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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069415/silymarin-exerts-antifungal-effects-via-membrane-targeted-mode-of-action-by-increasing-permeability-and-inducing-oxidative-stress
#1
Dae Gyu Yun, Dong Gun Lee
Silymarin, which is derived from the seeds of Silybum marianum, has been widely used to prevent and treat liver disorders. It is also consumed as a dietary supplement to improve liver function, as it does not exhibit any toxic effects in humans. Recently, silymarin has been reported to show antimicrobial effects against various pathogenic microorganisms, but the mode of action remains unknown. Thus, we investigated the antifungal activity of silymarin and aimed to determine the underlying mechanism. Initially, a propidium iodide assay was carried out; the results indicated that silymarin induced injury to the fungal plasma membrane...
January 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066148/inhibition-of-erk1-2-by-silymarin-in-mouse-mesangial-cells
#2
Cha Kyung Youn, Sung Il Cho, Min Young Lee, Young Jin Jeon, Seog Ki Lee
The present study aimed to show that pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β] synergistically induce the production of nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse mesangial cells, which play an important role in inflammatory glomerular injury. We also found that co-treatment with cytokines at low doses (TNF-α; 5 ng/ml, IFN-γ; 5 ng/ml, and IL-1β; 1.25 U/ml) synergistically induced NO production, whereas treatment with each cytokine alone did not increase NO production at doses up to 100 ng/ml or 50 U/ml...
January 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058034/retrospective-analysis-of-the-effects-of-a-highly-standardized-mixture-of-berberis-aristata-silybum-marianum-and-monacolins-k-and-ka-in-patients-with-dyslipidemia
#3
Francesco Di Pierro, Pietro Putignano, Tarcisio Ferrara, Carmela Raiola, Giuliana Rapacioli, Nicola Villanova
BACKGROUND: Berberis aristata, because of its berberine content, and Monascus purpureus fermented rice, because of the presence of monacolins (naturally derived statins), are widely investigated food-grade ingredients used to formulate cholesterol-lowering supplements. Although they are extensively used, berberine is poorly absorbed and monacolins are poorly chemically characterized, not standardized, and possibly contaminated with toxic compounds. Silymarin is reported to enhance berberine absorption, while Monakopure™-K20 (MK-20) is a highly standardized red yeast rice containing monacolins K and KA in the ratio of 1:1 but not secondary monacolins, dehydromonacolins, or citrinin...
2017: Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042859/a-novel-role-of-silibinin-as-a-putative-epigenetic-modulator-in-human-prostate-carcinoma
#4
Ioannis Anestopoulos, Aristeidis P Sfakianos, Rodrigo Franco, Katerina Chlichlia, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, David J Kroll, Aglaia Pappa
Silibinin, extracted from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L.), has exhibited considerable preclinical activity against prostate carcinoma. Its antitumor and chemopreventive activities have been associated with diverse effects on cell cycle, apoptosis, and receptor-dependent mitogenic signaling pathways. Here we hypothesized that silibinin's pleiotropic effects may reflect its interference with epigenetic mechanisms in human prostate cancer cells. More specifically, we have demonstrated that silibinin reduces gene expression levels of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) members Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2), Suppressor of Zeste Homolog 12 (SUZ12), and Embryonic Ectoderm Development (EED) in DU145 and PC3 human prostate cancer cells, as evidenced by Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR)...
December 31, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006905/silychristin-skeletal-alterations-and-biological-activities
#5
David Biedermann, Martin Buchta, Veronika Holečková, David Sedlák, Kateřina Valentová, Josef Cvačka, Lucie Bednárová, Alena Křenková, Marek Kuzma, Ctibor Škuta, Žaneta Peikerová, Petr Bartůněk, Vladimír Křen
Silychristin is the second most abundant flavonolignan (after silybin) present in the fruits of Silybum marianum. A group of compounds containing silychristin (3) and its derivatives such as 2,3-dehydrosilychristin (4), 2,3-dehydroanhydrosilychristin (5), anhydrosilychristin (6), silyhermin (7), and isosilychristin (8) were studied. Physicochemical data of these compounds acquired at high resolution were compared. The absolute configuration of silyhermin (7) was proposed to be identical to silychristin A (3a) in ring D (10R,11S)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976259/an-approved-preparation-of-silybum-marianum-contains-constituents-with-activity-against-plasmodium-falciparum
#6
N Llurba Montesino, M Kaiser, R Brun, T J Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975948/silymarin-from-silybum-marianum-new-approaches-to-separation-and-derivatization
#7
D Biedermann, A Křenková, K Valentová, V Křen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923566/flavonolignans-inhibit-adp-induced-blood-platelets-activation-and-aggregation-in-whole-blood
#8
Michal Bijak, Rafal Szelenberger, Joanna Saluk, Pawel Nowak
Flavonolignans are a group of active chemical compounds presented in the silymarin - a standardized extract obtained from fruits and seeds of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaernt.). Since the 70s of the last century, flavonolignans have been regarded to the official medicine as a substances having hepatoprotective properties. However many researches performed in recent years have demonstrated that flavonolignans posses many other healthy properties including modulation of variety cell-signaling pathways...
February 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915198/a-new-approach-to-the-rapid-separation-of-isomeric-compounds-in-a-silybum-marianum-extract-using-uhplc-core-shell-column-with-f5-stationary-phase
#9
Jakub Fibigr, Dalibor Šatínský, Petr Solich
In this paper, a new ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method using a core-shell column with a pentafluorophenyl stationary phase for separation of seven active compounds of a Silybum marianum extract was developed and validated. Silymarin, an extract of Silybum marianum, is known for its abilities to protect the liver from toxic substances, hepatitis therapy, and anti-tumour activity. Silymarin is currently being widely used in commercial preparations and herbal teas. Separation of seven compounds contained in the Silybum marianum extract (taxifolin, silychristin, silydianin, silybin A, silybin B, isosilybin A, isosilybin B) and other substances occurring in real samples was performed on the Kinetex 1...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906135/seed-germination-and-biochemical-profile-of-silybum-marianum-exposed-to-monometallic-and-bimetallic-alloy-nanoparticles
#10
Muhammad Salman Khan, Mehreen Zaka, Bilal Haider Abbasi, Latifur- Rahman, Afzal Shah
In recent years nanotechnology has become increasingly important in almost every field. The new and improved physical, chemical and biological properties of material at nanoscale have far reaching implications in the fields of science and technology. Nanoparticles' effect on various plant species must be investigated to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. The current study strives to evaluate the effects of nine types of metal nanoparticles including monometallic and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles [Ag, Au, Cu, AgCu (1:3), AgCu (3:1), AuCu (1:3), AuCu (3:1), AgAu (1:3), AgAu (3:1)] on seed germination, root and shoot growth and biochemical profile of Silybum marianum plant...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845613/protective-effect-of-silybum-marianum-and-taraxacum-officinale-extracts-against-oxidative-kidney-injuries-induced-by-carbon-tetrachloride-in-rats
#11
Ali Karakuş, Yeter Değer, Serkan Yıldırım
The protective effect of the extracts of the plants Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was researched. Sixty-six female Wistar albino rats were divided into six groups: Control, Silybum marianum, Taraxacum officinale, CCl4, Silybum marianum+ CCl4, Taraxacum officinale+CCl4. The Silybum marianum and Taraxacum officinale extracts were administered as 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. The CCl4 was administered as 1.5 mL/kg (i.p.). At the end of the trial period, in the serums obtained from the animals, in the CCl4 group it was found that the MDA level increased in the kidney tissue samples as well as in the ALP and GGT enzyme activities...
November 15, 2016: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771919/silymarin-and-its-role-in-chronic-diseases
#12
Neha, Amteshwar S Jaggi, Nirmal Singh
Silymarin is the active constituent of Silybum marianum (milk thistle) which is a C-25 containing flavonolignan. Milk thistle has a lot of traditional values, being used as a vegetable, as salad, as bitter tonic, and as galactogogue in nursing mothers and in various ailments such as liver complications, depression, dyspepsia, spleenic congestions, varicose veins, diabetes, amenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, and menstrual problems. In this present chapter, a comprehensive attempt has been made to discuss the potential of silymarin in chronic disorders...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761424/teratogenic-effects-of-silymarin-on-mouse-fetuses
#13
Mahbobe Gholami, Seyed Adel Moallem, Mohammad Afshar, Sakineh Amoueian, Leila Etemad, Gholamreza Karimi
OBJECTIVE: Silybum marianum has been used for centuries in herbal medicine for treatment of liver diseases. Currently, there is no data available on the possible effects of silymarin on fetal development. This study aimed to investigate the teratogenic effect of silymarin on BALB/c mice fetuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 pregnant mice were divided into 4 groups of 10 mice each. Three groups received silymarin at three different doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day during gestational days (GDs)...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747685/dosing-recommendations-of-aripiprazole-depot-with-strong-cytochrome-p450-3a4-inhibitors-a-relapse-risk
#14
Martina Hahn, Sibylle C Roll
A 50-year-old male patient with comorbid human immunodeficiency virus developed a relapse of bipolar disorder after a switch from oral aripiprazole 10 mg/day to intramuscular aripiprazole depot 200 mg every 28 days plus oral aripiprazole 5 mg/day. The patient was concomitantly taking lopinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, silybum marianum extract, and omeprazole. Only 1 week after the switch, the patient developed mood swings, irritability, depressive mood, and lack of drive. The oral aripiprazole was increased again to stabilize the patient...
December 2016: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723561/in-silico-approaches-and-proportional-odds-model-towards-identifying-selective-adam17-inhibitors-from-anti-inflammatory-natural-molecules
#15
Pallab Kumar Borah, Sourav Chakraborty, Anupam N Jha, Sanchaita Rajkhowa, Raj Kumar Duary
ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17) is an attractive target for the development of new anti-inflammatory drugs. We aimed to identify selective inhibitors of ADAM17 against matrix metalloproteinase enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-13, and MMP-16) which have substantial structural similarity. Target proteins were docked with 29 anti-inflammatory natural molecule ligands and a known selective inhibitor IK682. The ligands were screened based on Lipinski rules, interaction with the ADAM17 active site cavity, and then ranked using the proportional odds model multinomial logistic regression...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695272/wound-healing-activity-of-silibinin-in-mice
#16
Rojalini Samanta, Ashok K Pattnaik, Kishanta K Pradhan, Beena K Mehta, Shakti P Pattanayak, Sugato Banerjee
BACKGROUND: Silibinin is a semi-purified fraction of silymarin contained in milk thistle (Silybum marianum Asteraceae). Primarily known for its hepatoprotective actions, silymarin may also stimulate epithelialization and reduce inflammation in excision wound. Previous studies show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial actions of silibinin. However, wound healing property of silibinin is not well studied. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates wound healing activity of silibinin topical formulation...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678921/investigation-of-compositions-and-effect-of-herbal-essential-oils-local-silybum-marianum-foeniculum-vulgare-and-glycyrrhiza-glabra-on-cell-line-of-stomach-cancer-by-mtt-assays-in-ardabil-iran
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677719/botanicals-and-their-bioactive-phytochemicals-for-women-s-health
#18
REVIEW
Birgit M Dietz, Atieh Hajirahimkhan, Tareisha L Dunlap, Judy L Bolton
Botanical dietary supplements are increasingly popular for women's health, particularly for older women. The specific botanicals women take vary as a function of age. Younger women will use botanicals for urinary tract infections, especially Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry), where there is evidence for efficacy. Botanical dietary supplements for premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are less commonly used, and rigorous clinical trials have not been done. Some examples include Vitex agnus-castus (chasteberry), Angelica sinensis (dong quai), Viburnum opulus/prunifolium (cramp bark and black haw), and Zingiber officinale (ginger)...
October 2016: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669200/efficacy-of-pre-and-post-treatment-by-topical-formulations-containing-dissolved-and-suspended-silybum-marianum-against-uvb-induced-oxidative-stress-in-guinea-pig-and-on-hacat-keratinocytes
#19
Pálma Fehér, Zoltán Ujhelyi, Judit Váradi, Ferenc Fenyvesi, Eszter Róka, Béla Juhász, Balázs Varga, Mariann Bombicz, Dániel Priksz, Ildikó Bácskay, Miklós Vecsernyés
Plants with high amounts of antioxidants may be a promising therapy for preventing and curing UV-induced oxidative skin damage. The objective of this study was to verify the efficacy of topical formulations containing dissolved and suspended Silybum marianum extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in guinea pig and HaCaT keratinocytes. Herbal extract was dissolved in Transcutol HP (TC) and sucrose-esters were incorporated as penetration enhancers in creams. Biocompatibility of compositions was tested on HeLa cells and HaCaT keratinocytes as in vitro models...
September 22, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639679/silibinin-triggers-yeast-apoptosis-related-to-mitochondrial-ca-2-influx-in-candida-albicans
#20
Dae Gyu Yun, Dong Gun Lee
Candida albicans is a common yeast that resides in the human body, but can occasionally cause systemic fungal infection, namely candidiasis. As this infection rate is gradually increasing, it is becoming a major problem to public health. Accordingly, we for the first time investigated the antifungal activity and mode of action of silibinin, a natural product extracted from Silybum marianum (milk thistle), against C. albicans. On treatment with 100μM silibinin, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria, which can cause yeast apoptosis via oxidative stress, was increased by 24...
September 14, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
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