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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715127/increased-aggression-and-lack-of-maternal-behavior-in-dio3-deficient-mice-are-associated-with-abnormalities-in-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-systems
#1
J Patrizia Stohn, M Elena Martinez, Maryam Zafer, Daniela López-Espíndola, Lauren M Keyes, Arturo Hernandez
Thyroid hormones regulate many aspects of brain development and function, and alterations in the levels of thyroid hormone action lead to abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. A complement of factors in the brain function independently of circulating levels of hormone to strictly controlled local thyroid hormone signaling. A critical factor is the type 3 deiodinase (DIO3), which is located in neurons and protects the brain from excessive thyroid hormone. Here we examined whether a local increase in brain thyroid hormone action secondary to DIO3 deficiency is of consequence for social behaviors...
July 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689067/individual-variation-in-plasma-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-levels-in-relation-to-the-development-of-combat-related-ptsd-in-a-large-military-cohort
#2
Alieke Reijnen, Elbert Geuze, Eric Vermetten
In an attempt to decrease the risk of developing mental health problems after military deployment, it is important to find biological markers to identify those at risk. Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are potential biomarkers for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because they are involved in the regulation of stress and anxiety. Therefore, the aim was to examine whether plasma OT (pOT) and AVP (pAVP) levels before and after deployment are biomarkers for the development of posttraumatic stress symptoms over time in addition to other known risk factors...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683833/effectiveness-of-skin-to-skin-contact-versus-care-as-usual-in-mothers-and-their-full-term-infants-study-protocol-for-a-parallel-group-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Kelly H M Cooijmans, Roseriet Beijers, Anne C Rovers, Carolina de Weerth
BACKGROUND: Twenty-to-forty percent of women experience postpartum depressive symptoms, which can affect both the mother and infant. In preterm infants, daily skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between the mother and her infant has been shown to decrease maternal postpartum depressive symptoms. In full-term infants, only two studies investigated SSC effects on maternal depressive symptoms and found similar results. Research in preterm infants also showed that SSC improves other mental and physical health outcomes of the mother and the infant, and improves the quality of mother-infant relationship...
July 6, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654093/an-epigenome-wide-dna-methylation-study-of-ptsd-and-depression-in-world-trade-center-responders
#4
P-F Kuan, M A Waszczuk, R Kotov, C J Marsit, G Guffanti, A Gonzalez, X Yang, K Koenen, E Bromet, B J Luft
Previous epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) have been inconsistent. This may be due to small sample sizes, and measurement and tissue differences. The current two EWA analyses of 473 World Trade Center responders are the largest to date for both PTSD and MDD. These analyses investigated DNA methylation patterns and biological pathways influenced by differentially methylated genes associated with each disorder. Methylation was profiled on blood samples using Illumina 450 K Beadchip...
June 27, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649672/oxytocin-and-stress-related-disorders-neurobiological-mechanisms-and-treatment-opportunities
#5
Lauren M Sippel, Casey E Allington, Robert H Pietrzak, Ilan Harpaz-Rotem, Linda C Mayes, Miranda Olff
Novel pharmacotherapies that improve outcomes for individuals with stress-related psychiatric disorders are needed. The neurohormone oxytocin (OT) is a promising candidate given its influence on the social-emotional brain. In this review, we present an overview of evidence supporting OT's utility for treating major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. We first discuss endogenous OT, which research suggests is not yet a reliable biomarker of stress-related disorders. Second, we review effects of intranasal (IN) OT on processes relevant to stress-related disorders in healthy populations (anhedonia, reward processing, psychosocial stress reactivity, fear/anxiety, and social behavior) and their neurobiological mechanisms (e...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639210/-oxytocin-and-the-mechanisms-of-alcohol-dependence
#6
REVIEW
Till Faehrmann, Gerald Zernig, Sergei Mechtcheriakov
One of the crucial purposes of treating alcohol-dependent patients is to enhance their ability to stay abstinent after detoxification therapy. Anxiety and stress vulnerability are the main factors provoking alcohol craving and relapse. In the first months of abstinence, alcohol-dependent patients frequently show sleep disturbances, irritability and depression, indicating chronic activation of stress pathways. In addition, the loss of confidence in interpersonal interactions results in social withdrawal and reduced willingness to participate in therapeutic programs...
June 21, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594092/understanding-the-relationship-between-cesarean-birth-and-stress-anxiety-and-depression-after-childbirth-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#7
Hung-Hui Chen, Jerry Cheng-Yen Lai, Shyh-Jou Hwang, Nicole Huang, Yiing-Jenq Chou, Li-Yin Chien
BACKGROUND: Women who undergo cesarean birth might have an increased risk for poor mental health after childbirth, possibly because of maternal and neonatal physical problems, low parental confidence, and decreased levels of oxytocin. However, this relationship remains controversial and requires further examination. The study aimed to examine the effect of cesarean birth on postpartum stress, anxiety, and depression. METHODS: This nationwide population-based cohort study was conducted using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database...
June 8, 2017: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578248/gender-differences-in-social-anxiety-disorder-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Maya Asher, Anu Asnaani, Idan M Aderka
Gender differences in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have not received much empirical attention despite the large body of research on the disorder, and in contrast to significant literature about gender differences in other disorders such as depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. To address this gap, we comprehensively reviewed the literature regarding gender differences in eight domains of SAD: prevalence, clinical presentation, functioning and impairment, comorbidity, course, treatment seeking, physiological arousal, and the oxytocin system...
May 30, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573887/relations-between-plasma-oxytocin-depressive-symptoms-and-coping-strategies-in-response-to-a-stressor-the-impact-of-social-support
#9
Opal A McInnis, Robyn J McQuaid, Kimberly Matheson, Hymie Anisman
BACKGROUND: Social support can serve as a protective factor against the negative impacts of stressors and may thereby promote well-being. As well, exogenous administration of oxytocin has been tied to diminished stress responses and might also enhance the effects of social support. METHODS/RESULTS: In the current study, conducted among female undergraduate students (N = 67), higher depressive symptoms were related to lower endorsements of problem-focused coping in response to a psychosocial stressor comprising the Trier Social Stress test (TSST)...
June 2, 2017: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499211/oxytocin-receptor-and-g-protein-polymorphisms-in-patients-with-depression-and-separation-anxiety
#10
Barbara Costa, Stefano Pini, David S Baldwin, Derrick Silove, Vijaya Manicavasagar, Marianna Abelli, Fabio Coppedè, Claudia Martini
BACKGROUND: The impact of combined variants of Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) and G protein β3 subunit genes was investigated in relation to retrospective reports of childhood as well as contemporary adult separation anxiety (SA), based on evidence of a β/γ dimer-mediated signaling for OXTR. METHODS: A case-control association study (225 healthy adults and 188 outpatients with depression) was performed to establish Risk-Combined Genotype (RCG) of the studied variants (OXTR rs53576 and the functional Gβ3 subunit rs5443)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472899/rejection-sensitivity-and-multiple-group-memberships-the-moderating-role-of-an-oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism
#11
Robbie Woods, Marc Bedard, Robyn Jane McQuaid, Kim Matheson, Hymie Anisman
Rejection sensitivity is a cognitive-affective processing disposition that has been linked to interpersonal difficulties. In this regard, the neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin, is thought to underlie social cognitions and behaviors that promote social affiliation. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), in which guanine (G) is substituted for adenine (A), has been associated with less support-seeking behaviors. In the current study, among 376 undergraduate students, it was shown that the relationship between rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms was mediated by multiple group memberships...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472396/chronic-activation-of-hypothalamic-oxytocin-neurons-improves-cardiac-function-during-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-induced-heart-failure
#12
Kara Garrott, Jhansi Dyavanapalli, Edmund Cauley, Mary Kate Dwyer, Sarah Kuzmiak-Glancy, Xin Wang, David Mendelowitz, Matthew Kay
AIMS: A distinctive hallmark of heart failure (HF) is autonomic imbalance, consisting of increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic tone. Recent work suggests that activation of hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) neurons could improve autonomic balance during HF. We hypothesized that a novel method of chronic selective activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons will improve cardiac function and reduce inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trans-ascending aortic constriction (TAC) to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy that progresses to HF...
May 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467893/meta-analysis-of-the-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-interpretation-and-expression-of-emotions
#13
REVIEW
Jenni Leppanen, Kah Wee Ng, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Accurate interpretation and appropriate expression of emotions are key aspects of social-cognition. Several mental disorders are characterised by transdiagnostic difficulties in these areas and, recently, there has been increasing interest in exploring the effects of oxytocin on social-emotional functioning. This review consists of 33 studies. Fifteen of the studies included people with autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, frontotemporal dementia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and opioid and alcohol dependence...
April 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447621/direct-involvement-of-androgen-receptor-in-oxytocin-gene-expression-possible-relevance-for-mood-disorders
#14
Dan Dai, Qiao-Chu Li, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Shao-Hua Hu, Rawien Balesar, Dick Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
Oxytocin (OXT), synthesized in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and then released into different brain areas, may play a crucial role in various behaviors and neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. Testosterone has been proposed by clinical studies to have the opposite effect of oxytocin in these disorders. We began by studying, in the postmortem hypothalamus of fifteen patients with mood disorders and fifteen matched controls, the expression of OXT in the PVN by means of immunocytochemistry (ICC) and the co-localization of OXT and androgen receptor (AR) by means of double labeling ICC...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443705/severity-of-withdrawal-symptoms-plasma-oxytocin-levels-and-treatment-outcome-in-heroin-users-undergoing-acute-withdrawal
#15
Kakia Nikolaou, Dorothea Kapoukranidou, Samuel Ndungu, Georgios Floros, Leda Kovatsi
Pre-clinical studies show that, following chronic opioid exposure, oxytocin neurons exhibit over-excitation upon withdrawal, causing an increase in oxytocin brain and plasma levels. Relevant clinical data on humans are scarce. This study investigates the opioid withdrawal stress effect on oxytocin plasma levels in humans. We evaluated 57 male chronic heroin users in a residential detoxification program. We determined plasma oxytocin levels by ELISA and measured the stress effects of withdrawal using the COWS scale for opioid withdrawal, the VAS scale for craving, and the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression on the second day of admission...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435979/oxytocin-system-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders-old-concept-new-insights
#16
Afzal Misrani, Sidra Tabassum, Cheng Long
Oxytocin (OXT) is a neuropeptide that plays a pivotal role among species peripherally and centrally. It recently has attracted much attention for its involvement in anxiety-related behavior, stress regulation, social behavior and various neuropsychiatric disorders. OXT is one of the important mediators of emotional and social behaviors such as maternal behavior, fear extinction, social support, happiness, and trust. It is also involved in learning and memory process. The recent progresses in OXT system have put this neuropeptide as an important psychotherapeutic intervention for various psychiatric disorders such as stress, anxiety disorders, social phobia, postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, autism, and schizophrenia...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431269/oxytocin-in-the-postnatal-period-associations-with-attachment-and-maternal-caregiving
#17
Jane Kohlhoff, Valsamma Eapen, Mark Dadds, Feroza Khan, Derrick Silove, Bryanne Barnett
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations of maternal oxytocin, self-reported attachment insecurity and depressive symptoms with maternal caregiving sensitivity at 3-4months postpartum, observed during the 'free play' and 'reunion' episodes of the Still Face Procedure. METHODS: 112 mothers completed questionnaires and gave blood samples to determine oxytocin plasma levels before (time 1) and after participating in the Still Face Procedure with their infant (time 2)...
July 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385526/sex-difference-in-mouse-hypothalamic-transcriptome-profile-in-stress-induced-depression-model
#18
Bhanu Chandra Karisetty, Nitin Khandelwal, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
The influence of sex on prevalence and presentation of human depression necessitates studying its role in depression. Additionally, stress can also affect the incidence and progression of depressive phenotypes. Hypothalamus is a well-reported sexually dimorphic brain region. Hence, we performed a gene-array to uncover the chronic stress-induced transcriptional changes in the hypothalamus of male, intact female (with ovaries) and ovariectomized female mice. Chronic variable mild stress model was used to induce depression-like behavior in mice, assessed by despair behavior in forced swim test...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378414/oxytocin-and-opioid-addiction-revisited-old-drug-new-applications
#19
REVIEW
Panos Zanos, Polymnia Georgiou, Carol Weber, Fiona Robinson, Christos Kouimtsidis, Ramin Niforooshan, Alexis Bailey
Opioid addiction has devastating health and socio-economic consequences, and current pharmacotherapy is limited and often accompanied by side effects, thus novel treatment is warranted. Traditionally, the neurohypophyseal peptide oxytocin (OT) is known for its effects on mediating reward, social affiliation and bonding, stress and learning and memory. There is now strong evidence that OT is a possible candidate for the treatment of drug addiction and depression-addiction co-morbidities. This review summarizes and critically discusses the preclinical evidence surrounding the consequences of pharmacological manipulation of the oxytocinergic system on opioid addiction-related processes, as well as the effects of opioids on the OT system at different stages of the addiction cycle...
April 5, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377259/effects-of-social-deprivation-on-social-and-depressive-like-behaviors-and-the-numbers-of-oxytocin-expressing-neurons-in-rats
#20
Yaminah D Gilles, Eva K Polston
Social isolation is a known stressor that negatively impacts the well-being of social species. In rodents, social deprivation experienced either before or after weaning profoundly impacts adult behavioral and neuroendocrine profiles. This study compared the effects of post-natal and post-weaning social deprivation on behavioral profiles and hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) neurons. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to two post-natal groups, maternally separated (MS) or non-MS. MS pups were separated from their mothers for 4h daily during post-natal days 2-21 while non-MS litters remained undisturbed...
June 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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