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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428085/galloylation-of-polyphenols-alters-their-biological-activity
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Karas, Jitka Ulrichová, Kateřina Valentová
Polyphenols form one of the largest groups of natural compounds and possess a wide range of biological properties. These activities can be influenced by the galloyl moiety within their structures. A multitude of galloylated polyphenolic compounds occurs in nature, but galloylated phenols are also produced synthetically to influence their biological properties. This review provides a comprehensive summary of current knowledge about natural (galloylated catechins, theaflavins and proanthocyanidins, penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, gallotannins, ellagitannins, ellagic acid and flavonols) and semisynthetic gallates with a focus on their biological activity and toxicity issues...
April 17, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424621/activation-of-sirtuin-3-by-silybin-attenuates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#2
Yin Li, Zengchun Ye, Weiyan Lai, Jialing Rao, Wanbing Huang, Xiaohao Zhang, Ziying Yao, Tanqi Lou
Silybin is a secondary metabolite isolated from the seeds of blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum) that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antifibrotic, and antitumor properties. Here, we showed that silybin protected against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) by improving mitochondrial function through the regulation of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression. Male SV129 and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice were administered a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cisplatin with or without treatment with silybin...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419855/a-randomized-trial-of-silymarin-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#3
Wah-Kheong Chan, Nik Raihan Nik Mustapha, Sanjiv Mahadeva
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Silymarin is a complex mixture of 6 major flavonolignans and other minor polyphenolic compounds derived from the milk thistle plant Silybum marianum; it has shown anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects, and may be useful in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to study the efficacy of silymarin in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-the more severe form of NAFLD. METHODS: We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of consecutive adults with biopsy-proven NASH and a NAFLD activity score (NAS) of 4 or more at a tertiary care hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from November 2012 through August 2014...
April 15, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400224/new-amides-from-seeds-of-silybum-marianum-with-potential-antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-activities
#4
Ning-Bo Qin, Cui-Cui Jia, Jun Xu, Da-Hong Li, Fan-Xing Xu, Jiao Bai, Zhan-Lin Li, Hui-Ming Hua
Two new amide compounds, mariamides A and B (1-2), were obtained together with fourteen known compounds from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS data. Most of the compounds showed significant antioxidant activities than positive control in ABTS and FRAP assays. However, only amide compounds 1-4 showed moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity and compounds 7 and 16 showed the most potent activity against DPPH...
April 8, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392269/chemotaxonomic-and-biosynthetic-relationships-between-flavonolignans-produced-by-silybum-marianum-populations
#5
Sameh F AbouZid, Hayam S Ahmed, Abeer S Moawad, Asmaa I Owis, Shao-Nong Chen, Amandine Nachtergael, James B McAlpine, J Brent Friesen, Guido F Pauli
Flavonolignans constitute an important class of plant secondary metabolites formed by oxidative coupling of one flavonoid and one phenylpropanoid moiety. The standardized flavonolignan-rich extract prepared from the fruits of Silybum marianum is known as silymarin and has long been used medicinally, prominently as an antihepatotoxic and as a chemopreventive agent. Principal component analysis of the variation in flavonolignan content in S. marianum samples collected from different locations in Egypt revealed biosynthetic relationships between the flavonolignans...
April 6, 2017: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377060/bioactive-terpenoids-from-silybum-marianum-and-their-suppression-on-no-release-in-lps-induced-bv-2-cells-and-interaction-with-inos
#6
Ning-Bo Qin, Sheng-Ge Li, Xue-Yuan Yang, Chi Gong, Xiang-Yu Zhang, Jian Wang, Da-Hong Li, Yuan-Qiang Guo, Zhan-Lin Li, Hui-Ming Hua
Three new (1-3) and one known (4) bioactive terpenoids were isolated from the seeds of Silybum marianum based on the investigation to get new NO inhibitors. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR (1D and 2D NMR) and MS spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were identified by experimental and calculated ECD spectra. The NO inhibitory activities in murine microglial BV-2 cells and interactions with iNOS protein by molecular docking were evaluated for all compounds. The results showed that these compounds had potent NO inhibitory effects...
March 24, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330141/evaluation-of-biochemical-markers-during-somatic-embryogenesis-in-silybum-marianum-l
#7
Bilal Haider Abbasi, Huma Ali, Buhara Yücesan, Sabahat Saeed, Khalid Rehman, Mubarak Ali Khan
In present report effects of explants type, basal media and plant growth regulators (PGRs) were tested for induction of indirect somatic embryogenesis in medicinally important plant Silybum marianum L. Leaf, petiole and root explants were exploited in vitro on B5 (Gamborg), SH (Schenk and Hildebrandt) and MS (Murashige and Skoog) media for induction of embryogenic callus followed by somatic embryogenesis. Highest callus induction frequency (76 ± 4.8 %) was recorded when petiole explants of in vitro derived plantlets were cultured on B5 medium supplemented with 1...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288419/the-potential-of-native-species-as-bioenergy-crops-on-trace-element-contaminated-mediterranean-lands
#8
María T Domínguez, María M Montiel-Rozas, Paula Madejón, Manuel J Diaz, Engracia Madejón
The establishment of energy crops could be an option for the management of degraded and contaminated lands, where they would not compete with food production for land use. Here, we aimed to explore the potential of certain native Mediterranean species for the revegetation of contaminated lands for energy production purposes. A field survey was conducted in a trace-element (TE) contaminated area from SW Spain, where the patterns of biomass production, TE accumulation and the calorific value of some thistle species were analyzed along a soil contamination gradient...
March 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250272/the-binding-of-silibinin-the-main-constituent-of-silymarin-to-site-i-on-human-serum-albumin
#9
Keishi Yamasaki, Hiroki Sato, Saori Minagoshi, Karin Kyubun, Makoto Anraku, Shigeyuki Miyamura, Hiroshi Watanabe, Kazuaki Taguchi, Hakaru Seo, Toru Maruyama, Masaki Otagiri
Silibinin is the main constituent of silymarin, an extract from the seeds of milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Because silibinin has many pharmacological activities, extending its clinical use in the treatment of a wider variety of diseases would be desirable. In this study, we report on the binding of silibinin to plasma proteins, an issue that has not previously been extensively studied. The findings indicated that silibinin mainly binds to human serum albumin (HSA). Mutual displacement experiments using ligands that primarily bind to sites I and II clearly revealed that silibinin binds tightly and selectively to site I (subsites Ia and/or Ic) of HSA, which is located in subdomain IIA...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216891/effects-of-potassium-sulfate-k2so4-on-the-element-contents-polyphenol-content-antioxidant-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-milk-thistle-silybum-marianum
#10
Gulsum Yaldiz
BACKGROUND: Silybum marianum L. (Milk thistle) is native to the Mediterranean basin and is now widespread throughout the world. It's sprout is used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of liver disease for centuries. The seeds of milk thistle contain silymarin, an isomeric mixture of flavonolignans [silybin, silychristin, and silydianin]. Silymarin acts as a strong anti-hepatotoxic. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influences of potassium sulfate [K2SO4] fertilizer doses on polyphenol content, some nutrient elements, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of milk thistle at experimental fields of Ordu University in Turkey...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214690/safety-and-efficacy-of-a-polyherbal-formulation-for-the-management-of-dyslipidemia-and-hyperglycemia-in-patients-with-advanced-stage-of-type-2-diabetes
#11
Mahdi Zarvandi, Hassan Rakhshandeh, Mohammad Abazari, Reza Shafiee-Nick, Ahmad Ghorbani
The present clinical trial was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) consisted of Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Nigella sativa, Plantago psyllium, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum for controlling dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in patients with advanced-stage of type-2 diabetes. An open-label phase I trial was carried out on 30 patients who had hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia before the beginning of the trial in spite of receiving statins and oral hypoglycemic drugs...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178209/effects-of-a-combination-of-berberis-aristata-silybum-marianum-and-monacolin-on-lipid-profile-in-subjects-at-low-cardiovascular-risk-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#12
Giuseppe Derosa, Angela D'Angelo, Davide Romano, Pamela Maffioli
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an anti-hypercholesterolemic agent containing Berberis aristata, Silybum marianum and monacolin K and KA in a sample of Caucasian patients at low cardiovascular risk according to Framingham score. The primary outcome was to evaluate the effects of this nutraceutical combination on lipid profile; the secondary outcome was to evaluate the effect on some inflammatory markers, in particular high sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α interleukin-6...
February 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161126/enhancing-silymarin-fractionation-using-the-conductor-like-screening-model-for-real-solvents
#13
Emma C Brace, Abigail S Engelberth
A significant hurdle for discovery of plant-derived products is the numerous trial-and-error experiments required to develop an effective purification strategy. To overcome the experimental burden, a quantum mechanics-based molecular modeling approach - known as the COnductor-like Screening Model for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) - was used to predict a suitable two-phase solvent system to purify six silymarins from an aqueous mixture. Silymarins, a class of flavonolignans found in milk thistle (Silybum marianum L...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134230/-flavonolignans-compounds-not-only-for-liver-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Michał Bijak
Flavonolignans are the major bioactive components presented in the Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) standarized extract - silymarin. S. marianum is a medicinal plant, which has been using for thousands of years as a remedy for a variety of ailments. Since the 70s of the last century flavonolignans presented in silymarin have been regarded to the official medicine as substances having an hepatoprotective properties. Structurally, flavonolignans are composed of a flavonoid unit (taxifolin) and a phenylpropane unit (coniferyl alcohol), linked together by an oxeran ring...
January 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125040/silymarin-silybin-and-chronic-liver-disease-a-marriage-of-many-years
#15
REVIEW
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Carmelina Loguercio
Silymarin is the extract of Silybum marianum, or milk thistle, and its major active compound is silybin, which has a remarkable biological effect. It is used in different liver disorders, particularly chronic liver diseases, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, because of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic power. Indeed, the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of silymarin is oriented towards the reduction of virus-related liver damages through inflammatory cascade softening and immune system modulation...
January 24, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124457/effects-of-silymarin-on-diabetes-mellitus-complications-a-review
#16
REVIEW
Aline Maria Stolf, Cibele Campos Cardoso, Alexandra Acco
Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder that is caused by a deficit in the production of (type 1) or response to (type 2) insulin. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a state of chronic hyperglycemia and such symptoms as weight loss, thirst, polyuria, and blurred vision. These disturbances represent one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality nowadays, despite available treatments, such as insulin, insulin secretagogues, insulin sensitizers, and oral hypoglycemic agents. However, many efforts have been made to discover new drugs for diabetes treatment, including medicinal plant extracts...
January 25, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115903/assessment-of-the-antioxidant-activity-of-silybum-marianum-seed-extract-and-its-protective-effect-against-dna-oxidation-protein-damage-and-lipid-peroxidation
#17
Aynur Serçe, Bircan Çeken Toptancı, Sevil Emen Tanrıkut, Sevcan Altaş, Göksel Kızıl, Süleyman Kızıl, Murat Kızıl
Antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) seeds was investigated. We have also investigated the protein damage activated by oxidative Fenton reaction and its prevention by Silybum marianum seed extract. Antioxidant potential of Silybum marianum seed ethanol extract was measured using different in vitro methods, such as lipid peroxidation, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing power assays. The extract significantly decreased DNA damage caused by hydroxyl radicals...
December 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111519/statistical-analysis-of-optimal-ultrasound-emulsification-parameters-in-thistle-oil-nanoemulsions
#18
Małgorzata A Miastkowska, Marcin Banach, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Elżbieta S Sikora, Agata Głogowska, Michał Zielina
Thistle oil (INCI: Silybum marianum seed oil) is known as an anti-oxidant, moisturizing and skin regenerating cosmetic raw material. Nanoemulsions are a new form of cosmetic product showing very good user properties (ease of spreading over the skin with no greasy feeling). Moreover, due to their structure, they can also transport both hydrophilic and hydrophobic active substances to the skin. The aim of this work was the preparation and characterization of nanoemulsions, based on thistle oil. The non-ionic surfactants polysorbate 80 (PEG-20 sorbitan monooleate), decyl glucoside, and a polyglyceryl-4 ester blend were applied to stabilize the nanosystems...
2017: Journal of Surfactants and Detergents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069415/silymarin-exerts-antifungal-effects-via-membrane-targeted-mode-of-action-by-increasing-permeability-and-inducing-oxidative-stress
#19
Dae Gyu Yun, Dong Gun Lee
Silymarin, which is derived from the seeds of Silybum marianum, has been widely used to prevent and treat liver disorders. It is also consumed as a dietary supplement to improve liver function, as it does not exhibit any toxic effects in humans. Recently, silymarin has been reported to show antimicrobial effects against various pathogenic microorganisms, but the mode of action remains unknown. Thus, we investigated the antifungal activity of silymarin and aimed to determine the underlying mechanism. Initially, a propidium iodide assay was carried out; the results indicated that silymarin induced injury to the fungal plasma membrane...
January 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066148/inhibition-of-erk1-2-by-silymarin-in-mouse-mesangial-cells
#20
Cha Kyung Youn, Sung Il Cho, Min Young Lee, Young Jin Jeon, Seog Ki Lee
The present study aimed to show that pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β] synergistically induce the production of nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse mesangial cells, which play an important role in inflammatory glomerular injury. We also found that co-treatment with cytokines at low doses (TNF-α; 5 ng/ml, IFN-γ; 5 ng/ml, and IL-1β; 1.25 U/ml) synergistically induced NO production, whereas treatment with each cytokine alone did not increase NO production at doses up to 100 ng/ml or 50 U/ml...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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