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Nosocomial infections

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331160/reduction-in-rate-of-nosocomial-respiratory-virus-infections-in-a-children-s-hospital-associated-with-enhanced-isolation-precautions
#1
Lorry G Rubin, Nina Kohn, Susan Nullet, Margaret Hill
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the use of enhanced isolation precautions (droplet and contact precautions) for inpatients with respiratory tract viral infections is associated with a reduction in rate of nosocomial viral respiratory infections. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study with the rate of nosocomial respiratory virus infection as the primary dependent variable and rate of nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection as a nonequivalent dependent variable comparator. SETTING Cohen Children's Medical Center of NY, a tertiary-care children's hospital attached to a large general hospital...
January 14, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331006/outbreak-of-extensively-drug-resistant-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-burn-unit
#2
Usman Ali, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi, Fatima Kaleem, Irum Aftab, Tariq Butt
Stenotrophomonas maltophiliais an emerging cause of nosocomial infections. We report an outbreak of XDR-Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection from burn unit of a tertiary care hospital in July 2016. The strain isolated was resistant to all antimicrobials tested but colistin. Outbreak investigation was carried out which subsided after timely intervention. Patients were treated adequately by Colistin.
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329916/impact-of-the-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-s-multidimensional-approach-on-rates-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-14-intensive-care-units-in-11-hospitals-of-5-cities-within-argentina
#3
Victor Daniel Rosenthal, Javier Desse, Diego Marcelo Maurizi, Gustavo Jorge Chaparro, Pablo Wenceslao Orellano, Viviana Chediack, Rafael Cabrera, Daniel Golschmid, Cristina Graciela Silva, Julio Cesar Vimercati, Juan Pablo Stagnaro, Ivanna Perez, María Laura Spadaro, Adriana Miriam Montanini, Dina Pedersen, Teresa Laura Paniccia, Ana María Ríos Aguilera, Raul Cermesoni, Juan Ignacio Mele, Ernesto Alda, Analía Edith Paldoro, Agustín Román Ortta, Bettina Cooke, María Cecilia García, Mora Nair Obed, Cecilia Verónica Domínguez, Pablo Alejandro Saúl, María Cecilia Rodríguez Del Valle, Alberto Claudio Bianchi, Gustavo Alvarez, Ricardo Pérez, Carolina Oyola
BACKGROUND: To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional approach (IMA) on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates in 11 hospitals within 5 cities of Argentina from January 2014-April 2017. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, before-after surveillance study was conducted through the use of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Surveillance Online System. During baseline, we performed outcome surveillance of VAP applying the definitions of the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention's National Healthcare Safety Network...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326225/genomic-insights-into-biofilm-forming-enterococcus-faecalis-sk460-isolated-from-a-chronic-diabetic-ulcer-patient
#4
Karthika Suryaletha, Lekshmi Narendrakumar, Joby John, Dinesh Reghunathan, Manoj Prasannakumar, Sabu Thomas
Enterococcus faecalis is recognized as one of the leading pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Here we report a draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis SK460, isolated from a chronic diabetic foot ulcer patient. This strain exhibits various biofilm-associated genes, virulence genes, and antibiotic-resistance genes related to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance.
January 11, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325882/pathophysiology-of-escherichia-coli-pneumonia-respective-contribution-of-pathogenicity-islands-to-virulence
#5
Mathilde Phillips-Houlbracq, Jean-Damien Ricard, Arnaud Foucrier, Deborah Yoder-Himes, Stéphane Gaudry, Julie Bex, Jonathan Messika, Dimitri Margetis, Jérémie Chatel, Ulrich Dobrindt, Erick Denamur, Damien Roux
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains the most frequent life-threatening nosocomial infection. Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli are increasingly involved. If a cumulative effect of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) has been shown for E. coli virulence in urinary tract or systemic infections, very little is known regarding pathophysiology of E. coli pneumonia. This study aimed to determine the role of each of the 7 PAIs present in pathogenic E. coli strain 536 in pneumonia pathophysiology. We used mutant strains to screen pathophysiological role of PAI in a rat pneumonia model...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325485/hepatitis-a-immunisation-need-in-nursing-students-in-turkey
#6
Çiğdem Kader, Ayşe Erbay, Nazan Kılıç Akça, Selda Yüzer Alsaç, Sevinç Polat
Hepatitis A is a worldwide vaccine-preventable infection. The aim of our study was to determine the serological status of hepatitis A virus (HAV) among first-year nursing students in Turkey. A sample of 423 students was used and immunoglobulin G antibodies against HAV were determined quantitatively by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on each. Overall, 84.6% had no immunity to HAV, making them at risk for HAV, and so susceptible to nosocomial transmission. Nursing students who work in high-risk wards must be vaccinated against hepatitis A...
January 1, 2018: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322099/outbreaks-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-in-hematology-and-oncology-departments-a-systematic-review
#7
Nikos Ulrich, Ralf-Peter Vonberg, Petra Gastmeier
Background: Vancomycin-resistance in Enterococcus faecium (VRE) poses a major threat in health care settings. It is well known that patients in hematology and oncology departments are especially at risk of nosocomial VRE acquisition. This systematic review of the literature provides data on the main sources, transmission modes and potential risk factors for VRE acquisition as well as appropriate infection control measures in order to terminate such nosocomial outbreaks. Methods: Data on nosocomial VRE outbreaks on hematology and oncology wards was retrieved from the Outbreak Database and PubMed...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321722/distinct-virulent-network-between-healthcare-and-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-based-on-proteomic-analysis
#8
Lei He, Hongwei Meng, Qian Liu, Mo Hu, Yanan Wang, Xiaoying Chen, Xiaoyun Liu, Min Li
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus or SA) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated (HA-) and community-associated (CA) infection. HA-SA isolates usually cause nosocomial pneumonia, bloodstream infections, catheter-related urinary tract infections, etc. On the other hand, CA-SA isolates usually cause highly fatal diseases, such as SSTIs as well as post influenza necrotic hemorrhagic pneumonia. The differences of the infection types are partially due to the unique characteristics between HA-SA and CA-SA isolates...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320462/unsaturated-fatty-acids-affect-quorum-sensing-communication-system-and-inhibit-motility-and-biofilm-formation-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#9
Marion Nicol, Stéphane Alexandre, Jean-Baptiste Luizet, Malena Skogman, Thierry Jouenne, Suzana P Salcedo, Emmanuelle Dé
The increasing threat of Acinetobacter baumannii as a nosocomial pathogen is mainly due to the occurrence of multidrug-resistant strains that are associated with the real problem of its eradication from hospital wards. The particular ability of this pathogen to form biofilms contributes to its persistence, increases antibiotic resistance, and promotes persistent/device-related infections. We previously demonstrated that virstatin, which is a small organic compound known to decrease virulence of Vibrio cholera via an inhibition of T4-pili expression, displayed very promising activity to prevent A...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317971/transcatheter-closure-versus-repeat-surgery-for-the-treatment-of-postoperative-left-to-right-shunts-a-single-center-15-year-experience
#10
Xinghua Gu, Qiuwang Zhang, Hourong Sun, Jianchun Fei, Xiquan Zhang, Michael J Kutryk
Background: Repeat surgery and the percutaneous approach (transcatheter closure (TCC)) have been used for the management of postoperative left-to-right shunts. In this study, we described our 15 years of experience in treating postoperative left-to-right shunts with these two approaches. Methods: From February 2002 to February 2017, 50 patients with residual left-to-right shunts, following cardiac surgery, were treated using TCC or repeat surgery. Clinical examination, standard 12-lead electrocardiography, chest X-ray, and a transthoracic echocardiogram were performed before hospital discharge and at all follow-ups...
December 2017: Cardiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317899/outbreak-of-clonal-complex-22-panton-valentine-leucocidin-positive-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#11
Mark I Garvey, Craig W Bradley, Kerry L Holden, Beryl Oppenheim
Aims: We describe the investigation and control of a nosocomial outbreak of Sequence Type (ST) 22 MRSA containing the Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) toxin in an acute multispecialty surgical ward at University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust. Methods: A patient was classed as acquiring methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) if they had a negative admission screen and then had MRSA isolated from a subsequent screen or clinical specimen. Spa typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was undertaken to confirm MRSA acquisitions...
September 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317750/exhaled-air-dispersion-during-bag-mask-ventilation-and-sputum-suctioning-implications-for-infection-control
#12
Matthew T V Chan, Benny K Chow, Thomas Lo, Fanny W Ko, Susanna S Ng, Tony Gin, David S Hui
Mask ventilation and coughing during oro-tracheal suctioning produce aerosols that enhance nosocomial transmission of respiratory infections. We examined the extent of exhaled air dispersion from a human-patient-simulator during mask ventilation by different groups of healthcare workers and coughing bouts. The simulator was programmed to mimic varying severity of lung injury. Exhaled airflow was marked with tiny smoke particles, and highlighted by laser light-sheet. We determined the normalized exhaled air concentration in the leakage jet plume from the light scattered by smoke particles...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313868/pets-as-potential-carriers-of-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-of-significance-to-public-health
#13
Giorgia Dotto, Michele Berlanda, Daniela Pasotto, Alessandra Mondin, Giorgio Zambotto, Maria Luisa Menandro
Enterococci are important opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals and have recently become one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, raising concerns about their virulence and antimicrobial traits. This study describes a multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from a case of feline urinary tract infection. This strain was characterized for virulence and antimicrobial resistance markers, phylogenetic group and sensitivity to antimicrobial agents used routinely in veterinary and human practice...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313864/trend-of-mdr-microorganisms-isolated-from-the-biological-samples-of-patients-with-hai-and-from-the-surfaces-around-that-patient
#14
Vincenza La Fauci, Gaetano Bruno Costa, Adriana Arena, Elvira Ventura Spagnolo, Cristina Genovese, Maria Angela Palamara, Raffaele Squeri
Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) continue to be a major public health concern. A number of epidemiologically relevant HAI microorganisms are multidrug-resistant (MDR) germs that can spread rapidly and/or carry multiple resistance to antibiotics. They are the cause of high mortality and possible nosocomial epidemics. For this reason, we implemented microbiological surveillance acquiring samples from patients with HAI and environmental samples from the surfaces surrounding those patients. A retrospective study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2016 in two departments of the University Hospital in Messina, Italy: the Microbiology and the Hygiene Laboratories...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313517/the-prevalence-of-exoenzyme-s-gene-in-multidrug-sensitive-and-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-clinical-strains
#15
Tomasz Bogiel, Aleksander Deptuła, Joanna Kwiecińska-Piróg, Małgorzata Prażyńska, Agnieszka Mikucka, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
Pseudomonas aeruginosa rods are one of the most commonly isolated microorganisms from clinical specimens, usually responsible for nosocomial infections. Antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa strains may present reduced expression of virulence factors. This fact may be caused by appropriate genome management to adapt to changing conditions of the hospital environment. Virulence factors genes may be replaced by those crucial to survive, like antimicrobial resistance genes. The aim of this study was to evaluate, using PCR, the occurrence of exoenzyme S-coding gene (exoS) in two distinct groups of P...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313072/-antibiotic-stewardship-measures-for-optimizing-prescription-of-anti-infective-agents
#16
REVIEW
C Lanckohr, H Bracht
Antibiotic stewardship (ABS) comprises a bundle of different interventions to improve anti-infective treatment in a hospital setting. An important component of ABS interventions is the interdisciplinary approach to infection management. Besides improving infrastructural aspects on a hospital level, including surveillance of the use of anti-infective agents and nosocomial infections, collation and interpretation of statistics on resistance and formulation of local treatment guidelines, ABS teams go to the wards and advise treating physicians on antibiotic therapy...
January 8, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312831/translating-genomics-into-practice-for-real-time-surveillance-and-response-to-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-evidence-from-a-complex-multi-institutional-kpc-outbreak
#17
Jason C Kwong, Courtney R Lane, Finn Romanes, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, Marion Easton, Katie Cronin, Mary Jo Waters, Takehiro Tomita, Kerrie Stevens, Mark B Schultz, Sarah L Baines, Norelle L Sherry, Glen P Carter, Andre Mu, Michelle Sait, Susan A Ballard, Torsten Seemann, Timothy P Stinear, Benjamin P Howden
Background: Until recently, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were rarely identified in Australia. Following an increase in the number of incident cases across the state of Victoria, we undertook a real-time combined genomic and epidemiological investigation. The scope of this study included identifying risk factors and routes of transmission, and investigating the utility of genomics to enhance traditional field epidemiology for informing management of established widespread outbreaks...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312658/economic-burden-of-nosocomial-infections-caused-by-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#18
Laura Puchter, Iris Freya Chaberny, Frank Schwab, Ralf-Peter Vonberg, Franz-Christoph Bange, Ella Ebadi
Background: Nosocomial infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have become a major problem during the last years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the economic burden of nosocomial VRE infections in a European university hospital. Methods: A retrospective matched case-control study was performed including patients who acquired nosocomial infection with either VRE or vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE) within a time period of 3 years...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310586/available-bed-sided-comprehensive-abc-score-to-a-diagnosis-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-a-derivation-and-validation-study
#19
Nori Yoshioka, Matsuo Deguchi, Hideharu Hagiya, Hisao Yoshida, Norihisa Yamamoto, Shoji Hashimoto, Yukihiro Akeda, Kazunori Tomono
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to be a leading problem in health care facilities worldwide. METHODS: This single-center retrospective cohort study consisted of a derivation phase and a validation phase. The derivation phase included all patients admitted to Osaka University Hospital between May 2010 and April 2011. We proposed a provisional available, bed-sided, comprehensive (ABC) score, and evaluated its accuracy using the clinical diagnosis as a reference...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310479/therapies-for-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-non-fermenting-gram-negative-bacteria-causing-nosocomial-infections-a-perilous-journey-toward-molecularly-targeted-therapy
#20
Nadim G El Chakhtoura, Elie Saade, Alina Iovleva, Mohamad Yasmin, Brigid Wilson, Federico Perez, Robert A Bonomo
Non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli are at the center of the antimicrobial resistance epidemic. Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are both designated with a threat level to human health of "serious" by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Two other major non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Burkholderia cepacia complex, while not as prevalent, have devastating effects on vulnerable populations, such as those with cystic fibrosis, as well as immunosuppressed or hospitalized patients...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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