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Elisabeth M Weiss, Walther Parson, Harald Niederstätter, Josef Marksteiner, Astrid Lampe
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental disorder following a severe traumatic experience and is characterized by high rates of comorbidity with related psychiatric disorders. However, even for individuals experiencing the same trauma, there is considerable inter-individual variability in the risk of PTSD, and this is largely thought to be determined by biological processes, such as genetic predisposition and epigenetic mechanism. In this review we will summarize recent research on genetics of PTSD, primarily focusing on candidate gene-association studies, targeting on functional genetic variants in the monoaminergic system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis...
July 19, 2018: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Levent Dizdar, Jasmin Drusenheimer, Thomas Artur Werner, Birte Möhlendick, Sina Christin Schütte, Irene Esposito, Timm Filler, Wolfram Trudo Knoefel, Andreas Krieg
<br>Background: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas (GEP-NECs) are biologically aggressive tumors, associated with a very poor survival. Due to their rarity, our knowledge on GEP-NEC biology is very limited. The aim of this study was to establish a GEP-NEC cell line model that might contribute to a better understanding of this rare malignant disease to further develop novel therapeutic approaches in preclinical studies. METHODS: Small cell neuroendocrine cancer cell line NEC-DUE3 was derived from a lymph node metastasis of a neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) located at the anal canal...
July 19, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Sha She, Lingyu Jiang, Zhenfang Zhang, Min Yang, Huaidong Hu, Peng Hu, Yong Liao, Yixuan Yang, Hong Ren
BACKGROUND/AIMS: C reactive protein (CRP) levels are elevated in many diseases, including malignant tumors and cardiovascular disorders. In this study, the protein interaction network for CRP was evaluated to determine the importance of CRP and its interacting proteins in the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry were used to identify CRP interacting proteins in SMMC7721 cells...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Guangming Wang, Fangce Wang, Jie Ren, Yue Qiu, Wenjun Zhang, Shane Gao, Danjing Yang, Zhigang Wang, Aibin Liang, Zhengliang Gao, Jun Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alternative splicing and DNA damage exhibit cross-regulation, with not only DNA damage inducing changes in alternative splicing, but alternative splicing itself possibly modulating the DNA damage response (DDR). Sirt1, a prominent anti-aging player, plays pivotal roles in the DDR. However, few studies have examined alternative splicing with DNA damage in neural stem cells (NSCs) and, in essence, nothing is known about whether SIRT1 regulates alternative splicing. Hence, we investigated the potential involvement of Sirt1-mediated alternative splicing in the NSC DDR...
July 19, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Elina V García, María E Oliva, Jean G LeBlanc, Antonio D Barrera
Recent studies have demonstrated that the oviductal environment plays an active role in modulating the epigenetic marks of the preimplantation embryo genome, but the molecular factors that mediate this epigenetic effect are unknown. Folate is a well-known epi-nutrient that can impact on cell epigenetic machinery during embryonic and fetal development. However, the study of this epi-nutrient in the oviduct is still limited. The present study was conducted to confirm the presence and physiological concentration of folate in bovine oviductal fluid (OF) and to determine if bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) are able to regulate the uptake of this micronutrient...
July 10, 2018: Theriogenology
Siân E Halcrow, Kristina Killgrove, Gwen Robbins Schug, Michael Knapp, Damien Huffer, Bernardo Arriaza, William Jungers, Jennifer Gunter
Here we evaluate Bhattacharya et al.'s (2018) recent paper "Whole-genome sequencing of Atacama skeleton shows novel mutations linked with dysplasia" published in Genome Research. In this short report, we examine the hypothesis that the so-called "Atacama skeleton" has skeletal abnormalities indicative of dysplasia, critique the validity of the interpretations of disease based on genomic analyses, and comment on the ethics of research on this partially mummified human foetus. The current paper acts as a case study of the importance of using an anthropological approach for aDNA research on human remains...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Paleopathology
Luria Leslie Founou, Raspail Carrel Founou, Sabiha Yusuf Essack, Cyrille Finyom Djoko
Food animals can be reservoirs of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) and are involved in their zoonotic transmission through the food chain. In Africa, there is a dearth of information about the food safety issues associated with their dissemination in the farm-to-plate continuum. This study sought to determine and compare the carriage, antimicrobial resistance profiles and clonal relatedness of circulating MRS strains among pigs and exposed workers in Cameroon and South Africa. A total of 288 nasal and rectal pooled samples collected from 432 pigs as well as nasal and hand swabs from 82 humans were cultured on mannitol salt agar supplemented with 6 mg/l cefoxitin...
July 16, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Federica Alessandrini, Laura Pezzè, Daniel Menendez, Michael A Resnick, Yari Ciribilli
Breast cancer treatment often includes Doxorubicin as adjuvant as well as neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Despite its cytotoxicity, cells can develop drug resistance to Doxorubicin. Uncovering pathways and mechanisms involved in drug resistance is an urgent and critical aim for breast cancer research oriented to improve treatment efficacy. Here we show that Doxorubicin and other chemotherapeutic drugs induce the expression of ETV7, a transcriptional repressor member of ETS family of transcription factors. The ETV7 expression led to DNAJC15 down-regulation, a co-chaperone protein whose low expression was previously associated with drug resistance in breast and ovarian cancer...
July 16, 2018: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
Wenjie Yue, Xiaojun Nie, Licao Cui, Yongqiang Zhi, Ting Zhang, Xianghong Du, Weining Song
Autophagy, a highly conserved intracellular degradation system, is regarded to be responsible for self-defense and protect cells from abiotic stress. Extensive studies have demonstrated that autophagy plays a crucial role in regulating plant growth and development as well as in response to diverse stresses. However, little is known about autophagy-associated genes (ATGs) in wheat, especially those involved in the regulatory network of stress processes. In this study, a total of 108 putative wheat ATGs (TaATG) were obtained based on a genome-wide search approach...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Reiko Ueoka, Agneya Bhushan, Silke I Probst, Walter M Bray, R Scott Lokey, Roger G Linington, Jörn Piel
The large number of sequenced bacterial genomes provides the opportunity to bioinformatically identify rich natural product sources among previously neglected microbial groups. Testing this discovery strategy, unusually high biosynthetic potential was suggested for the Oceanospirillales member Gynuella sunshinyii, a Gram-negative marine bacterium from the rhizosphere of the halophilic plant Carex scabrifolia. Its genome contains numerous unusual biosynthetic gene clusters for diverse types of metabolites. Genome-guided isolation yielded representatives of four different natural product classes, of which only alteramide A was known...
July 19, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Sheng Kai Pong, Monika Gullerova
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory non-coding RNAs that are generated in the canonical RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Drosha, DiGeorge syndrome critical region 8 (DGCR8) and Dicer are key players in miRNA biogenesis. Argonaute (Ago) proteins bind to miRNAs and are guided by them to find messenger RNA targets and carry out posttranscriptional silencing of protein-coding genes. Recently, emerging evidence suggests that RNAi factors have a range of non-canonical functions that are beyond miRNA biogenesis...
July 19, 2018: FEBS Letters
Ditta Zobor, Gergely Zobor, Stephanie Hipp, Britta Baumann, Nicole Weisschuh, Saskia Biskup, Ieva Sliesoraityte, Eberhart Zrenner, Susanne Kohl
Purpose: Mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa-1-like-1 (RP1L1) gene are the major cause of autosomal dominant occult macular dystrophy (OCMD), while recessive mutations have been linked to autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). We present the clinical phenotype of a large German OCMD cohort, as well as four RP patients. Methods: A total of 42 OCMD patients (27 families) and 4 arRP patients (3 families) with genetically confirmed mutations in RP1L1 were included...
June 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Kelvin Yi Chong Teo, Shu Yen Lee, Amutha Veluchamy Barathi, Sai Bo Bo Tun, Licia Tan, Ian Jeffery Constable
Purpose: To determine if the surgical removal of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) in nonhuman primates (NHPs) will result in safe and effective transfection of adeno-associated viral (AAV2) vectors using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter. Methods: Six Macaca fascicularis NHP eyes underwent vitrectomy, ILM peel with layering of 1.7 × 1013 genome copies per milliliter of AAV2-GFP under air. Four control eyes underwent only vitrectomy and pooling under air...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
David W Sant, Vladimir Camarena, Sushmita Mustafi, Yiwen Li, Zachary Wilkes, Derek Van Booven, Rong Wen, Gaofeng Wang
Purpose: To investigate the impact of ascorbate, via DNA hydroxymethylation, on VEGF expression in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. Methods: Dot-blot and hydroxymethylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing were applied to evaluate the impact of ascorbate on DNA hydroxymethylation in ARPE-19 cells. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was carried out to analyze the transcriptome. Quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA were conducted to examine the transcription and secretion of VEGF from cultured cells...
July 2, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Juan David Lobaton, Tamara Miller, Juanita Gil, Daniel Ariza, Juan Fernando de la Hoz, Alvaro Soler, Steve Beebe, Jorge Duitama, Paul Gepts, Bodo Raatz
Common bean ( L.) is the most important grain legume for human consumption and is a major nutrition source in the tropics. Because bean production is reduced by both abiotic and biotic constraints, current breeding efforts are focused on the development of improved varieties with tolerance to these stresses. We characterized materials from different breeding programs spanning three continents to understand their sequence diversity and advance the development of molecular breeding tools. For this, 37 varieties belonging to , (A...
July 2018: Plant Genome
Juan Manuel González-Camacho, Leonardo Ornella, Paulino Pérez-Rodríguez, Daniel Gianola, Susanne Dreisigacker, José Crossa
New methods and algorithms are being developed for predicting untested phenotypes in schemes commonly used in genomic selection (GS). The prediction of disease resistance in GS has its own peculiarities: a) there is consensus about the additive nature of quantitative adult plant resistance (APR) genes, although epistasis has been found in some populations; b) rust resistance requires effective combinations of major and minor genes; and c) disease resistance is commonly measured based on ordinal scales (e.g...
July 2018: Plant Genome
Arun Prabhu Dhanapal, Jeffery D Ray, James R Smith, Larry C Purcell, Felix B Fritschi
The mineral composition of crop shoot tissues is important for yield formation and nutrient remobilization to seeds. The natural diversity that exists within crop species can be used to investigate mechanisms that define plant mineral composition and to identify important genomic loci for these processes. The objective of this study was to determine shoot mineral nutrient concentrations in genetically diverse soybean [ (L.) Merr.] genotypes and to identify genomic regions associated with concentrations of different nutrients in shoot tissue...
July 2018: Plant Genome
Hugo E Cuevas, Louis K Prom, Elizabeth A Cooper, Joseph E Knoll, Xinzhi Ni
The productivity and profitability of sorghum [ (L.) Moench] is reduced by susceptibility to fungal diseases, such as anthracnose ( P. Henn.). A limited number of resistant accessions are present in the temperate-adapted germplasm; other exotic sources of resistance are not currently available for breeding programs. Among 335 accessions available to breeders from a previously genotyped sorghum association panel (SAP), we found that 75 were resistant to anthracnose. A phylogenetic analysis of these accessions showed high genetic diversity and multiple resistance sources...
July 2018: Plant Genome
Mulusew Fikere, Denise M Barbulescu, Michelle M Malmberg, Fan Shi, Joshua C O Koh, Anthony T Slater, Iona M MacLeod, Phillip J Bowman, Phillip A Salisbury, German C Spangenberg, Noel O I Cogan, Hans D Daetwyler
Genomic prediction is becoming a popular plant breeding method to predict the genetic merit of lines. While some genomic prediction results have been reported in canola, none have been evaluated for blackleg disease. Here, we report genomic prediction for seedling emergence, survival rate, and internal infection), using 532 Spring and Winter canola lines. These lines were phenotyped in two replicated blackleg disease nurseries grown at Wickliffe and Green Lake, Victoria, Australia. A transcriptome genotyping-by-sequencing approach revealed 98,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after quality control...
July 2018: Plant Genome
Carl-Erik Tornqvist, Megan Taylor, Yiwei Jiang, Joseph Evans, C Robin Buell, Shawn M Kaeppler, Michael D Casler
Flowering is an important developmental event in switchgrass (), as the time to complete the life cycle affects overall biomass accumulation. The objective of this study was to generate a linkage map using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with flowering time. A pseudo-F population was created by crossing two siblings derived from an initial cross between the lowland population Ellsworth and the upland cultivar Summer. Heading and anthesis dates were collected for 2 yr at two locations: DeKalb, IL and Lafayette, IN...
July 2018: Plant Genome
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