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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870443/sex-differences-in-depression-during-pregnancy-and-the-postpartum-period
#1
REVIEW
Inger Sundström Poromaa, Erika Comasco, Marios K Georgakis, Alkistis Skalkidou
Women have a lifetime risk of major depression double that of men but only during their reproductive years. This sex difference has been attributed partially to activational effects of female sex steroids and also to the burdens of pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Men, in contrast, have a reproductive period difficult to delineate, and research on the mental health of men has rarely considered the effects of fatherhood. However, the couple goes through a number of potentially stressing events during the reproductive period, and both mothers and fathers are at risk of developing peripartum depression...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756833/the-frontal-cortex-as-a-network-hub-controlling-mood-and-cognition-probing-its-neurochemical-substrates-for-improved-therapy-of-psychiatric-and-neurological-disorders
#2
Mark J Millan, Jean-Michel Rivet, Alain Gobert
The highly-interconnected and neurochemically-rich frontal cortex plays a crucial role in the regulation of mood and cognition, domains disrupted in depression and other central nervous system disorders, and it is an important site of action for their therapeutic control. For improving our understanding of the function and dysfunction of the frontal cortex, and for identifying improved treatments, quantification of extracellular pools of neuromodulators by microdialysis in freely-moving rodents has proven indispensable...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692350/-epigenetics-implication-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-review
#3
M Hamza, S Halayem, R Mrad, S Bourgou, F Charfi, A Belhadj
BACKGROUND: The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is complex and multifactorial, and the roles of genetic and environmental factors in its emergence have been well documented. Current research tends to indicate that these two factors act in a synergistic manner. The processes underlying this interaction are still poorly known, but epigenetic modifications could be the mediator in the gene/environment interface. The epigenetic mechanisms have been implicated in susceptibility to stress and also in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia...
September 27, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644094/intranasal-oxytocin-administration-improves-depression-like-behaviors-in-adult-rats-that-experienced-neonatal-maternal-deprivation
#4
Haoyi Ji, Wenlong Su, Ruchen Zhou, Jing Feng, Yue Lin, Yumin Zhang, Xinmei Wang, Xiaoyang Chen, Jing Li
Oxytocin (OT), a hypothalamic neuropeptide, has been implicated in the regulation of social behaviors in rodents and humans. This study assessed the effects of intranasal administration of OT on depressive-like behaviors and hippocampal neurogenesis in adult rats following neonatal maternal deprivation (NMD). Here, we show that NMD resulted in significant depression-like behaviors, as indicated by decreases in physical activity and emotional reactivity in a novel environment, in 2-month-old animals. Notably, the OT levels in the plasma, hypothalamus, and hippocampus were decreased in these animals...
September 16, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27547289/emerging-cardiovascular-risk-research-impact-of-pets-on-cardiovascular-risk-prevention
#5
Pamela J Schreiner
Animals interact with humans in multiple ways, including as therapy and service animals, commercially as livestock, as wildlife, and in zoos. But the most common interaction is as companion animals in our homes, with an estimated 180 million cats and dogs living in US households. While pet ownership has been reported to have many health benefits, the findings are inconsistent. Cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, glucose, obesity, and heart rate variability have improved, worsened, or remained the same in the limited number of studies considering companion animals...
February 2016: Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27536785/increased-serum-levels-of-oxytocin-in-treatment-resistant-depression-in-adolescents-trdia-group
#6
Tsuyoshi Sasaki, Kenji Hashimoto, Yasunori Oda, Tamaki Ishima, Madoka Yakita, Tsutomu Kurata, Masaru Kunou, Jumpei Takahashi, Yu Kamata, Atsushi Kimura, Tomihisa Niitsu, Hideki Komatsu, Tadashi Hasegawa, Akihiro Shiina, Tasuku Hashimoto, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Eiji Shimizu, Masaomi Iyo
OBJECTIVE: 'Treatment-resistant depression' is depression that does not respond to an adequate regimen of evidence-based treatment. Treatment-resistant depression frequently becomes chronic. Children with treatment-resistant depression might also develop bipolar disorder (BD). The objective of this study was to determine whether serum levels of oxytocin (OXT) in treatment-resistant depression in adolescents (TRDIA) differ from non-treatment-resistant depression in adolescents (non-TRDIA) or controls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528462/whole-transcriptome-brain-expression-and-exon-usage-profiling-in-major-depression-and-suicide-evidence-for-altered-glial-endothelial-and-atpase-activity
#7
S P Pantazatos, Y-Y Huang, G B Rosoklija, A J Dwork, V Arango, J J Mann
Brain gene expression profiling studies of suicide and depression using oligonucleotide microarrays have often failed to distinguish these two phenotypes. Moreover, next generation sequencing approaches are more accurate in quantifying gene expression and can detect alternative splicing. Using RNA-seq, we examined whole-exome gene and exon expression in non-psychiatric controls (CON, N=29), DSM-IV major depressive disorder suicides (MDD-S, N=21) and MDD non-suicides (MDD, N=9) in the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9) of sudden death medication-free individuals post mortem...
August 16, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525673/chronic-postnatal-stress-induces-depressive-like-behavior-in-male-mice-and-programs-second-hit-stress-induced-gene-expression-patterns-of-oxtr-and-avpr1a-in-adulthood
#8
Alexandra Lesse, Kathy Rether, Nicole Gröger, Katharina Braun, Jörg Bock
Chronic stress (CS) during early life represents a major risk factor for the development of mental disorders, including depression. According to the Two/Multiple-Hit hypothesis, the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders usually involves multiple stressors experienced subsequently during different phases of life. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms modulating neuronal and behavioral changes induced by multiple stress experiences are just poorly understood. Since the oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic systems are neuroendocrine modulators involved in environmentally driven adaptations of stress sensitivity we hypothesized that postnatal CS programs oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic receptor expression changes in response to a second stress exposure in young adulthood...
August 15, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27486392/oxytocin-and-social-sensitivity-gene-polymorphisms-in-relation-to-depressive-symptoms-and-suicidal-ideation
#9
Robyn J McQuaid, Opal A McInnis, Kimberly Matheson, Hymie Anisman
Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been associated with enhanced prosocial behaviors, it has also been linked to aggression and mental health disorders. Thus, it was suggested that oxytocin might act by increasing the salience of social stimuli, irrespective of whether these are positive or negative, thus increasing vulnerability to negative mental health outcomes. The current study (N = 243), conducted among white university students, examined the relation of trauma, depressive symptoms including suicidal ideation in relation to a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, and a SNP on the CD38 gene that controls oxytocin release, rs3796863...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418343/repeated-treatment-with-oxytocin-promotes-hippocampal-cell-proliferation-dendritic-maturation-and-affects-socio-emotional-behavior
#10
Dalinda Isabel Sánchez-Vidaña, Ngai-Man Jackie Chan, Alan H L Chan, Katy K Y Hui, Sylvia Lee, Hoi-Yi Chan, Yuen Shan Law, Mei Yi Sze, Wai-Ching Sarah Tsui, Timothy K H Fung, Benson Wui-Man Lau, Cynthia Y Y Lai
Rewarding social behaviors including positive social interactions and sexual behaviors are shown to regulate adult neurogenesis, but the underlying biological mechanisms remain elusive. Oxytocin, a neurohypophysial hormone secreted after exposure to social interaction or sexual behaviors, has a profound role in the formation of social bonding and regulation of emotional distress. While the acute effect of oxytocin was usually studied, relatively scarce evidence showed the behavioral consequence of repeated oxytocin treatment...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27375045/sex-differences-in-the-effects-of-social-defeat-on-brain-and-behavior-in-the-california-mouse-insights-from-a-monogamous-rodent
#11
Michael Q Steinman, Brian C Trainor
Women are nearly twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, yet the use of female animal models in studying the biological basis of depression lags behind that of males. The social defeat model uses social stress to generate depression-like symptoms in order to study the neurobiological mechanisms. In general, social defeat is difficult to apply in female rodents. However, male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) are territorial. This allows defeat to be studied in both sexes...
June 30, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323309/methylation-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-mediates-the-effect-of-adversity-on-negative-schemas-and-depression
#12
Ronald L Simons, Man Kit Lei, Steven R H Beach, Carolyn E Cutrona, Robert A Philibert
Building upon various lines of research, we posited that methylation of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) would mediate the effect of adult adversity on increased commitment to negative schemas and in turn the development of depression. We tested our model using structural equation modeling and longitudinal data from a sample of 100 middle-aged, African American women. The results provided strong support for the model. Analysis of the 12 CpG sites available for the promoter region of the OXTR gene identified four factors...
June 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320943/oxytocin-course-over-pregnancy-and-postpartum-period-and-the-association-with-postpartum-depressive-symptoms
#13
Andrea Jobst, Daniela Krause, Carina Maiwald, Kristin Härtl, Aye-Mu Myint, Ralph Kästner, Michael Obermeier, Frank Padberg, Benedikt Brücklmeier, Elif Weidinger, Susann Kieper, Markus Schwarz, Peter Zill, Norbert Müller
During the postpartum period, women are at higher risk of developing a mental disorder such as postpartum depression (PPD), a disorder that associates with mother-infant bonding and child development. Oxytocin is considered to play a key role in mother-infant bonding and social interactions and altered oxytocin plasma concentrations were found to be associated with PPD. In the present study, we evaluated oxytocin plasma levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period in healthy women...
August 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312097/-oxytocin-and-postpartum-depression
#14
C Cardaillac, C Rua, E G Simon, W El-Hage
INTRODUCTION: Postpartum depression (PPD) is prevalent (about 10%) with a major impact on the mother and child health. At the hormonal level, poor regulation of oxytocin rate has a key role in depression. Recently, oxytocin has been used on psychiatric therapy, intranasal or intravenously, particularly in mood disorders. But, in obstetrics, this molecule is administered during childbirth. The objective of this study was to determine if intravenous administration of oxytocin could influence thymic state of the mother in the postpartum period...
June 13, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295067/oxytocin-and-depression-in-the-perinatal-period-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Diana Moura, Maria Cristina Canavarro, Margarida Figueiredo-Braga
Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common postnatal psychiatric disorder, and it represents a considerable problem to the health and well-being of women and their families. Several pathogenic mechanisms have been identified in PPD, and recently, oxytocin (OT), known to be involved in childbirth and lactation, has drawn attention as a possible diagnostic and therapeutic tool in this disorder. The aim of this review was to assess and summarize the current literature on the relationship between OT as a potential depressive biomarker and depression in the perinatal period...
August 2016: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27284117/biologic-effects-of-stress-and-bonding-in-mother-infant-pairs
#16
Eve G Spratt, Courtney Marsh, Amy E Wahlquist, Carrie E Papa, Paul J Nietert, Kathleen T Brady, Teri Lynn Herbert, Carol Wagner
OBJECTIVE: Maternal stress in humans influences behavior of children and can be assessed using biological markers. Mothers and their one-month-old infants were recruited from an existing study to examine baseline maternal serum oxytocin and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to infant blood heel stick stress as measured by salivary cortisol in the dyads. Objectives were to explore (1) relationships between mother and infant cortisol levels, (2) gender differences in infant biologic cortisol response, and (3) the association of cortisol levels in the dyads and maternal oxytocin levels METHODS: Forty-two mother-infant dyads provided biologic samples and self-report data...
April 2016: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220363/autism-relevant-behaviors-are-minimally-impacted-by-conditional-deletion-of-pten-in-oxytocinergic-neurons
#17
Amy E Clipperton-Allen, Youjun Chen, Damon T Page
Germline heterozygous mutations in Pten (phosphatase and tensin homolog) are associated with macrocephaly and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Pten germline heterozygous (Pten(+/-) ) mice approximate these mutations, and both sexes show widespread brain overgrowth and impaired social behavior. Strikingly similar behavior phenotypes have been reported in oxytocin (Oxt) and/or oxytocin receptor (OxtR) knockout mice. Thus, we hypothesized that the behavioral phenotypes of germline Pten(+/-) mice may be caused by reduced Pten function in Oxt-expressing cells...
May 25, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27189764/involvement-of-nigral-oxytocin-in-locomotor-activity-a-behavioral-immunohistochemical-and-lesion-study-in-male-rats
#18
Laura Angioni, Cristina Cocco, Gian-Luca Ferri, Antonio Argiolas, Maria Rosaria Melis, Fabrizio Sanna
Oxytocin is involved in the control of different behaviors, from sexual behavior and food consumption to empathy, social and affective behaviors. An imbalance of central oxytocinergic neurotransmission has been also associated with different mental pathologies, from depression, anxiety and anorexia/bulimia to schizophrenia, autism and drug dependence. This study shows that oxytocin may also play a role in the control of locomotor activity. Accordingly, intraperitoneal oxytocin (0.5-2000μg/kg) reduced locomotor activity of adult male rats...
July 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184829/genetic-and-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-the-postpartum-brain
#19
REVIEW
Stephen C Gammie, Terri M Driessen, Changjiu Zhao, Michael C Saul, Brian E Eisinger
Changes in expression of hundreds of genes occur during the production and function of the maternal brain that support a wide range of processes. In this review, we synthesize findings from four microarray studies of different maternal brain regions and identify a core group of 700 maternal genes that show significant expression changes across multiple regions. With those maternal genes, we provide new insights into reward-related pathways (maternal bonding), postpartum depression, social behaviors, mental health disorders, and nervous system plasticity/developmental events...
July 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27158587/neural-responses-to-maternal-praise-and-criticism-relationship-to-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-high-risk-adolescent-girls
#20
Robin L Aupperle, Amanda S Morris, Jennifer S Silk, Michael M Criss, Matt R Judah, Sally G Eagleton, Namik Kirlic, Jennifer Byrd-Craven, Raquel Phillips, Ruben P Alvarez
BACKGROUND: The parent-child relationship may be an important factor in the development of adolescent depressive and anxious symptoms. In adults, depressive symptoms relate to increased amygdala and attenuated prefrontal activation to maternal criticism. The current pilot study examined how depressive and anxiety symptoms in a high-risk adolescent population relate to neural responses to maternal feedback. Given previous research relating oxytocin to maternal behavior, we conducted exploratory analyses using oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
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