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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594092/understanding-the-relationship-between-cesarean-birth-and-stress-anxiety-and-depression-after-childbirth-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#1
Hung-Hui Chen, Jerry Cheng-Yen Lai, Shyh-Jou Hwang, Nicole Huang, Yiing-Jenq Chou, Li-Yin Chien
BACKGROUND: Women who undergo cesarean birth might have an increased risk for poor mental health after childbirth, possibly because of maternal and neonatal physical problems, low parental confidence, and decreased levels of oxytocin. However, this relationship remains controversial and requires further examination. The study aimed to examine the effect of cesarean birth on postpartum stress, anxiety, and depression. METHODS: This nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database...
June 8, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578248/gender-differences-in-social-anxiety-disorder-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Maya Asher, Anu Asnaani, Idan M Aderka
Gender differences in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have not received much empirical attention despite the large body of research on the disorder, and in contrast to significant literature about gender differences in other disorders such as depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. To address this gap, we comprehensively reviewed the literature regarding gender differences in eight domains of SAD: prevalence, clinical presentation, functioning and impairment, comorbidity, course, treatment seeking, physiological arousal, and the oxytocin system...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573887/relations-between-plasma-oxytocin-depressive-symptoms-and-coping-strategies-in-response-to-a-stressor-the-impact-of-social-support
#3
Opal A McInnis, Robyn J McQuaid, Kimberly Matheson, Hymie Anisman
BACKGROUND: Social support can serve as a protective factor against the negative impacts of stressors and may thereby promote well-being. As well, exogenous administration of oxytocin has been tied to diminished stress responses and might also enhance the effects of social support. METHODS/RESULTS: In the current study, conducted among female undergraduate students (N = 67), higher depressive symptoms were related to lower endorsements of problem-focused coping in response to a psychosocial stressor comprising the Trier Social Stress test (TSST)...
June 2, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499211/oxytocin-receptor-and-g-protein-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-depression-and-separation-anxiety
#4
Barbara Costa, Stefano Pini, David S Baldwin, Derrick Silove, Vijaya Manicavasagar, Marianna Abelli, Fabio Coppedè, Claudia Martini
BACKGROUND: The impact of combined variants of Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) and G protein β3 subunit genes was investigated in relation to retrospective reports of childhood as well as contemporary adult separation anxiety (SA), based on evidence of a β/γ dimer-mediated signaling for OXTR. METHODS: A case-control association study (225 healthy adults and 188 outpatients with depression) was performed to establish Risk-Combined Genotype (RCG) of the studied variants (OXTR rs53576 and the functional Gβ3 subunit rs5443)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472899/rejection-sensitivity-and-multiple-group-memberships-the-moderating-role-of-an-oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism
#5
Robbie Woods, Marc Bedard, Robyn Jane McQuaid, Kim Matheson, Hymie Anisman
Rejection sensitivity is a cognitive-affective processing disposition that has been linked to interpersonal difficulties. In this regard, the neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin, is thought to underlie social cognitions and behaviors that promote social affiliation. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), in which guanine (G) is substituted for adenine (A), has been associated with less support-seeking behaviors. In the current study, among 376 undergraduate students, it was shown that the relationship between rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms was mediated by multiple group memberships...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472396/chronic-activation-of-hypothalamic-oxytocin-neurons-improves-cardiac-function-during-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-induced-heart-failure
#6
Kara Garrott, Jhansi Dyavanapalli, Edmund Cauley, Mary Kate Dwyer, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Xin Wang, David Mendelowitz, Matthew Kay
AIMS: A distinctive hallmark of heart failure (HF) is autonomic imbalance, consisting of increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic tone. Recent work suggests that activation of hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) neurons could improve autonomic balance during HF. We hypothesized that a novel method of chronic selective activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons will improve cardiac function and reduce inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trans-ascending aortic constriction (TAC) to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy that progresses to HF...
May 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467893/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-interpretation-and-expression-of-emotions
#7
REVIEW
Jenni Leppanen, Kah Wee Ng, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Accurate interpretation and appropriate expression of emotions are key aspects of social-cognition. Several mental disorders are characterised by transdiagnostic difficulties in these areas and, recently, there has been increasing interest in exploring the effects of oxytocin on social-emotional functioning. This review consists of 33 studies. Fifteen of the studies included people with autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, frontotemporal dementia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and opioid and alcohol dependence...
April 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447621/direct-involvement-of-androgen-receptor-in-oxytocin-gene-expression-possible-relevance-for-mood-disorders
#8
Dan Dai, Qiao-Chu Li, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Shao-Hua Hu, Rawien Balesar, Dick Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
Oxytocin (OXT), synthesized in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and then released into different brain areas, may play a crucial role in various behaviors and neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. Testosterone has been proposed by clinical studies to have the opposite effect of oxytocin in these disorders. We began by studying, in the postmortem hypothalamus of fifteen patients with mood disorders and fifteen matched controls, the expression of OXT in the PVN by means of immunocytochemistry (ICC) and the co-localization of OXT and androgen receptor (AR) by means of double labeling ICC...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443705/severity-of-withdrawal-symptoms-plasma-oxytocin-levels-and-treatment-outcome-in-heroin-users-undergoing-acute-withdrawal
#9
Kakia Nikolaou, Dorothea Kapoukranidou, Samuel Ndungu, Georgios Floros, Leda Kovatsi
Pre-clinical studies show that, following chronic opioid exposure, oxytocin neurons exhibit over-excitation upon withdrawal, causing an increase in oxytocin brain and plasma levels. Relevant clinical data on humans are scarce. This study investigates the opioid withdrawal stress effect on oxytocin plasma levels in humans. We evaluated 57 male chronic heroin users in a residential detoxification program. We determined plasma oxytocin levels by ELISA and measured the stress effects of withdrawal using the COWS scale for opioid withdrawal, the VAS scale for craving, and the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression on the second day of admission...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435979/oxytocin-system-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-old-concept-new-insights
#10
Afzal Misrani, Sidra Tabassum, Cheng Long
Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that plays a pivotal role among species peripherally and centrally. It recently has attracted much attention for its involvement in anxiety-related behavior, stress regulation, social behavior and various neuropsychiatric disorders. OXT is one of the important mediators of emotional and social behaviors such as maternal behavior, fear extinction, social support, happiness, and trust. It is also involved in learning and memory process. The recent progresses in OXT system have put this neuropeptide as an important psychotherapeutic intervention for various psychiatric disorders such as stress, anxiety disorders, social phobia, postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, autism, and schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431269/oxytocin-in-the-postnatal-period-associations-with-attachment-and-maternal-caregiving
#11
Jane Kohlhoff, Valsamma Eapen, Mark Dadds, Feroza Khan, Derrick Silove, Bryanne Barnett
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations of maternal oxytocin, self-reported attachment insecurity and depressive symptoms with maternal caregiving sensitivity at 3-4months postpartum, observed during the 'free play' and 'reunion' episodes of the Still Face Procedure. METHODS: 112 mothers completed questionnaires and gave blood samples to determine oxytocin plasma levels before (time 1) and after participating in the Still Face Procedure with their infant (time 2)...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385526/sex-difference-in-mouse-hypothalamic-transcriptome-profile-in-stress-induced-depression-model
#12
Bhanu Chandra Karisetty, Nitin Khandelwal, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
The influence of sex on prevalence and presentation of human depression necessitates studying its role in depression. Additionally, stress can also affect the incidence and progression of depressive phenotypes. Hypothalamus is a well-reported sexually dimorphic brain region. Hence, we performed a gene-array to uncover the chronic stress-induced transcriptional changes in the hypothalamus of male, intact female (with ovaries) and ovariectomized female mice. Chronic variable mild stress model was used to induce depression-like behavior in mice, assessed by despair behavior in forced swim test...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378414/oxytocin-and-opioid-addiction-revisited-old-drug-new-applications
#13
REVIEW
Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Carol Weber, Fiona Robinson, Christos Kouimtsidis, Ramin Niforooshan, Alexis Bailey
Opioid addiction has devastating health and socio-economic consequences, and current pharmacotherapy is limited and often accompanied by side effects, thus novel treatment is warranted. Traditionally, the neurohypophyseal peptide oxytocin (OT) is known for its effects on mediating reward, social affiliation and bonding, stress and learning and memory. There is now strong evidence that OT is a possible candidate for the treatment of drug addiction and depression-addiction co-morbidities. This review summarizes and critically discusses the preclinical evidence surrounding the consequences of pharmacological manipulation of the oxytocinergic system on opioid addiction-related processes, as well as the effects of opioids on the OT system at different stages of the addiction cycle...
April 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377259/effects-of-social-deprivation-on-social-and-depressive-like-behaviors-and-the-numbers-of-oxytocin-expressing-neurons-in-rats
#14
Yaminah D Gilles, Eva K Polston
Social isolation is a known stressor that negatively impacts the well-being of social species. In rodents, social deprivation experienced either before or after weaning profoundly impacts adult behavioral and neuroendocrine profiles. This study compared the effects of post-natal and post-weaning social deprivation on behavioral profiles and hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) neurons. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to two post-natal groups, maternally separated (MS) or non-MS. MS pups were separated from their mothers for 4h daily during post-natal days 2-21 while non-MS litters remained undisturbed...
April 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353027/the-association-of-childhood-maltreatment-with-depression-and-anxiety-is-not-moderated-by-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene
#15
Marieke S Tollenaar, Marc L Molendijk, Brenda W J H Penninx, Yuri Milaneschi, Niki Antypa
BACKGROUND: The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene may be involved in resilience or vulnerability towards stress, and hence in the development of stress-related disorders. There are indications that OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interact with early life stressors in predicting levels of depression and anxiety. To replicate and extend these findings, we examined whether three literature-based OXTR SNPs (rs2254298, rs53576, rs2268498) interact with childhood maltreatment in the development of clinically diagnosed depression and anxiety disorders...
March 28, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#16
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259722/oxytocin-mitigated-the-depressive-like-behaviors-of-maternal-separation-stress-through-modulating-mitochondrial-function-and-neuroinflammation
#17
Hossein Amini-Khoei, Ali Mohammadi-Asl, Shayan Amiri, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Majid Momeny, Mahsa Hassanipour, Mojgan Rastegar, Arya Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin Haj- Mirzaian, Hossein Sanjarimoghaddam, Shahram Ejtemaei Mehr, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Mother-infant contact has a critical role on brain development and behavior. Experiencing early-life adversities (such as maternal separation stress or MS in rodents) results in adaptations of neurotransmission systems, which may subsequently increase the risk of depression symptoms later in life. In this study, we show that Oxytocin (OT) exerted antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Previous studies indicate that neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with the pathophysiology of depression...
March 1, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193868/dopamine-in-the-medial-amygdala-network-mediates-human-bonding
#18
Shir Atzil, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Tali Rudy, Stephanie Salcedo, Ruth Feldman, Jacob M Hooker, Bradford C Dickerson, Ciprian Catana, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the "medial amygdala network") that supports social functioning...
February 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161387/intranasal-oxytocin-but-not-vasopressin-augments-neural-responses-to-toddlers-in-human-fathers
#19
Ting Li, Xu Chen, Jennifer Mascaro, Ebrahim Haroon, James K Rilling
This study investigates paternal brain function with the hope of better understanding the neural basis for variation in caregiving involvement among men. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are implicated in paternal caregiving in humans and other species. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject pharmaco-functional MRI experiment, we randomized 30 fathers of 1-2year old children to receive either 24IU intranasal OT before one scan and placebo before the other scan (n=15) or 20IU intranasal AVP before one scan and placebo before the other scan (n=15)...
February 1, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161309/oxytocin-differentially-alters-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-amygdala-subregions-and-emotional-control-networks-inverse-correlation-with-depressive-traits
#20
Monika Eckstein, Sebastian Markett, Keith M Kendrick, Beate Ditzen, Fang Liu, Rene Hurlemann, Benjamin Becker
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has received increasing attention for its role in modulating social-emotional processes across species. Previous studies on using intranasal-OT in humans point to a crucial engagement of the amygdala in the observed neuromodulatory effects of OT under task and rest conditions. However, the amygdala is not a single homogenous structure, but rather a set of structurally and functionally heterogeneous nuclei that show distinct patterns of connectivity with limbic and frontal emotion-processing regions...
February 1, 2017: NeuroImage
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