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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902396/determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococcus-strains-isolated-from-pigs-and-their-genotypic-characterization-by-method-of-amplification-of-dna-fragments-surrounding-rare-restriction-sites-the-adsrrs-fingerprinting
#1
Aneta Nowakiewicz, Grażyna Ziółkowska, Aleksandra Trościańczyk, Przemysław Zięba, Sebastian Gnat
In this study, we analysed phenotypic resistance profiles and their reflection in the genomic profiles of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from pigs raised on different farms. Samples were collected from five pig farms (n=90 animals) and tested for Enterococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 12 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method, and epidemiological molecular analysis of strains belonging to selected species (E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. hirae) was performed using the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method with a few modifications...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902382/the-genetic-diversity-and-phenotypic-associations-of-feline-caliciviruses-from-cats-in-switzerland
#2
Andrea M Spiri, Julien Thézé, Marina L Meli, Valentino Cattori, Alice Berger, Adolf Steinrigl, Oliver G Pybus, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Barbara Willi
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common viral pathogen in domestic cats worldwide. The variable regions of the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV have one of the highest recorded rates of molecular evolution. Understanding the genetic diversity and phylogeny of FCV is a prerequisite to exploring the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this virus and to the development of efficacious vaccine strategies. In this study, we undertook a nationwide molecular characterization of FCV using for the first time nearly complete capsid (VP1) gene sequences...
October 7, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902379/genetic-characterization-of-emergent-gii-17-norovirus-variants-from-2013-to-2015-in-nanjing-china
#3
Xuan Wang, Xuefei Du, Wei Yong, Mengkai Qiao, Min He, Limin Shi, Baofu Guo, Lei Hong, Yun Jiang, Guoxiang Xie, Jie Ding
During the 2014/15 winter season, a newly emergent GII.P17-GII.17 variant overwhelmed currently dominant GII.4 viruses, causing outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in China and Japan. In Nanjing area, this novel GII.17 variant was first identified in a sporadic case of acute gastroenteritis in July 2013, 18 months ahead of reports from other parts of China. In this study, epidemiological features and genotyping of noroviruses from 2013 to 2015 were depicted. Twenty-eight local GII.17 sequences of capsid N-terminus originating from July 2013 to August 2015 were aligned, among which complete genome of seven strains obtained from two outbreaks and five sporadic cases was extensively characterized...
November 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902376/detection-of-a-novel-equine-like-g3-rotavirus-associated-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-brazil
#4
Sylvia F S Guerra, Luana S Soares, Patrícia S Lobo, Edvaldo T Penha Júnior, Edivaldo C Sousa Júnior, Delana A M Bezerra, Lívia R Vaz, Alexandre C Linhares, Joana D P Mascarenhas
Genotype G3P[8] of rotavirus A (RVA) is detected worldwide, usually associated with Wa-like constellation and exhibiting a long RNA migration pattern. More recently, a novel intergenogroup, G3P[8] reassortant variant with a short electropherotype has emerged in Asia, Oceania and Europe, denoting an overall potential of unusual rotavirus strains. During a RVA surveillance in Brazil, G3P[8] strains were found displaying a short electropherotype pattern, which had not been detected before in this region. This study aims to characterize the complete genomes of 10 G3P[8] strains detected in Northern region of Brazil...
October 18, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901320/salivary-dna-methylation-profiling-aspects-to-consider-for-biomarker-identification
#5
Sabine A S Langie, Matthieu Moisse, Ken Declerck, Gudrun Koppen, Lode Godderis, Wim Vanden Berghe, Stacy Drury, Patrick De Boever
Is it not more comfortable to spit saliva in a tube than to be pricked with a needle to draw blood to analyse your health and disease risk? A lot of patients, study participants and (parents of) young children undoubtedly prefer non-invasive and convenient procedures. Such procedures increase compliance rates especially for longitudinal prospective studies. Saliva is an attractive biofluid providing good quality DNA to study epigenetic mechanisms underlying disease across development. In this MiniReview, we will describe the different applications of saliva in the field of epigenetics, focusing on genome-wide methylation analysis...
November 30, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900614/trends-in-published-meta-analyses-in-cancer-research-2008-2013
#6
Ximena V Qadir, Mindy Clyne, Tram Kim Lam, Muin J Khoury, Sheri D Schully
In order to capture trends in the contribution of epidemiology to cancer research, we describe an online meta-analysis database resource for cancer clinical and population research and illustrate trends and descriptive detail of cancer meta-analyses from 2008 through 2013. A total of 4,686 cancer meta-analyses met our inclusion criteria. During this 6-year period, a fivefold increase was observed in the yearly number of meta-analyses. Fifty-six percent of meta-analyses concerned observational studies, mostly of cancer risk, more than half of which were genetic studies...
November 29, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899155/comparative-sequence-analysis-of-cyclospora-cayetanensis-apicoplast-genomes-originating-from-diverse-geographical-regions
#7
Hediye Nese Cinar, Yvonne Qvarnstrom, Yuping Wei-Pridgeon, Wen Li, Fernanda S Nascimento, Michael J Arrowood, Helen R Murphy, AhYoung Jang, Eunje Kim, RaeYoung Kim, Alexandre da Silva, Gopal R Gopinath
BACKGROUND: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an emerging coccidian parasite that causes endemic and epidemic diarrheal disease called cyclosporiasis, and this infection is associated with consumption of contaminated produce or water in developed and developing regions. Food-borne outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have occurred almost every year in the USA since the 1990s. Investigations of these outbreaks are currently hampered due to lack of molecular epidemiological tools for trace back analysis...
November 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898037/analyses-of-evolutionary-characteristics-of-the-hemagglutinin-esterase-gene-of-influenza-c-virus-during-a-period-of-68-years-reveals-evolutionary-patterns-different-from-influenza-a-and-b-viruses
#8
Yuki Furuse, Yoko Matsuzaki, Hidekazu Nishimura, Hitoshi Oshitani
Infections with the influenza C virus causing respiratory symptoms are common, particularly among children. Since isolation and detection of the virus are rarely performed, compared with influenza A and B viruses, the small number of available sequences of the virus makes it difficult to analyze its evolutionary dynamics. Recently, we reported the full genome sequence of 102 strains of the virus. Here, we exploited the data to elucidate the evolutionary characteristics and phylodynamics of the virus compared with influenza A and B viruses...
November 26, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896995/muse-a-multi-locus-sampling-based-epistasis-algorithm-for-quantitative-genetic-trait-prediction
#9
Dan He, Laxmi Parida
Quantitative genetic trait prediction based on high-density genotyping arrays plays an important role for plant and animal breeding, as well as genetic epidemiology such as complex diseases. The prediction can be very helpful to develop breeding strategies and is crucial to translate the findings in genetics to precision medicine. Epistasis, the phenomena where the SNPs interact with each other, has been studied extensively in Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) but received relatively less attention for quantitative genetic trait prediction...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895850/evaluation-of-hepatitis-c-virus-intrafamilial-transmission-among-families-with-one-index-case-a-pilot-study-from-fars-province-iran
#10
Kamran B Lankarani, Maryam Ardebili, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Maryam Nejabat, Mohammad Amir Hemmati Rad, Seyed Younes Hosseini
AIM: Our aim was to survey the rate and risk factors for Hepatitis C virus interfamilial transmission among families with one index case. BACKGROUND: The role of intrafamilial transmission in Hepatitis C virus epidemiology is still debated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 34 families (236 members) of HCV infected patients from Fars province, spring to summer 2013. All subjects were first evaluated for the risk factors of exposure and then their serum was checked for the presence of HCV antibody and the genome, using ELISA and PCR...
2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895637/high-prevalence-of-esbl-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-causing-community-onset-infections-in-china
#11
Jing Zhang, Kai Zhou, Beiwen Zheng, Lina Zhao, Ping Shen, Jinru Ji, Zeqing Wei, Lanjuan Li, Jianying Zhou, Yonghong Xiao
The aim of this work was to investigate the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) causing community-onset infections. K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from 31 Chinese secondary hospitals between August 2010 and 2011. Genes encoding ESBL and AmpC beta-lactamases were detected by PCR. The isolates were assigned to sequence types (STs) using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Eleven ESBL-Kp strains were selected for whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for investigating the genetic environment and plasmids encoding ESBL genes...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894694/the-cytokinesis-block-micronucleus-cbmn-assay-in-human-populations-exposed-to-styrene-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Solange Costa, Marcello Ceppi, Carla Costa, Susana Silva, Cristiana Pereira, Blanca Laffon, Stefano Bonassi, João Paulo Teixeira
Styrene is a building-block of several compounds used in a wide array of materials and products. The most important human exposure to this substance occurs in industrial settings, especially among reinforced-plastics industry workers. The effect of occupational exposure to styrene on cytogenetics biomarkers has been previously reviewed with positive association observed for chromosomal aberrations, and inconclusive data for the micronucleus assay. Some limitations were noted in those studies, including inadequate exposure assessment and poor epidemiological design...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894272/clinical-and-molecular-analyses-of-norovirus-associated-sporadic-acute-gastroenteritis-the-emergence-of-gii-17-over-gii-4-huzhou-china-2015
#13
Peng Zhang, Liping Chen, Yun Fu, Lei Ji, Xiaofang Wu, Deshun Xu, Jiankang Han
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most common cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in all age groups worldwide. The NoVs circulating in Huzhou over the past 7 years were predominantly GII.4 genotypes. In the winter of 2014-2015, a novel variant of NoV GII.17 emerged and became predominant. We report the epidemiological patterns and genetic characteristics of NoV after the appearance of GII.17 in Huzhou City, Zhejiang, China. METHODS: Between January and December 2015, 746 stool specimens collected from patients with acute gastroenteritis were screened for NoV...
November 29, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893822/deciphering-multiplicity-of-hiv-1c-infection-transmission-of-closely-related-multiple-viral-lineages
#14
Vlad Novitsky, Sikhulile Moyo, Rui Wang, Simani Gaseitsiwe, M Essex
BACKGROUND: A single viral variant is transmitted in the majority of HIV infections. However, about 20% of heterosexually transmitted HIV infections are caused by multiple viral variants. Detection of transmitted HIV variants is not trivial, as it involves analysis of multiple viral sequences representing intra-host HIV-1 quasispecies. METHODOLOGY: We distinguish two types of multiple virus transmission in HIV infection: (1) HIV transmission from the same source, and (2) transmission from different sources...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892699/genetics-of-consanguinity-and-inbreeding-in-health-and-disease
#15
Mohd Fareed, Mohammad Afzal
CONTEXT: Inbreeding increases the level of homozygotes for autosomal recessive disorders and is the major objective in clinical studies. The prevalence of consanguinity and the degree of inbreeding vary from one population to another depending on ethnicity, religion, culture and geography. Global epidemiological studies have revealed that consanguineous unions have been significantly associated with increased susceptibility to various forms of inherited diseases Objective: The study aimed to determine the role of consanguinity in human health and to highlight the associated risks for various diseases or disorders...
November 28, 2016: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891302/epidemiology-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-from-an-oral-perspective
#16
REVIEW
Anne Isine Bolstad, Kathrine Skarstein
Oral symptoms are among the most distressing manifestations for patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The feeling of dry mouth is unpleasant, and hyposalivation may contribute to difficulty in speaking, chewing and swallowing and reduced quality of life. Reduced salivary flow increases the risk for dental caries and problems with prosthetic replacement. It seems that SS is not as frequently occurring as previously anticipated. Population-based prevalence studies on primary SS in Europe, conducted on large background populations and in accordance with the AECG criteria, reported of a prevalence of 1-9 cases per 10,000 people...
2016: Current Oral Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890457/the-role-of-whole-genome-sequencing-wgs-in-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-bacteria-report-from-the-eucast-subcommittee
#17
REVIEW
Matthew J Ellington, Oskar Ekelund, Frank M Aarestrup, Rafael Canton, Michel Doumith, Christian Giske, Hajo Grundman, Henrik Hasman, Matthew Holden, Katie L Hopkins, Jon Iredell, Gunnar Kahlmeter, Claudio U Köser, Alasdair MacGowan, Dik Mevius, Mike Mulvey, Thierry Naas, Tim Peto, Jean-Marc Rolain, Ørjan Samuelsen, Neil Woodford
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers the potential to predict antimicrobial susceptibility from a single assay. The European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) established a subcommittee to review the current development status of WGS for bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The published evidence for using WGS as a tool to infer antimicrobial susceptibility accurately is currently either poor or non-existent and the evidence / knowledge base requires significant expansion...
November 23, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888126/understanding-the-complex-evolution-of-rapidly-mutating-viruses-with-deep-sequencing-beyond-the-analysis-of-viral-diversity
#18
REVIEW
Preston Leung, Auda A Eltahla, Andrew R Lloyd, Rowena A Bull, Fabio Luciani
With the advent of affordable deep sequencing technologies, detection of low frequency variants within genetically diverse viral populations can now be achieved with unprecedented depth and efficiency. The high-resolution data provided by next generation sequencing technologies is currently recognised as the gold standard in estimation of viral diversity. In the analysis of rapidly mutating viruses, longitudinal deep sequencing datasets from viral genomes during individual infection episodes, as well as at the epidemiological level during outbreaks, now allow for more sophisticated analyses such as statistical estimates of the impact of complex mutation patterns on the evolution of the viral populations both within and between hosts...
November 22, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886133/epigenetic-impact-on-ebv-associated-b-cell-lymphomagenesis
#19
REVIEW
Shatadru Ghosh Roy, Erle S Robertson, Abhik Saha
Epigenetic modifications leading to either transcriptional repression or activation, play an indispensable role in the development of human cancers. Epidemiological study revealed that approximately 20% of all human cancers are associated with tumor viruses. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the first human tumor virus, demonstrates frequent epigenetic alterations on both viral and host genomes in associated cancers-both of epithelial and lymphoid origin. The cell type-dependent different EBV latent gene expression patterns appear to be determined by the cellular epigenetic machinery and similarly viral oncoproteins recruit epigenetic regulators in order to deregulate the cellular gene expression profile resulting in several human cancers...
November 24, 2016: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885775/the-coffee-leaf-rust-pathogen-hemileia-vastatrix-one-and-a-half-centuries-around-the-tropics
#20
Pedro Talhinhas, Dora Batista, Inês Diniz, Ana Vieira, Diogo N Silva, Andreia Loureiro, Sílvia Tavares, Ana Paula Pereira, Helena G Azinheira, Leonor Guerra-Guimarães, Vítor Várzea, Maria do Céu Silva
Taxonomy and history: Hemileia vastatrix Berk. and Broome (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales) was described in 1869 in Eastern Africa and Ceylon as the agent of Coffee Leaf Rust and spread to all coffee cultivation areas worldwide. Major disease outbreaks in Asia, Africa and America caused and continue to cause severe yield losses, making this the most important disease of Arabica coffee, a cash crop for many tropical and sub-tropical countries. Life cycle and disease symptoms: Hemileia vastatrix is a hemicyclic fungus with the urediniosporic life cycle as its most important (if not only) source of inoculum...
November 25, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
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