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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346266/the-relationship-between-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-melatonin-during-fetal-development
#1
REVIEW
Yunho Jin, Jeonghyun Choi, Jinyoung Won, Yonggeun Hong
The aim of this review is to clarify the interrelationship between melatonin and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) during fetal development. ASD refers to a diverse range of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits, impaired communication, and stereotyped or repetitive behaviors. Melatonin, which is secreted by the pineal gland, has well-established neuroprotective and circadian entraining effects. During pregnancy, the hormone crosses the placenta into the fetal circulation and transmits photoperiodic information to the fetus allowing the establishment of normal sleep patterns and circadian rhythms that are essential for normal neurodevelopment...
January 18, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344464/cannabinoids-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-hard-evidence-at-last
#2
REVIEW
Emilio Perucca
The interest in cannabis-based products for the treatment of refractory epilepsy has skyrocketed in recent years. Marijuana and other cannabis products with high content in Δ(9) - tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), utilized primarily for recreational purposes, are generally unsuitable for this indication, primarily because THC is associated with many undesired effects. Compared with THC, cannabidiol (CBD) shows a better defined anticonvulsant profile in animal models and is largely devoid of adverse psychoactive effects and abuse liability...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343740/modifiable-lifestyle-behaviors-but-not-a-genetic-risk-score-associate-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-evening-chronotypes
#3
Beatriz Vera, Hassan S Dashti, Purificación Gómez-Abellán, Antonio M Hernández-Martínez, Alberto Esteban, Frank A J L Scheer, Richa Saxena, Marta Garaulet
Evening chronotype associates with health complications possibly via lifestyle factors, while the contribution of genetics is unknown. The aim was to study the relative contributions of genetics, lifestyle, and circadian-related physiological characteristics in metabolic risk of evening chronotype. In order to capture a biological contribution to chronotype, a genetic-risk-score (GRS), comprised of 15 chronotype-related variants, was tested. Moreover, a wide range of behavioral and emotional eating factors was studied within the same population...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342171/health-behavior-associated-with-liver-enzymes-among-obese-korean-adolescents-2009-2014
#4
Eun-Young Lee, Hwa Young Choi, Hyunsoon Cho, Bo Hyun Kim, Moran Ki
AIMS: Obesity is major risk factor for liver health. This study aimed to clarify whether specific health behaviors were associated with liver function in obese adolescents in Korea. METHODS: Based on national school health examination data from 2009 to 2014, 25,142 obese or overweight students were examined for aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase levels, and health behaviors. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for liver enzyme elevation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339751/jmjc-domain-proteins-modulate-circadian-behaviors-and-sleep-in-drosophila
#5
Nevine A Shalaby, Jorge H Pinzon, Anjana S Narayanan, Eugene Jennifer Jin, Morgan P Ritz, Rachel J Dove, Heike Wolfenberg, Aylin R Rodan, Michael Buszczak, Adrian Rothenfluh
Jumonji (JmjC) domain proteins are known regulators of gene expression and chromatin organization by way of histone demethylation. Chromatin modification and remodeling provides a means to modulate the activity of large numbers of genes, but the importance of this class of predicted histone-modifying enzymes for different aspects of post-developmental processes remains poorly understood. Here we test the function of all 11 non-lethal members in the regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep. We find loss of every Drosophila JmjC gene affects different aspects of circadian behavior and sleep in a specific manner...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339558/does-sleep-facilitate-the-consolidation-of-allocentric-or-egocentric-representations-of-implicitly-learned-visual-motor-sequence-learning
#6
Jeremy Viczko, Valya Sergeeva, Laura B Ray, Adrian M Owen, Stuart M Fogel
Sleep facilitates the consolidation (i.e., enhancement) of simple, explicit (i.e., conscious) motor sequence learning (MSL). MSL can be dissociated into egocentric (i.e., motor) or allocentric (i.e., spatial) frames of reference. The consolidation of the allocentric memory representation is sleep-dependent, whereas the egocentric consolidation process is independent of sleep or wake for explicit MSL. However, it remains unclear the extent to which sleep contributes to the consolidation of implicit (i.e., unconscious) MSL, nor is it known what aspects of the memory representation (egocentric, allocentric) are consolidated by sleep...
February 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338957/commuting-and-sleep-results-from-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-sue%C3%A3-o-ancillary-study
#7
Megan E Petrov, Jia Weng, Kathryn J Reid, Rui Wang, Alberto R Ramos, Douglas M Wallace, Carmela Alcantara, Jianwen Cai, Krista Perreira, Rebeca A Espinoza Giacinto, Phyllis C Zee, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Sanjay R Patel
INTRODUCTION: Commute time is associated with reduced sleep time, but previous studies have relied on self-reported sleep assessment. The present study investigated the relationships between commute time for employment and objective sleep patterns among non-shift working U.S. Hispanic/Latino adults. METHODS: From 2010 to 2013, Hispanic/Latino employed, non-shift-working adults (n=760, aged 18-64 years) from the Sueño study, ancillary to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, reported their total daily commute time to and from work, completed questionnaires on sleep and other health behaviors, and wore wrist actigraphs to record sleep duration, continuity, and variability for 1 week...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338843/current-status-of-animal-models-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-behavioral-and-biological-phenotypes-and-future-challenges-in-improving-translation
#8
REVIEW
Jessica Deslauriers, Mate Toth, Andre Der-Avakian, Victoria B Risbrough
Increasing predictability of animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has required active collaboration between clinical and preclinical scientists. Modeling PTSD is challenging, as it is a heterogeneous disorder with ≥20 symptoms. Clinical research increasingly utilizes objective biological measures (e.g., imaging, peripheral biomarkers) or nonverbal behaviors and/or physiological responses to complement verbally reported symptoms. This shift toward more-objectively measurable phenotypes enables refinement of current animal models of PTSD, and it supports the incorporation of homologous measures across species...
November 20, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338731/effective-nationwide-school-based-participatory-extramural-program-on-adolescent-body-mass-index-health-knowledge-and-behaviors
#9
Moonseong Heo, Camille C Jimenez, Jean Lim, Carmen R Isasi, Arthur E Blank, David W Lounsbury, Lynn Fredericks, Michelle Bouchard, Myles S Faith, Judith Wylie
BACKGROUND: Adolescent obesity is a major public health concern. Open to all high school students regardless of weight status, HealthCorps is a nationwide program offering a comprehensive high school-based participatory educational program to indirectly address obesity. We tested a hypothesis that the HealthCorps program would decrease BMI z-scores among overweight or obese students, and reduce obesity rates, and evaluated its effects on health knowledge and behaviors. METHODS: HealthCorps aimed to improve student knowledge and behaviors regarding nutrition quality, physical activity, sleep, breakfast intake, and mental resilience...
January 16, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337903/use-of-accelerometer-activity-monitors-to-detect-changes-in-pruritic-behaviors-interim-clinical-data-on-6-dogs
#10
Susan M Wernimont, Robin J Thompson, Scott L Mickelsen, Spencer C Smith, Isabella C Alvarenga, Kathy L Gross
Veterinarians and pet owners have limited ability to assess pruritic behaviors in dogs. This pilot study assessed the capacity of the Vetrax® triaxial accelerometer to measure these behaviors in six dogs with pruritus likely due to environmental allergens. Dogs wore the activity monitor for two weeks while consuming their usual pet food (baseline), then for eight weeks while consuming a veterinary-exclusive pet food for dogs with suspected non-food-related skin conditions (Hill's Prescription Diet® Derm DefenseTM Canine dry food)...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335233/internet-based-group-intervention-for-ovarian-cancer-survivors-feasibility-and-preliminary-results
#11
Ellen M Kinner, Jessica S Armer, Bonnie A McGregor, Jennifer Duffecy, Susan Leighton, Marya E Corden, Janine Gauthier Mullady, Frank J Penedo, Susan K Lutgendorf
BACKGROUND: Development of psychosocial group interventions for ovarian cancer survivors has been limited. Drawing from elements of cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), we developed and conducted preliminary testing of an Internet-based group intervention tailored specifically to meet the needs of ovarian cancer survivors. The Internet-based platform facilitated home delivery of the psychosocial intervention to a group of cancer survivors for whom attending face-to-face programs could be difficult given their physical limitations and the small number of ovarian cancer survivors at any one treatment site...
January 15, 2018: JMIR Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334713/-prevalence-and-influential-factors-of-stroke-in-jiangxi-province-in-2014
#12
W Zhou, B Zhang, X Huang, C J You, B M Zhan, R Q Yang, Y F Dong, J X Li, P Li, K Hong, Y Q Wu, Q H Wu, H Su, H H Bao, X S Cheng
Objective: To discuss the prevalence and influential factors of stroke among population in Jiangxi Province. Methods: Four cities in urban areas and four counties in rural areas were selected firstly, in which two districts or townships were selected; and then three communities or villages were chosen from each district and township, respectively, using the simple random sampling (SRS) method. Finally 15 269 subjects aging 15 years old or above, living in Jiangxi Province ≥6 months were randomly selected to participate in this survey from November 2013 to August 2014...
January 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333381/changes-in-drosophila-melanogaster-sleep-wake-behavior-due-to-lotus-nelumbo-nucifera-seed-and-hwang-jeong-polygonatum-sibiricum-extracts
#13
Kyungae Jo, SangDuk Jeon, Chang-Won Ahn, Sung Hee Han, Hyung Joo Suh
We evaluated the sleep enhancement activity of the medicinal herbs valerian (Valeriana officinalis), jujube (Ziziphus jujube), lotus seed (Nelumbo nucifera), Gastrodia elata, Polygonatum sibiricum, and baekbokryung (Poria cocos), which can relieve insomnia in a Drosophila model. Locomotor activity was measured in the Drosophila model to evaluate the sleep activity of Korean medicinal herbs traditionally used as sleep aids. The group treated with lotus seed extract showed less nocturnal activity. Treatment with 10 or 20 mg/mL of P...
December 2017: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333200/perceptions-of-mindfulness-in-a-low-income-primarily-african-american-treatment-seeking-sample
#14
Claire Adams Spears, Sean C Houchins, Wendy P Bamatter, Sandra Barrueco, Diana Stewart Hoover, Rokas Perskaudas
Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332685/sleep-patterns-in-children-differ-by-ethnicity-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analyses-using-actigraphy
#15
Tevita F W Vaipuna, Sheila M Williams, Victoria L Farmer, Kim A Meredith-Jones, Rosalina Richards, Barbara C Galland, Lisa Te Morenga, Rachael W Taylor
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether sleep patterns (duration, timing, efficiency) differ by ethnicity. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SETTING: Dunedin, New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 939 children (48% male) aged 4-12 years (572 European, 181 Māori, 111 Pacific, 75 Asian). MEASUREMENTS: All measurements were obtained at months 0, 12, and 24. Anthropometry was obtained using standard techniques, and parents completed questionnaires assessing demographics, dietary intake, and television habits of children...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332678/relationship-of-sleep-pattern-and-snoring-with-chronic-disease-findings-from-a-nationwide-population-based-survey
#16
Fakir Md Yunus, Safayet Khan, Dipak K Mitra, Sabuj Kanti Mistry, Kaosar Afsana, Mahfuzar Rahman
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of total sleep time and presence or absence of snoring with chronic disease among the Bangladeshi adult population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Urban and rural Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 12,338 men and women aged ≥35 years. MEASUREMENTS: Total sleep time was considered as the total hours of sleep in 24 hours. Furthermore, sleep time was categorized into <7, 7-9, and >9 hours according to National Sleep Foundation (2015) guidelines...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332672/motivational-factors-associated-with-drowsy-driving-behavior-a-qualitative-investigation-of-college-students
#17
Kenneth H Beck, Clark J Lee, Talia Weiner
OBJECTIVES: This qualitative investigation sought to identify the motivational factors that contribute to drowsy driving in college students and to discover important messaging strategies that may help prevent or reduce this behavior in this population. DESIGN: Four focus groups of college students. SETTING: A large university in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area during the Fall 2016 term. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 25 years...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332671/estimating-sleep-efficiency-in-10-to-13-year-olds-using-a-waist-worn-accelerometer
#18
M M Borghese, Y Lin, J P Chaput, I Janssen
OBJECTIVE: In field settings, wrist- and waist-worn accelerometers are typically used to assess sleep characteristics and movement behaviors, respectively. There has been a shift in movement behavior studies to wear accelerometers 24 h/d. Sleep characteristics could be assessed in these studies if sleep algorithms were available for waist-worn accelerometers. The objective of this study was to develop and provide validity data for an algorithm/sleep likelihood score cut-off to estimate sleep efficiency in children using the waist-worn Actical accelerometer...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332670/reliability-and-construct-validity-of-the-children-s-sleep-habits-questionnaire-in-chinese-kindergartners
#19
Tony Xing Tan, Yan Wang, Charissa Siew Lyng Cheah, Guang-Heng Wang
The Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) is widely used in clinical settings to screen for sleep problems in children aged 4-10 years. Existing studies on children in different cultures have included children across a wide age range and results have raised questions about CSHQ's psychometric quality. Our study addressed some of the limitations of existing studies by focusing on Chinese children within a much narrower age range of 4-5 years old. We tested the reliability and construct validity of the CSHQ in children living in Shanghai, China...
February 2018: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331447/sharp-wave-ripples-as-a-signature-of-hippocampal-prefrontal-reactivation-for-memory-during-sleep-and-waking-states
#20
Wenbo Tang, Shantanu P Jadhav
It is widely believed that memories that are encoded and retrieved during waking behavior are consolidated during sleep. Recent studies on the interactions between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex have greatly advanced our understanding of the physiological bases of these memory processes. Although hippocampal-prefrontal network activity differs in many aspects during waking and sleep states, here we review evidence that hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) emerge as a common neurophysiological pattern in both states, facilitating communication between these two regions via coordinated reactivation of stored memory information...
January 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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