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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237659/production-of-mono-and-polyclonal-antibodies-to-citrus-leprosis-virus-c2-and-their-application-in-triple-antibody-sandwich-elisa-and-immunocapture-rt-pcr-diagnostic-assays
#1
Nandlal Choudhary, Avijit Roy, Leon M G, G Wei, M K Nakhla, L Levy, R H Brlansky
The newly discovered Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2) is one of the causal virus of citrus leprosis disease complex; which leads to substantial loss of citrus production in the states of Meta and Casanare of Colombia. Specific and sensitive detection methods are needed to monitor the dissemination of CiLV-C2 in Colombia, and to prevent introduction of CiLV-C2 to other citrus growing countries. Toward this end, putative coat protein gene (CPG) of CiLV-C2 was amplified from CiLV-C2 infected citrus tissues...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236557/photons-radiobiological-issues-related-to-the-risk-of-second-malignancies
#2
Loredana G Marcu
Photons are widely used in radiotherapy and while they are low LET radiation, can still pose a risk in developing second malignant neoplasms (SMN). Due to the physics of photons that allow distribution of energy outside the target volume, out-of-field irradiation is an important component of SMN risk assessment. The epidemiological evidence supporting this risk should be augmented with radiobiological justifications for a better understanding of the underlying processes. There are several factors that impact second cancer risk which can be analysed from a radiobiological perspective: age at irradiation, type of irradiated tissue, irradiated volume, treatment technique, previous irradiation/radiological investigations...
February 21, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231269/a-mouse-model-of-paralytic-myelitis-caused-by-enterovirus-d68
#3
Alison M Hixon, Guixia Yu, J Smith Leser, Shigeo Yagi, Penny Clarke, Charles Y Chiu, Kenneth L Tyler
In 2014, the United States experienced an epidemic of acute flaccid myelitis (AFM) cases in children coincident with a nationwide outbreak of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) respiratory disease. Up to half of the 2014 AFM patients had EV-D68 RNA detected by RT-PCR in their respiratory secretions, although EV-D68 was only detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one 2014 AFM patient. Given previously described molecular and epidemiologic associations between EV-D68 and AFM, we sought to develop an animal model by screening seven EV-D68 strains for the ability to induce neurological disease in neonatal mice...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230522/multinational-outbreak-of-travel-related-salmonella-chester-infections-in-europe-summers-2014-and-2015
#4
Laure Fonteneau, Nathalie Jourdan Da Silva, Laetitia Fabre, Philip Ashton, Mia Torpdahl, Luise Müller, Brahim Bouchrif, Abdellah El Boulani, Eleni Valkanou, Wesley Mattheus, Ingrid Friesema, Silvia Herrera Leon, Carmen Varela Martínez, Joël Mossong, Ettore Severi, Kathie Grant, François-Xavier Weill, Céline M Gossner, Sophie Bertrand, Tim Dallman, Simon Le Hello
Between 2014 and 2015, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control was informed of an increase in numbers of Salmonella enterica serotype Chester cases with travel to Morocco occurring in six European countries. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations were conducted. In addition to gathering information on the characteristics of cases from the different countries in 2014, the epidemiological investigation comprised a matched case-case study involving French patients with salmonellosis who travelled to Morocco that year...
February 16, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230168/phylogenetic-characterizations-of-highly-mutated-ev-b106-recombinants-showing-extensive-genetic-exchanges-with-other-ev-b-in-xinjiang-china
#5
Yang Song, Yong Zhang, Qin Fan, Hui Cui, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Haishu Tang, Qiang Sun, Dongyan Wang, Wenbo Xu
Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a new member of the enterovirus B species. To date, only three nucleotide sequences of EV-B106 have been published, and only one full-length genome sequence (the Yunnan strain 148/YN/CHN/12) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic characterisation of four EV-B106 strains isolated in Xinjiang, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains had only 80...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228490/short-read-whole-genome-sequencing-for-laboratory-based-surveillance-of-bordetella-pertussis
#6
Alex Marchand-Austin, Raymond S W Tsang, Jennifer L Guthrie, Jennifer H Ma, Gillian Lim, Natasha S Crowcroft, Shelley L Deeks, David J Farrell, Frances B Jamieson
Bordetella pertussis (BP) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes respiratory infections in humans. Ongoing molecular surveillance of BP acellular vaccine (aP) antigens is critical for understanding the interaction between evolutionary pressures, disease pathogenesis, and vaccine effectiveness. Methods currently used to characterize aP components are relatively labour intensive and low throughput. To address this challenge, we sought to derive aP antigen genotypes from minimally processed short-read whole genome sequencing data generated from 40 clinical BP isolates and analyzed using the SRST2 bioinformatic package...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225788/molecular-detection-and-genotyping-of-enteroviruses-from-csf-samples-of-patients-with-suspected-sepsis-like-illness-and-or-aseptic-meningitis-from-2012-to-2015-in-west-bank-palestine
#7
Kamal Dumaidi, Amer Al-Jawabreh
BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are the most frequently reported cause of aseptic meningitis with or without CSF pleocytosis in childhood. Rapid detection and genotype of HEVs is essential to determine the causative agent and variant causing sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. AIM: To investigate the molecular epidemiology of enteroviruses (EVs) among patients with sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis admitted to three major hospitals in West Bank, Palestine from 2012 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225026/blood-based-omic-profiling-supports-female-susceptibility-to-tobacco-smoke-induced-cardiovascular-diseases
#8
Aristotelis Chatziioannou, Panagiotis Georgiadis, Dennie G Hebels, Irene Liampa, Ioannis Valavanis, Ingvar A Bergdahl, Anders Johansson, Domenico Palli, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Alexandros P Siskos, Hector Keun, Maria Botsivali, Theo M C M de Kok, Almudena Espín Pérez, Jos C S Kleinjans, Paolo Vineis, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos
We recently reported that differential gene expression and DNA methylation profiles in blood leukocytes of apparently healthy smokers predicts with remarkable efficiency diseases and conditions known to be causally associated with smoking, suggesting that blood-based omic profiling of human populations may be useful for linking environmental exposures to potential health effects. Here we report on the sex-specific effects of tobacco smoking on transcriptomic and epigenetic features derived from genome-wide profiling in white blood cells, identifying 26 expression probes and 92 CpG sites, almost all of which are affected only in female smokers...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224734/anxiety-genetics-dispatches-from-the-frontier
#9
Jordan W Smoller
Anxiety disorders are the most common class of psychiatric disorders and incur an enormous burden in terms of economic costs, disability and personal suffering. Despite their public health importance and documented heritability, genetic research aimed at identifying the genetic contributions to these disorders has had limited success, particularly in comparison to recent advances in the genetics of other major psychiatric disorders. The major factor contributing to this lagging progress has been a dearth of well-powered genomic studies...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223459/evolution-and-epidemiology-of-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-the-united-kingdom-and-ireland
#10
Danesh Moradigaravand, Veronique Martin, Sharon J Peacock, Julian Parkhill
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that has become a leading causative agent of hospital-based infections over the past few decades. The emergence and global expansion of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) clones of K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in community-acquired and nosocomial infections. Despite this, the population genomics and epidemiology of MDR K. pneumoniae at the national level are still poorly understood. To obtain insights into these, we analyzed a systematic large-scale collection of invasive MDR K...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222127/unusual-pattern-of-chikungunya-virus-epidemic-in-the-americas-the-panamanian-experience
#11
Jean-Paul Carrera, Yamilka Díaz, Bernardino Denis, Itza Barahona de Mosca, Dennys Rodriguez, Israel Cedeño, Dimelza Arauz, Publio González, Lizbeth Cerezo, Lourdes Moreno, Lourdes García, Lisseth E Sáenz, María Aneth Atencio, Eddy Rojas-Fermin, Fernando Vizcaino, Nicolas Perez, Brechla Moreno, Sandra López-Vergès, Anayansi Valderrama, Blas Armién
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) typically causes explosive epidemics of fever, rash and polyarthralgia after its introduction into naïve populations. Since its introduction in Panama in May of 2014, few autochthonous cases have been reported; most of them were found within limited outbreaks in Panama City in 2014 and Puerto Obaldia town, near the Caribbean border with Colombia in 2015. In order to confirm that Panama had few CHIKV cases compared with neighboring countries, we perform an epidemiological analysis of chikungunya cases reported from May 2014 to July 2015...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219746/application-of-high-throughput-sequencing-to-whole-rabies-viral-genome-characterisation-and-its-use-for-phylogenetic-re-evaluation-of-a-raccoon-strain-incursion-into-the-province-of-ontario
#12
Susan A Nadin-Davis, Adam Colville, Hannah Trewby, Roman Biek, Leslie Real
Raccoon rabies remains a serious public health problem throughout much of the eastern seaboard of North America due to the urban nature of the reservoir host and the many challenges inherent in multi-jurisdictional efforts to administer co-ordinated and comprehensive wildlife rabies control programmes. Better understanding of the mechanisms of spread of rabies virus can play a significant role in guiding such control efforts. To facilitate a detailed molecular epidemiological study of raccoon rabies virus movements across eastern North America, we developed a methodology to efficiently determine whole genome sequences of hundreds of viral samples...
February 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219454/the-characterization-of-bordetella-pertussis-strains-isolated-in-the-central-western-region-of-brazil-suggests-the-selection-of-a-specific-genetic-profile-during-2012-2014-outbreaks
#13
E L Rocha, D Leite, C H Camargo, L M Martins, R S N Silva, V P Martins, T A Campos
Pertussis is a worldwide acute respiratory disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis. Despite high vaccine coverage, the bacterium continues to circulate in populations and is still one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases. In Brazil, pertussis incidence has presented a significant decrease since 1990 but since 2011 a sudden increase in incidence has been observed. Thus, the aim of this study was to perform a molecular epidemiological characterization of B. pertussis strains isolated in the Central-Western region (specifically in Distrito Federal) of Brazil from August 2012 to August 2014...
February 21, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219321/genetic-characterization-of-vibrio-cholerae-o1-isolates-from-outbreaks-between-2011-and-2015-in-tanzania
#14
Yazid Kachwamba, A A Mohammed, H Lukupulo, L Urio, M Majigo, F Mosha, M Matonya, R Kishimba, J Mghamba, J Lusekelo, S Nyanga, M Almeida, S Li, D Domman, S Y Massele, O C Stine
BACKGROUND: Cholera outbreaks have occurred in Tanzania since 1974. To date, the genetic epidemiology of these outbreaks has not been assessed. METHODS: 96 Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from five regions were characterized, and their genetic relatedness assessed using multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). RESULTS: Of the 48 MLVA genotypes observed, 3 were genetically unrelated to any others, while the remaining 45 genotypes separated into three MLVA clonal complexes (CCs) - each comprised of genotypes differing by a single allelic change...
February 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218261/pneumococcal-prophages-are-diverse-but-not-without-structure-or-history
#15
Angela B Brueggemann, Caroline L Harrold, Reza Rezaei Javan, Andries J van Tonder, Angus J McDonnell, Ben A Edwards
Bacteriophages (phages) infect many bacterial species, but little is known about the diversity of phages among the pneumococcus, a leading global pathogen. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, diversity and molecular epidemiology of prophages (phage DNA integrated within the bacterial genome) among pneumococci isolated over the past 90 years. Nearly 500 pneumococcal genomes were investigated and RNA sequencing was used to explore prophage gene expression. We revealed that every pneumococcal genome contained prophage DNA...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217442/whole-genome-sequencing-and-analysis-of-campylobacter-coli-yh502-from-retail-chicken-reveals-a-plasmid-borne-type-vi-secretion-system
#16
Sandeep Ghatak, Yiping He, Sue Reed, Terence Strobaugh, Peter Irwin
Campylobacter is a major cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Campylobacter infections, commonly caused by ingestion of undercooked poultry and meat products, can lead to gastroenteritis and chronic reactive arthritis in humans. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a powerful technology that provides comprehensive genetic information about bacteria and is increasingly being applied to study foodborne pathogens: e.g., evolution, epidemiology/outbreak investigation, and detection. Herein we report the complete genome sequence of Campylobacter coli strain YH502 isolated from retail chicken in the United States...
March 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217117/the-promise-of-whole-genome-pathogen-sequencing-for-the-molecular-epidemiology-of-emerging-aquaculture-pathogens
#17
REVIEW
Sion C Bayliss, David W Verner-Jeffreys, Kerry L Bartie, David M Aanensen, Samuel K Sheppard, Alexandra Adams, Edward J Feil
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food-producing sector, and the sustainability of this industry is critical both for global food security and economic welfare. The management of infectious disease represents a key challenge. Here, we discuss the opportunities afforded by whole genome sequencing of bacterial and viral pathogens of aquaculture to mitigate disease emergence and spread. We outline, by way of comparison, how sequencing technology is transforming the molecular epidemiology of pathogens of public health importance, emphasizing the importance of community-oriented databases and analysis tools...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211812/recent-progress-in-alzheimer-s-disease-research-part-2-genetics-and-epidemiology
#18
Morgan Robinson, Brenda Y Lee, Francis T Hane
This is the second part of a three-part review series reviewing the most important advances in Alzheimer's disease (AD) research since 2010. This review covers the latest research on genetics and epidemiology. Epidemiological and genetic studies are revealing important insights into the etiology of, and factors that contribute to AD, as well as areas of priority for research into mechanisms and interventions. The widespread adoption of genome wide association studies has provided compelling evidence of the genetic complexity of AD with genes associated with such diverse physiological function as immunity and lipid metabolism being implicated in AD pathogenesis...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209138/using-whole-genome-sequencing-to-investigate-transmission-in-a-multi-host-system-bovine-tuberculosis-in-new-zealand
#19
Joseph Crispell, Ruth N Zadoks, Simon R Harris, Brent Paterson, Desmond M Collins, Geoffrey W de-Lisle, Paul Livingstone, Mark A Neill, Roman Biek, Samantha J Lycett, Rowland R Kao, Marian Price-Carter
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an important livestock disease raising public health and economic concerns around the world. In New Zealand, a number of wildlife species are implicated in the spread and persistence of bTB in cattle populations, most notably the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Whole Genome Sequenced (WGS) M. bovis isolates sourced from infected cattle and wildlife across New Zealand were analysed. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses were conducted to estimate the substitution rate of the sampled population and investigate the role of wildlife...
February 16, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208132/an-outbreak-of-acute-hepatitis-caused-by-genotype-ib-hepatitis-a-viruses-contaminating-the-water-supply-in-thailand
#20
Kriangsak Ruchusatsawat, Jongkonnee Wongpiyabovorn, Chonthicha Kawidam, Laddawan Thiemsing, Somchai Sangkitporn, Sayaka Yoshizaki, Masashi Tatsumi, Naokazu Takeda, Koji Ishii
BACKGROUND: In 2000, an outbreak of acute hepatitis A was reported in a province adjacent to Bangkok, Thailand. AIMS: To investigate the cause of the 2000 hepatitis A outbreaks in Thailand using molecular epidemiological analysis. METHODS: Serum and stool specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis. Water samples from drinking water and deep-drilled wells were also collected. These specimens were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the VP1/2A region of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) genome...
February 17, 2017: Intervirology
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