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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26913381/review-article-bile-acid-diarrhoea-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management
#1
N Mottacki, M Simrén, A Bajor
BACKGROUND: Bile acid diarrhoea results from imbalances in the homoeostasis of bile acids in the enterohepatic circulation. It can be a consequence of ileal disease/dysfunction, associated with other GI pathology or can be idiopathic. AIMS: To summarise the different types of bile acid diarrhoea and discuss the currently available diagnostic methods and treatments. RESULTS: Bile acid diarrhoea is found in up to 40% of patients diagnosed as having functional diarrhoea/IBS-D, and in up to 80% of patients who have undergone ileal resection...
February 24, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26832436/a-multicenter-prospective-study-to-investigate-the-diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-sehcat-test-in-measuring-bile-acid-malabsorption-research-protocol
#2
Fiona Reid, Janet Peacock, Bola Coker, Viktoria McMillan, Cornelius Lewis, Stephen Keevil, Roy Sherwood, Gill Vivian, Robert Logan, Jennifer Summers
BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is one possible explanation for chronic diarrhea. BAM may be idiopathic, or result from ileal resection or inflammation including Crohn's disease, or may be secondary to other conditions, including cholecystectomy, peptic ulcer surgery, and chronic pancreatitis. No "gold standard" exists for clinical diagnosis of BAM, but response to treatment with a bile acid sequestrant (BAS) is often accepted as confirmation. The SeHCAT (tauroselcholic [selenium-75] acid) test uses a radiolabeled synthetic bile acid and provides a diagnostic test for BAM, but its performance against "trial of treatment" is unknown...
February 1, 2016: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26636406/long-term-outcomes-in-patients-diagnosed-with-bile-acid-diarrhoea
#3
Simeng Lin, David S Sanders, Joseph T Gleeson, Christopher Osborne, Louise Messham, Matthew Kurien
OBJECTIVE: Bile-acid diarrhoea (BAD) is a recognized cause of chronic diarrhoea; however, its detection remains suboptimal. Currently, there is a paucity of follow-up studies evaluating BAD. This work evaluates the natural history of BAD by examining individuals diagnosed with BAD [7 days of Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) retention<10%] and determining the use of and response to bile-acid sequestrants (BAS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Of the 515 patients, 40% (207/515) who underwent an SeHCAT test at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals (2001-2012) for chronic diarrhoea had BAD...
February 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26426834/diagnosis-of-bile-acid-diarrhoea-by-fasting-and-postprandial-measurements-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-19
#4
Christian Borup, Charlotte Syversen, Pierre Bouchelouche, Morten Damgaard, Jesper Graff, Jüri Johannes Rumessen, Lars Kristian Munck
BACKGROUND: A deficiency in the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been described in patients with bile acid diarrhoea (BAD), but fasting FGF19 levels have insufficient diagnostic power. We assess whether single postprandial sampling of FGF19 has greater discriminative value than fasting FGF19 for detection of BAD and we evaluate the reproducibility of fasting FGF19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients consecutively referred to Se homocholic acid retention test (SeHCAT) were included...
December 2015: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26347530/biomarkers-for-bile-acid-diarrhoea-in-functional-bowel-disorder-with-diarrhoea-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Nelson Valentin, Michael Camilleri, Osama Altayar, Priya Vijayvargiya, Andres Acosta, Alfred D Nelson, M Hassan Murad
: There is no universally available laboratory test to diagnose bile acid diarrhoea (BAD). OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify a biomarker for idiopathic BAD in patients with functional bowel disorder (FBD) with diarrhoea. DESIGN: We searched multiple databases through 15 May 2015. Data were only available to estimate the diagnostic yield of each test (the prevalence of a positive test). Estimates were pooled across studies using the random effects model...
September 7, 2015: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26279847/are-the-definitions-for-chronic-diarrhoea-adequate-evaluation-of-two-different-definitions-in-patients-with-chronic-diarrhoea
#6
Per-Ove Stotzer, Hasse Abrahamsson, Antal Bajor, Anders Kilander, Riadh Sadik, Henrik Sjövall, Magnus Simrén
BACKGROUND: The classical definition of chronic diarrhoea is ≥3 defecations/day, with a stool weight of more than 200 g and duration of ≥4 weeks. However, with this definition many patients with substantial symptoms and pathology will be excluded from further investigations. As a consequence other definitions have been proposed, mainly based on evaluation of the stool form. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the classic criteria for diarrhoea in comparison with a definition based on stool consistency, using the Bristol Stool Form Scale...
August 2015: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26031975/quantifying-bile-acid-malabsorption-helps-predict-response-and-tailor-sequestrant-therapy
#7
Oluwafikunayo Orekoya, John McLaughlin, Eugenia Leitao, Wendy Johns, Simon Lal, Peter Paine
Although recognised as a cause of chronic diarrhoea for over forty years, diagnostic tests and treatments for bile acid malabsorption (BAM) remain controversial. Recent National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines highlighted the lack of evidence in the field, and called for further research. This retrospective study explores the BAM subtype and severity, the use and response to bile acid sequestrants (BAS) and the prevalence of abnormal colonic histology. 264 selenium-75-labelled homocholic acid conjugated taurine (SeHCAT)-tested patient records were reviewed and the severity and subtype of BAM, presence of colonic histopathology and response to BAS were recorded...
June 2015: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25913530/systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-the-prevalence-of-bile-acid-malabsorption-in-the-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-diarrhoea
#8
REVIEW
S A Slattery, O Niaz, Q Aziz, A C Ford, A D Farmer
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome is a widespread disorder with a marked socioeconomic burden. Previous studies support the proposal that a subset of patients with features compatible with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) have bile acid malabsorption (BAM). AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of BAM in patients meeting the accepted criteria for IBS-D. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to March 2015...
July 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25858478/randomised-clinical-trial-colestyramine-vs-hydroxypropyl-cellulose-in-patients-with-functional-chronic-watery-diarrhoea
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
F Fernández-Bañares, M Rosinach, M Piqueras, A Ruiz-Cerulla, I Modolell, Y Zabana, J Guardiola, M Esteve
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) has been suggested as a cause of chronic watery diarrhoea, with a response to colestyramine in 70% of patients. However, the efficacy of this drug has never been investigated in placebo-controlled trials. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of colestyramine as compared with hydroxypropyl cellulose in the treatment of functional chronic watery diarrhoea. METHODS: Patients with chronic watery diarrhoea were randomly assigned to groups given colestyramine sachets 4 g twice daily (n = 13) or identical hydroxypropyl cellulose sachets (n = 13) for 8 weeks...
June 2015: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25131120/selenium-homocholic-acid-taurocholate-scanning-selenium-75-labeled-bile-acid-a-novel-method-for-testing-the-function-of-the-terminal-ileum-in-small-bowel-transplant-recipients-a-pilot-study
#10
S V Beath, E Lanchbury, H Alton, R Mahandru, M Toy, I D van Mouirk, P J McKiernan, J Hartley, D A Kelly, K Sharif, G Gupte
INTRODUCTION: The terminal ileum (TI) is important for the active reabsorption of bile salts and is the site of allograft rejection; disruption of enterohepatic circulation (EHC) may give insights to inflammatory and other physiologic processes at the TI. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Four children aged 5 to 12 years who had received small bowel transplantation (SBTx), 3 recovering from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and 1 with acute rejection, were studied...
July 2014: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24662279/bile-acid-diarrhoea-and-fgf19-new-views-on-diagnosis-pathogenesis-and-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Julian R F Walters
Chronic diarrhoea induced by bile acids is common and the underlying mechanisms are linked to homeostatic regulation of hepatic bile acid synthesis by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). Increasing evidence, including that from several large case series using SeHCAT (selenium homocholic acid taurine) tests for diagnosis, indicates that bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) accounts for a sizeable proportion of patients who would otherwise be diagnosed with IBS. Studies of other approaches for diagnosis of BAD have shown increased bile acid synthesis, increased faecal levels of primary bile acids, dysbiosis and different urinary volatile organic compounds when compared with healthy controls or with other diseases...
July 2014: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24602022/systematic-review-the-management-of-chronic-diarrhoea-due-to-bile-acid-malabsorption
#12
REVIEW
C Wilcox, J Turner, J Green
BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a common, yet under-recognised, cause of chronic diarrhoea, with limited guidance available on the appropriate management of patients with BAM. AIM: To summarise the evidence supporting different treatments available for patients with bile acid malabsorption, noting their impact on clinical outcomes, tolerability and associated side effects. METHODS: A literature search was conducted through PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus...
May 2014: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24410472/advances-in-understanding-of-bile-acid-diarrhea
#13
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri
Bile acids (BA) are actively reabsorbed in the terminal ileum by the apical Na(+)-dependent bile salt transporter. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of BA diarrhea (BAD). BAD is typically caused by ileal resection or disease; 25-33% of patients with chronic functional diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) have BAD, possibly from deficiency in the ileal hormone, FGF-19, which normally provides feedback inhibition of BA synthesis. Diagnosis of BAD is typically based on reduced BA retention of radiolabeled BA ((75)SeHCAT), increased BA synthesis (serum C4) or increased fecal BA loss...
January 2014: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24351663/sehcat-tauroselcholic-selenium-75-acid-for-the-investigation-of-bile-acid-malabsorption-and-measurement-of-bile-acid-pool-loss-a-systematic-review-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#14
REVIEW
R Riemsma, M Al, I Corro Ramos, S N Deshpande, N Armstrong, Y-C Lee, S Ryder, C Noake, M Krol, M Oppe, J Kleijnen, H Severens
BACKGROUND: The principal diagnosis/indication for this assessment is chronic diarrhoea due to bile acid malabsorption (BAM). Diarrhoea can be defined as the abnormal passage of loose or liquid stools more than three times daily and/or a daily stool weight > 200 g per day and is considered to be chronic if it persists for more than 4 weeks. The cause of chronic diarrhoea in adults is often difficult to ascertain and patients may undergo several investigations without a definitive cause being identified...
December 2013: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24199211/bile-acid-malabsorption-in-chronic-diarrhea-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#15
REVIEW
Alan N Barkun, Jonathan Love, Michael Gould, Henryk Pluta, Hillary Steinhart
BACKGROUND: Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a common but frequently under-recognized cause of chronic diarrhea, with an estimated prevalence of 4% to 5%. METHODS: The published literature for the period 1965 to 2012 was examined for articles regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of BAM to provide an overview of the management of BAM in gastroenterology practice. RESULTS: BAM is classified as type 1 (secondary to ileal dysfunction), type 2 (idiopathic) or type 3 (secondary to gastrointestinal disorders not associated with ileal dysfunction)...
November 2013: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, Journal Canadien de Gastroenterologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23644387/methods-for-diagnosis-of-bile-acid-malabsorption-in-clinical-practice
#16
COMMENT
Priya Vijayvargiya, Michael Camilleri, Andrea Shin, Amy Saenger
Altered concentrations of bile acid (BA) in the colon can cause diarrhea or constipation. More than 25% of patients with irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea or chronic diarrhea in Western countries have BA malabsorption (BAM). As BAM is increasingly recognized, proper diagnostic methods are needed to help direct the most effective course of treatment for the chronic bowel dysfunction. We review the methodologies, advantages, and disadvantages of tools that directly measure BAM: the (14)C-glycocholate breath and stool test, the (75)selenium homotaurocholic acid test (SeHCAT), and measurements of 7 α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) and fecal BAs...
October 2013: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23604224/sehcat-retention-values-as-measured-with-a-collimated-and-an-uncollimated-gamma-camera-a-method-comparison-study
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
James W Wright, Lesley A Lovell, Howard G Gemmell, Fergus McKiddie, Roger T Staff
TauroH-23-(Se) selena-25-homocholic acid retention values are used in the diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption. The standard method for measuring values is with an uncollimated gamma camera, which can create some logistic difficulties, with other background sources of activity, which are irrelevant when a collimator is used, becoming significant. In this study we compare the retention values obtained with a collimated and an uncollimated gamma camera in phantoms and in 23 patients. Bland-Altman plots were created using the data, which showed a mean bias in retention of 0...
July 2013: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23407368/a-survey-of-the-clinical-use-of-sehcat-in-the-uk
#18
Michael J Smith, Alan C Perkins
BACKGROUND: The radiopharmaceutical 23-(Se)selena-25-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT), introduced 30 years ago, serves as a convenient and reliable diagnostic test for bile acid malabsorption. Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology of bile acid diarrhoea have led to increased use of SeHCAT; however, some questions on its applicability remain unanswered. To obtain a better understanding of the application of this diagnostic test, a national survey was carried out within the UK...
April 2013: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23238290/fibroblast-growth-factor-19-and-7%C3%AE-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one-in-the-diagnosis-of-patients-with-possible-bile-acid-diarrhea
#19
Sanjeev S Pattni, W Gordon Brydon, Tracy Dew, Julian R F Walters
OBJECTIVES: Increased colonic bile acids can cause chronic diarrhea. Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is treatable by sequestrants, and may be secondary to ileal disease or primary BAD. It is underdiagnosed, partly because the selenium-75-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) retention test is not available in many countries, and is underutilized in others. Serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4), a measure of bile acid synthesis, is available for diagnosis in specialist centers. Recently, deficiency of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) has been shown in BAD...
2012: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22765392/prevalence-of-and-predictors-of-bile-acid-malabsorption-in-outpatients-with-chronic-diarrhea
#20
D J Gracie, J S Kane, S Mumtaz, A F Scarsbrook, F U Chowdhury, A C Ford
BACKGROUND: Many physicians do not consider the diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption in patients with chronic diarrhea, or do not have access to testing. We examined yield of 23-seleno-25-homo-tauro-cholic acid (SeHCAT) scanning in chronic diarrhea patients, and attempted to identify predictors of a positive test. METHODS: Consecutive patients with chronic diarrhea undergoing SeHCAT scan over a 7-year period were identified retrospectively. Bile acid malabsorption was defined as present at a retention of <15%...
November 2012: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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