, histology, and cytokine expression...
May 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722812/antibiotics-in-ibd-still-a-role-in-the-biological-era
#3
Oren Ledder, Dan Turner
Despite compelling evidence pointing to a critical role of gut microflora in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis, the role of antibiotics in clinical practice remains limited, largely due to heterogeneous trials with often conflicting evidence. In this review, we revisit previous randomized controlled trials and high-quality uncontrolled studies in an effort to better elucidate the role of antibiotics in contemporary treatment algorithms. The most established role of antibiotics is in perianal Crohn's disease (CD), utilizing ciprofloxacin with or without metronidazole often as an adjunct to biological therapy...
May 2, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718408/ancient-nuclear-receptor-vdr-with-new-functions-microbiome-and-inflammation
#4
Danika Bakke, Jun Sun
The biological functions of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are regulated by nuclear receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR). The expression level of VDR is high in intestine. VDR is an essential regulator of intestinal cell proliferation, barrier function, and immunity. Vitamin D/VDR plays a protective role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Emerging evidence demonstrates low VDR expression and dysfunction of vitamin D/VDR signaling in patients with IBD. Here, we summarize the progress made in vitamin D/VDR signaling in genetic regulation, immunity, and the microbiome in IBD...
April 28, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701818/determinants-of-ibd-heritability-genes-bugs-and-more
#5
Williams Turpin, Ashleigh Goethel, Larbi Bedrani, Kenneth Croitoru Mdcm
Defining the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to elude researchers, in part due to the possibility that there may be different triggers for a spectrum of disease phenotypes that are currently classified as either Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). What is clear is that genetic susceptibility plays an important role in the development of IBD, and large genome-wide association studies using case-control approaches have identified more than 230 risk alleles. Many of these identified risk alleles are located in a variety of genes important in host-microbiome interactions...
April 26, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696802/the-role-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
REVIEW
Irene D'Odorico, Stefano Di Bella, Jacopo Monticelli, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Emma Boldock, Roberto Luzzati
Increasing evidence suggests the key role of altered intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Management strategies involving immune modulation are effective and widely used, but treatment failures and side effects occur. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) provides a novel, perhaps complementary, strategy to restore the abnormal gut microbiome in patients with IBD. This narrative review summarizes the available efficacy and safety data on the use of FMT in IBD patients...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693729/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-immunonutrition-novel-therapeutic-approaches-through-modulation-of-diet-and-the-gut-microbiome
#7
REVIEW
Larissa S Celiberto, Franziska A Graef, Genelle R Healey, Else S Bosman, Kevan Jacobson, Laura M Sly, Bruce A Vallance
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract, thought to at least in part reflect an aberrant immune response to gut bacteria. IBD is increasing in incidence, particularly in populations that have recently immigrated to Western countries. This suggests that environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. We hypothesize that the increase in IBD rates might reflect the consumption of an unhealthy Western diet, containing excess calories and lacking in key nutritional factors, such as fiber and vitamin D...
April 25, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692798/the-presence-of-genotoxic-and-or-pro-inflammatory-bacterial-genes-in-gut-metagenomic-databases-and-their-possible-link-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#8
Abiel Roche-Lima, Kelvin Carrasquillo-Carrión, Ramón Gómez-Moreno, Juan M Cruz, Dayanara M Velázquez-Morales, Igor B Rogozin, Abel Baerga-Ortiz
Background: The human gut microbiota is a dynamic community of microorganisms that mediate important biochemical processes. Differences in the gut microbial composition have been associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and other intestinal disorders. In this study, we quantified and compared the frequencies of eight genotoxic and/or pro-inflammatory bacterial genes found in metagenomic Whole Genome Sequences (mWGSs) of samples from individuals with IBD vs. a cohort of healthy human subjects. Methods: The eight selected gene sequences were clbN, clbB, cif, cnf-1, usp, tcpC from Escherichia coli, gelE from Enterococcus faecalis and murB from Akkermansia muciniphila ...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670252/urbanization-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
Tao Zuo, Michael A Kamm, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Siew C Ng
In the 21st century, urbanization represents a major demographic shift in developed and developing countries. Rapid urbanization in the developing world has been associated with an increasing incidence of several autoimmune diseases, including IBD. Patients with IBD exhibit a decrease in the diversity and richness of the gut microbiota, while urbanization attenuates the gut microbial diversity and might have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Environmental exposures during urbanization, including Westernization of diet, increased antibiotic use, pollution, improved hygiene status and early-life microbial exposure, have been shown to affect the gut microbiota...
April 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668957/no-significant-association-between-the-fecal-microbiome-and-the-presence-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome-type-symptoms-in-patients-with-quiescent-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
Oliver Shutkever, David J Gracie, Caroline Young, Henry M Wood, Morag Taylor, P John Hamlin, Alexander C Ford, Philip Quirke
Background: The microbiome is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Whether a distinct microbiome profile is associated with the reporting of IBS-type symptoms in IBD patients is uncertain. We aimed to resolve this issue using a cross-sectional study design. Methods: Using clinical disease activity indices, the Rome III criteria for IBS and fecal calprotectin levels, we divided IBD patients into 4 groups: IBS-type symptoms, quiescent disease, occult inflammation, and active disease...
April 13, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665882/effects-of-antibiotic-resistance-ar-and-microbiota-shifts-on-campylobacter-jejuni-mediated-diseases
#11
Phillip T Brooks, Linda S Mansfield
Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen recently designated a serious antimicrobial resistant (AR) threat. While most patients with C. jejuni experience hemorrhagic colitis, serious autoimmune conditions can follow including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and the acute neuropathy Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS). This review examines inter-relationships among factors mediating C. jejuni diarrheal versus autoimmune disease especially AR C. jejuni and microbiome shifts. Because both susceptible and AR C...
December 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610731/microscopic-colitis-microbiome-barrier-function-and-associated-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Saskia van Hemert, Karolina Skonieczna-Żydecka, Igor Loniewski, Piotr Szredzki, Wojciech Marlicz
Microscopic colitis (MC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with little in terms of endoscopic abnormalities and is frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. The peak incidence of the disease is in middle aged or older populations, mostly females. The pathogenesis of MC is complex, multifactorial and poorly understood. Current concepts revolve around innate immunity or microbiome alterations as well as gut barrier dysfunction, all of which lead to the development of subtle inflammatory lesions in gut mucosa...
February 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573237/vitamin-d-administration-leads-to-a-shift-of-the-intestinal-bacterial-composition-in-crohn-s-disease-patients-but-not-in-healthy-controls
#13
Holger Schäffler, Daniel Pr Herlemann, Paul Klinitzke, Peggy Berlin, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Robert Jaster, Georg Lamprecht
OBJECTIVE: Dysbiosis is a common feature in the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). Environmental factors, e.g. vitamin D deficiency, seem to play a role in the intestinal inflammation of IBD. The aim of the study was to test if vitamin D administration has an impact on the bacterial composition in Crohn's disease (CD) compared to healthy controls (HC). METHODS: We have performed a prospective, longitudinal, controlled interventional analysis in seven patients with CD in clinical remission and ten HC to investigate the effect of vitamin D administration on the intestinal bacterial composition using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564058/faecal-microbiota-transplantation-looking-beyond-clostridium-difficile-infection-at-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
REVIEW
Krish Patel, Amee Patel, David Hawes, Janki Shah, Krishna Shah
Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota are known to play paramount role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Innovative sequencing methods have radically expanded our ability to analyze the intestinal microbiome. However, alterations of the GI microbiome in IBD have not yet been fully evaluated. Irregular colonization of the gut has been implicated in chronic intestinal inflammation. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a procedure which aims to restore microbial disturbances to the individual's gut microbiome...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555958/author-correction-cross-sectional-evaluation-of-the-gut-microbiome-metabolome-axis-in-an-italian-cohort-of-ibd-patients
#15
Maria Laura Santoru, Cristina Piras, Antonio Murgia, Vanessa Palmas, Tania Camboni, Sonia Liggi, Ivan Ibba, Maria Antonia Lai, Sandro Orrù, Sylvain Blois, Anna Lisa Loizedda, Julian Leether Griffin, Paolo Usai, Pierluigi Caboni, Luigi Atzori, Aldo Manzin
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543557/the-role-of-inflammation-in-temporal-shifts-in-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease-mucosal-microbiome
#16
Christopher John Kiely, Paul Pavli, Claire Louise O'Brien
Studies of the human intestinal microbiome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) consistently show that there are differences (an abnormal or unbalanced microbiome, "dysbiosis") when compared to healthy subjects. We sought to describe changes in the microbiome in individual patients over time, and determine the clinical factors that are associated with significant alteration. Forty-two mucosal biopsies were collected from 20 patients that were spaced an average of 2.4 years apart. These were analysed using bacterial 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing methods...
March 15, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538010/fecal-transplants-in-spondyloarthritis-and-uveitis-ready-for-a-clinical-trial
#17
Rene Y Choi, Mark Asquith, James T Rosenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal microbiome is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). There are many shared clinical manifestations between IBD and spondyloarthritis (SpA), of which the most common are peripheral arthritis and uveitis. Clinical overlap along with similar genetics between these diseases suggests a possible shared pathogenetic mechanism, which might center on the intestinal microbiota. In this review, we discuss the available evidence that SpA is a microbiome-driven disease and indicate how SpA-associated uveitis could be tied to gut dysbiosis...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535731/nlrx1-modulates-immunometabolic-mechanisms-controlling-the-host-gut-microbiota-interactions-during-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#18
Andrew Leber, Raquel Hontecillas, Nuria Tubau-Juni, Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez, Vida Abedi, Josep Bassaganya-Riera
Interactions among the gut microbiome, dysregulated immune responses, and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Nlrx1 -/- mice have exacerbated disease severity, colonic lesions, and increased inflammatory markers. Global transcriptomic analyses demonstrate enhanced mucosal antimicrobial defense response, chemokine and cytokine expression, and epithelial cell metabolism in colitic Nlrx1 -/- mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Cell-specificity studies using cre-lox mice demonstrate that the loss of NLRX1 in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) recapitulate the increased sensitivity to DSS colitis observed in whole body Nlrx1 -/- mice...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528388/how-to-increase-the-butyrate-producing-capacity-of-the-gut-microbiome-do-ibd-patients-really-need-butyrate-replacement-and-butyrogenic-therapy
#19
Stanislav Sitkin, Timur Vakhitov, Juris Pokrotnieks
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515025/nlrp3-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-inhibits-cd103-dendritic-cell-differentiation-in-the-gut
#20
Rachel Mak'Anyengo, Peter Duewell, Cornelia Reichl, Christine Hörth, Hans-Anton Lehr, Sandra Fischer, Thomas Clavel, Gerald Denk, Simon Hohenester, Sebastian Kobold, Stefan Endres, Max Schnurr, Christian Bauer
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with enhanced levels of the IL-1 family cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, which are activated by the Nlrp3 inflammasome. Here, we investigated the role of inflammasome-driven cytokine release on T cell polarization and DC differentiation in steady state and T cell transfer colitis. In vitro and in vivo data showed that IL-1β induces Th17 polarization and increases GM‑CSF production by T cells. Reduced IL-1β levels in Nlrp3-/- mice correlated with enhanced FLT3L levels and increased frequency of tolerogenic CD103+ DC...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
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