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Nosocomial infections

Ana Belkin, Zeala Gazit, Nathan Keller, Ronen Ben-Ami, Anat Wieder-Finesod, Ana Novikov, Galia Rahav, Tal Brosh-Nissimov
A patient transferred from South Africa to Israel acquired a Candida auris infection. Phylogenetic analysis showed resemblance of C. auris to isolates from South Africa but not Israel, suggesting travel-associated infection. C. auris infection occurred weeks later in another patient at the same hospital, suggesting prolonged environmental persistence.
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
N Haber
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. Reinfections are common throughout adult life with more severe presentations occurring in immunocompromised individuals, subjects with underlying high-risk cardiopulmonary diseases, and in the elderly. There is now a significant body of literature indicating that the impact of RSV in elderly adults is similar to that of non-pandemic influenza, both in the community and in nursing homes...
March 13, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
M Garrote-Garrote, J A Del-Moral-Luque, A Checa-García, J F Valverde-Cánovas, C Campelo-Gutiérrez, J Martínez-Martín, A Gil-de-Miguel, G Rodríguez-Caravaca
OBJECTIVE: The surgical site infection is the main cause of nosocomial infection in surgical patients, being antibiotic prophylaxis one of the most important factors for preventing it. This study evaluates adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in hip arthroplasty surgery as well as its effect on preventing surgical site infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out from January 2011 to December 2016. We assessed the degree of adequacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in hip arthroplasty...
March 14, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Emeli Månsson, Berolla Sahdo, Åsa Nilsdotter-Augustinsson, Eva Särndahl, Bo Söderquist
Nosocomial sequence types of Staphylococcus epidermidis dominate in prosthetic joint infections. We examined caspase-1 activation in human neutrophils after incubation with Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from prosthetic joint infections and normal skin flora. Active caspase-1 was lower after incubation with isolates from prosthetic joint infections than after incubation with commensal isolates. Both host and isolate dependent differences in active caspase-1 were noted. Our results indicate that there might be a host-dependent incapacity to elicit a strong caspase-1 response towards certain strains of S...
2018: Journal of bone and joint infection
Hannah Y P Phoon, Hazilawati Hussin, Baizurah Mohd Hussain, Shu Yong Lim, Jia Jie Woon, Yi Xian Er, Kwai Lin Thong
OBJECTIVES: Hospital environments are potential reservoirs of bacteria associated with nosocomial infections. Here, we determined the distribution of cultivable environmental bacteria of clinical importance from a Malaysian tertiary hospital and to investigate their resistotypes and genotypes. METHODS: Swab and fluid samples (n=358) from healthcare workers' hands, frequently touched surfaces, medical equipment, patients' immediate surroundings, ward sinks and toilets and solutions or fluids of 12 selected wards were collected...
March 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Solenn Remy, Karine Kolev-Descamps, Morgane Gossez, Fabienne Venet, Julie Demaret, Etienne Javouhey, Guillaume Monneret
BACKGROUND: While the process of sepsis-induced immunosuppression is now well described in adults, very little information is available on immune functions in pediatric sepsis. The current study investigated this in children with septic shock by performing immunomonitoring, including both innate (monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR, mHLA-DR, expression) and adaptive immunity (lymphocyte subsets count), as well as cytokine concentrations (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1Ra, TNF-α, IFN-γ). Subsequent objectives were to assess the associations between inflammatory response, potential immunosuppression and secondary acquired infection occurrence...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
I-Ling Chen, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Shih-Wen Ting, Lily Yu-Chin Wang
Objectives: The increasing number of reports on infections due to carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) has raised concerns, because they have complicated empiric or guided antibiotic therapy for critically ill patients. We aimed to develop a scoring system to predict nosocomial imipenem-resistant GNB (IR-GNB) septicemia among the critically ill patients. Materials and methods: The study included critically ill adult patients with nosocomial GNB septicemia at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) in 2013-2015, and the scoring system for predicting IR-GNB septicemia was developed, followed by prospective validation conducted among patients at Linkou CGMH and Kaohsiung CGMH between January and June, 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Ruiqiang Xie, Xiaohua Douglas Zhang, Qi Zhao, Bo Peng, Jun Zheng
Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most challenging nosocomial pathogens due to the emergence and widespread of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to provide the first analysis of global prevalence of antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii infections, by synthesizing data and knowledge through a systematic review. We searched studies reporting antibiotic resistance in A. baumannii infections using the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to December 2016. Studies were eligible if they investigated and reported antibiotic resistance in A...
March 14, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Joseph P Zackular, Eric P Skaar
Clostridium difficile in one of the most commonly reported nosocomial pathogens worldwide. Beyond antibiotic use, little is known about the host, microbiota, and environmental factors that contribute to susceptibility to and severity of C. difficile infection (CDI). We recently observed that in a mouse model of CDI, excess dietary zinc (Zn) alters the gut microbiota and decreases resistance to CDI. Moreover, we determined that high levels of Zn exacerbate C. difficile-associated disease and calprotectin-mediated Zn limitation is an essential host response to infection...
March 13, 2018: Gut Microbes
R Cantón, E Loza, J Aznar, R Barrón-Adúriz, J Calvo, F J Castillo, E Cercenado, R Cisterna, F González-Romo, J L López-Hontangas, A I Suárez-Barrenechea, F Tubau, B Molloy, D López-Mendoza
OBJECTIVE: The SMART (Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends) surveillance study monitors antimicrobial susceptibility and extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in Gram-negative bacilli recovered from intra-abdominal infections (IAI). METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility of 5,343 isolates from IAI recovered in 11 centres during the 2011-2015 SMART-Spain program was analysed by standard microdilution (EUCAST criteria) and compared with that from 2002-2010...
March 12, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Brintha Parasumanna Girinathan, Junjun Ou, Bruno Dupuy, Revathi Govind
Clostridium difficile is the primary cause of nosocomial diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. It produces dormant spores, which serve as an infectious vehicle responsible for transmission of the disease and persistence of the organism in the environment. In Bacillus subtilis, the sin locus coding SinR (113 aa) and SinI (57 aa) is responsible for sporulation inhibition. In B. subtilis, SinR mainly acts as a repressor of its target genes to control sporulation, biofilm formation, and autolysis. SinI is an inhibitor of SinR, so their interaction determines whether SinR can inhibit its target gene expression...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Sibel Kara, Nazan Sen, Ebru Kursun, Hakan Yabanoğlu, Sedat Yıldırım, Şule Akçay, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in solid-organ transplant recipients despite enhanced facilities for perioperative care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic characteristics, clinical course, and outcomes of renal transplant recipients with pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medical records of all renal transplant recipients from January 2010 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed, and patients diagnosed with pneumonia according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were evaluated...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Toru Shizuma
Spontaneous bacterial (SBP) and spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP) can be a life-threatening infection in patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and ascites. One of the possible mechanisms of developing SBP is bacterial translocation. Although the number of polymorphonuclear cells in the culture of ascitic fluid is diagnostic for SBP, secondary bacterial peritonitis is necessary to exclude. The severity of underlying liver dysfunction is predictive of developing SBP; moreover, renal impairment and infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) organism are associated with a fatal prognosis of SBP...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Jobina Rajkumari, Subhomoi Borkotoky, Ayaluru Murali, Kitlangki Suchiang, Saswat Kumar Mohanty, Siddhardha Busi
The production of virulence determinants and biofilm formation in numerous pathogens is regulated by the cell-density-dependent phenomenon, Quorum sensing (QS). The QS system in multidrug resistant opportunistic pathogen, P. aeruginosa constitutes of three main regulatory circuits namely Las, Rhl, and Pqs which are closely linked to its pathogenicity and establishment of chronic infections. In spite intensive antibiotic therapy, P. aeruginosa continue to be an important cause of nosocomial infections and also the major cause of mortality in Cystic Fibrosis patients with 80% of the adults suffering from chronic P...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Marc Beltempo, Prakesh S Shah, Xiang Y Ye, Jehier Afifi, Shoo Lee, Douglas D McMillan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the specific Score of Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP-II) cut-off scores associated with outcomes in extremely preterm infants, and to examine its contribution to predictive models that include nonmodifiable birth predictors. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of 9240 infants born at 22-28 weeks' gestation and admitted to the Canadian Neonatal Network from 2010 to 2015. Outcomes included early and hospital mortality, composite of mortality/morbidity and individual morbidities...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
William Gustavo Lima, Mara Cristina Alves, Waleska Stephanie Cruz, Magna Cristina Paiva
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial and community infections of great clinical relevance. Its ability to rapidly develop resistance to antimicrobials, especially carbapenems, has re-boosted the prescription and use of polymyxins. However, the emergence of strains resistant to these antimicrobials is becoming a critical issue in several regions of the world because very few of currently available antibiotics are effective in these cases. This review summarizes the most up-to-date knowledge about chromosomally encoded and plasmid-mediated polymyxins resistance in A...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Michael Hornsey, David W Wareham
Multidrug-resistant lineages of Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) are important nosocomial pathogens. As tigecycline remains active against most MDRAB we sought to investigate whether tigecycline resistance impacts biological fitness. The effects of treatment-emergent tigecycline resistance were investigated in vitro and in vivo using two pre- (AB210; W6976) and post-therapy (AB211; W7282) clinical pairs, recovered from individual patients, where tigecycline resistance was associated with up-regulated efflux activity...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Abderrahmen Merghni, Emira Noumi, Ons Hadded, Neyla Dridi, Harsh Panwar, Ozgur Ceylan, Maha Mastouri, Mejdi Snoussi
Antibacterial resistance is an increasingly serious threat to global public health. The search for new anti-infection agents from natural resources, with different mode of actions and competitive effects became a necessity. In this study, twenty height methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were investigated for their biofilm formation ability. Subsequently, the antibiofilm effects of Eucalyptus globulus essential oil and its main component 1,8-cineole, against MRSA, as well as their antiquorum sensing potential, were evaluated...
March 6, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rehman, Umesh Singla
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents one of the most serious nosocomial infections that have grown dramatically over the past decade. Vancomycin and metronidazole are currently used as a standard therapy for CDI. Metronidazole is recommended as a first-line therapy for mild-to-moderate infections and vancomycin is mainly used for severe and/or refractory cases. However, studies have demonstrated that there are quite high CDI relapse rates with both of these medications, which represents a challenge for clinicians...
March 8, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Sheran Seneviratne, Gary Hoffman, Hemalatha Varadhan, Jane Kitcher, Daron Cope
PURPOSE: The study was designed to assess the difference in microbiological colonisation and growth that may occur in drains, in the setting of clean-contaminated compared to clean head and neck surgery. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was performed. Surgical drain tips upon removal were sent for bacterial culture and the culture results were compared between clean-contaminated and clean procedures using mixed effects logistic regression. In all statistical analyses, a priori, p < 0...
March 8, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
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