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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735098/cholangiocytes-cell-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Lorenzo Ridola, Maria Consiglia Bragazzi, Vincenzo Cardinale, Guido Carpino, Eugenio Gaudio, Domenico Alvaro
BACKGROUND: Due to significant limitations to the access to orthotropic liver transplantation, cell therapies for liver diseases have gained large interest worldwide. SCOPE OF REVIEW: To revise current literature dealing with cell therapy for liver diseases. We discussed the advantages and pitfalls of the different cell sources tested so far in clinical trials and the rationale underlying the potential benefits of transplantation of human biliary tree stem cells (hBTSCs)...
July 19, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733279/cholangiocytes-and-the-environment-in-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-where-is-the-link
#2
Steven P O'Hara, Tom H Karlsen, Nicholas F LaRusso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 21, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732110/growth-inhibitory-effect-of-%C3%AE-eudesmol-on-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-and-its-potential-suppressive-effect-on-heme-oxygenase-1-production-stat1-3-activation-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-downregulation
#3
Vivek Bhakta Mathema, Wanna Chaijaroenkul, Juntra Karbwang, Kesara Na-Bangchang
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a progressively fatal form of cancer originating from the malignant transformation of hepatic biliary cholangiocytes. The present study reports for the first time in vitro growth inhibitory activities of β-eudesmol, the bioactive sesquiterpenoid present in the rhizome of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb) DC., with respect to its underlying potential effects on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) production, STAT1/3 phosphorylation, and NF-κB protein expression in human CCA cell line CL-6. The cytotoxic effect of β-eudesmol on CL-6 cells was evaluated by MTT assay using normal human embryonic fibroblast (OUMS) as a control cell line...
July 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729654/cryopreservation-protocol-for-human-biliary-tree-stem-progenitors-hepatic-and-pancreatic-precursors
#4
Lorenzo Nevi, Vincenzo Cardinale, Guido Carpino, Daniele Costantini, Sabina Di Matteo, Alfredo Cantafora, Fabio Melandro, Roberto Brunelli, Carlo Bastianelli, Camilla Aliberti, Marco Monti, Daniela Bosco, Pasquale Bartolomeo Berloco, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici, Lola Reid, Eugenio Gaudio, Domenico Alvaro
Human biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (hBTSCs) are being used for cell therapies of patients with liver cirrhosis. A cryopreservation method was established to optimize sourcing of hBTSCs for these clinical programs and that comprises serum-free Kubota's Medium (KM) supplemented with 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 15% human serum albumin (HSA) and 0.1% hyaluronans. Cryopreserved versus freshly isolated hBTSCs were similar in vitro with respect to self-replication, stemness traits, and multipotency. They were able to differentiate to functional hepatocytes,cholangiocytes or pancreatic islets, yielding similar levels of secretion of albumin or of glucose-inducible levels of insulin...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716722/dynamics-of-proliferative-and-quiescent-stem-cells-in-liver-homeostasis-and-injury
#5
Wanlu Cao, Kan Chen, Michiel Bolkestein, Yuebang Yin, Monique M A Verstegen, Marcel J C Bijvelds, Wenshi Wang, Nesrin Tuysuz, Derk Ten Berge, Dave Sprengers, Herold J Metselaar, Luc J W van der Laan, Jaap Kwekkeboom, Ron Smits, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult liver stem cells are usually maintained in a quiescent/slow cycling state. However, a proliferative population, marked by leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (LGR5), was recently identified as an important liver stem cell population. We aimed to investigate the dynamics and functions of proliferative and quiescent stem cells in healthy and injured livers. METHODS: We studied LGR5-positive stem cells using diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) knock-in mice...
July 14, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716705/pathobiology-of-biliary-epithelia
#6
REVIEW
Angela C Cheung, Maria J Lorenzo Pisarello, Nicholas F LaRusso
Cholangiocytes are epithelial cells that line the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. They serve predominantly to mediate the content of luminal biliary fluid, which is controlled via numerous signaling pathways influenced by endogenous (e.g., bile acids, nucleotides, hormones, neurotransmitters etc.) and exogenous (microbes/microbial products, drugs etc.) molecules. When injured, cholangiocytes undergo apoptosis/lysis, repair and proliferation. They also become senescent, a form of cell cycle arrest, which may prevent propagation of injury and/or malignant transformation...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711597/micrornas-and-extracellular-vesicles-in-cholangiopathies
#7
REVIEW
P Olaizola, P Y Lee-Law, A Arbelaiz, A Lapitz, M J Perugorria, L Bujanda, J M Banales
Cholangiopathies encompass a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting biliary epithelial cells (i.e. cholangiocytes). Early diagnosis, prognosis and treatment still remain clinically challenging for most of these diseases and are critical for adequate patient care. In the past decade, extensive research has emphasized microRNAs (miRs) as potential non-invasive biomarkers and tools to accurately identify, predict and treat cholangiopathies. MiRs can be released extracellularly conjugated with lipoproteins or encapsulated in extracellular vesicles (EVs)...
July 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709963/animal-models-of-biliary-injury-and-altered-bile-acid-metabolism
#8
REVIEW
Valeria Mariotti, Mario Strazzabosco, Luca Fabris, Diego F Calvisi
In the last 25years, a number of animal models, mainly rodents, have been generated with the goal to mimic cholestatic liver injuries and, thus, to provide in vivo tools to investigate the mechanisms of biliary repair and, eventually, to test the efficacy of innovative treatments. Despite fundamental limitations applying to these models, such as the distinct immune system and the different metabolism regulating liver homeostasis in rodents when compared to humans, multiple approaches, such as surgery (bile duct ligation), chemical-induced (3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine, DDC, α-naphthylisothiocyanate, ANIT), viral infections (Rhesus rotavirustype A, RRV-A), and genetic manipulation (Mdr2, Cftr, Pkd1, Pkd2, Prkcsh, Sec63, Pkhd1) have been developed...
July 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709962/the-role-of-macrophages-in-the-development-of-biliary-injury-in-a-lipopolysaccharide-aggravated-hepatic-ischaemia-reperfusion-model
#9
REVIEW
J Reiling, K R Bridle, F G Schaap, L Jaskowski, N Santrampurwala, L J Britton, C M Campbell, P L M Jansen, S W M Olde Damink, D H G Crawford, C H C Dejong, J Fawcett
INTRODUCTION: Endotoxins, in the form of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), are potent inducers of biliary injury. However the mechanism by which injury develops remains unclear. We hypothesized that hepatic macrophages are pivotal in the development of endotoxin-induced biliary injury and that no injury would occur in their absence. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clodronate liposomes were used to deplete macrophages from the liver. Forty-eight rats were equally divided across six study groups: sham operation (sham), liposome treatment and sham operation (liposomes+sham), 1mg/kg LPS i...
July 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709961/bile-acids-fgf15-19-and-liver-regeneration-from-mechanisms-to-clinical-applications
#10
REVIEW
Gloria Alvarez-Sola, Iker Uriarte, Maria U Latasa, Maddalen Jimenez, Marina Barcena-Varela, Eva Santamaría, Raquel Urtasun, Carlos Rodriguez-Ortigosa, Jesús Prieto, Pedro Berraondo, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Carmen Berasain, Matías A Avila
The liver has an extraordinary regenerative capacity rapidly triggered upon injury or resection. This response is intrinsically adjusted in its initiation and termination, a property termed the "hepatostat". Several molecules have been involved in liver regeneration, and among them bile acids may play a central role. Intrahepatic levels of bile acids rapidly increase after resection. Through the activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), bile acids regulate their hepatic metabolism and also promote hepatocellular proliferation...
July 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708602/development-of-hepatoma-derived-bidirectional-oval-like-cells-as-a-model-to-study-host-interactions-with-hepatitis-c-virus-during-differentiation
#11
Masahiko Ito, Suofeng Sun, Takasuke Fukuhara, Ryosuke Suzuki, Miho Tamai, Toyohiko Yamauchi, Kenji Nakashima, Yoh-Ichi Tagawa, Shigetoshi Okazaki, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Takaji Wakita, Tetsuro Suzuki
Directed differentiation of human stem cells including induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatic cells potentially leads to acquired susceptibility to hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, cellular determinants that change their expression during cell reprogramming or hepatic differentiation and are pivotal for supporting the HCV life cycle remain unclear. In this study, by introducing a set of reprogramming factors, we established HuH-7-derived oval-like cell lines, Hdo-17 and -23, which possess features of bipotential liver precursors...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706773/why-doesn-t-primary-biliary-cholangitis-respond-to-immunosuppressive-medications
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Molinaro, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to discuss reasons why immunosuppressive therapy so far failed in Primary Biliry Cholangitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Even targeted immunosuppressive therapy seems ineffective or potentially harmful. SUMMARY: Bile acid-mediated cholangiocyte damage, facilitated by insufficient bicarbonate secretion, seems to attenuate the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic actions of immunosuppressant and immunomodulatory drugs in a clinically significant way...
2017: Current Hepatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700576/cholangiocytes-act-as-facultative-liver-stem-cells-during-impaired-hepatocyte-regeneration
#13
Alexander Raven, Wei-Yu Lu, Tak Yung Man, Sofia Ferreira-Gonzalez, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Benjamin J Dwyer, John P Thomson, Richard R Meehan, Roman Bogorad, Victor Koteliansky, Yuri Kotelevtsev, Charles Ffrench-Constant, Luke Boulter, Stuart J Forbes
After liver injury, regeneration occurs through self-replication of hepatocytes. In severe liver injury, hepatocyte proliferation is impaired-a feature of human chronic liver disease. It is unclear whether other liver cell types can regenerate hepatocytes. Here we use two independent systems to impair hepatocyte proliferation during liver injury to evaluate the contribution of non-hepatocytes to parenchymal regeneration. First, loss of β1-integrin in hepatocytes with liver injury triggered a ductular reaction of cholangiocyte origin, with approximately 25% of hepatocytes being derived from a non-hepatocyte origin...
July 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689996/adult-mouse-liver-contains-two-distinct-populations-of-cholangiocytes
#14
Bin Li, Craig Dorrell, Pamela S Canaday, Carl Pelz, Annelise Haft, Milton Finegold, Markus Grompe
The biliary system plays an important role in several acquired and genetic disorders of the liver. We have previously shown that biliary duct epithelium contains cells giving rise to proliferative Lgr5(+) organoids in vitro. However, it remained unknown whether all biliary cells or only a specific subset had this clonogenic activity. The cell surface protease ST14 was identified as a positive marker for the clonogenic subset of cholangiocytes and was used to separate clonogenic and non-clonogenic duct cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
July 4, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685316/-liver-biopsy-in-children-and-adolescents-preliminary-morphological-examinations-in-diffuse-liver-disease
#15
REVIEW
C Lackner, A S Knisely
BACKGROUND: Frequencies of types of liver disease differ between adults and nonadults (NA). OBJECTIVES: The particular problems encountered in interpreting liver-biopsy findings in NA often require referral in consultation.  To permit this efficiently, we recommend specific approaches to light microscopy, with special stains and immunohistochemistry, as well as to ultrastructural study. METHODS: Prosection and the choice of special stains are described, and are discussed in relation to clinical questions...
July 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681484/a-single-cell-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-precise-pathways-and-regulatory-mechanisms-underlying-hepatoblast-differentiation
#16
Li Yang, Wei-Hua Wang, Wei-Lin Qiu, Zhen Guo, Erfei Bi, Cheng-Ran Xu
How the bi-potential hepatoblasts differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes remains unclear. Here, using single-cell transcriptomic analysis of hepatoblasts, hepatocytes, and cholangiocytes sorted from E10.5 to E17.5 mouse embryos, we found that hepatoblast-to-hepatocyte differentiation occurred gradually followed a linear default pathway. As more cells became fully differentiated hepatocytes, the number of proliferating cells decreased. Surprisingly, the proliferating and quiescent hepatoblasts exhibited homogeneous differentiation states at a given developmental stage...
July 6, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671689/reconstruction-of-the-mouse-extrahepatic-biliary-tree-using-primary-human-extrahepatic-cholangiocyte-organoids
#17
Fotios Sampaziotis, Alexander W Justin, Olivia C Tysoe, Stephen Sawiak, Edmund M Godfrey, Sara S Upponi, Richard L Gieseck, Miguel Cardoso de Brito, Natalie Lie Berntsen, María J Gómez-Vázquez, Daniel Ortmann, Loukia Yiangou, Alexander Ross, Johannes Bargehr, Alessandro Bertero, Mariëlle C F Zonneveld, Marianne T Pedersen, Matthias Pawlowski, Laura Valestrand, Pedro Madrigal, Nikitas Georgakopoulos, Negar Pirmadjid, Gregor M Skeldon, John Casey, Wenmiao Shu, Paulina M Materek, Kirsten E Snijders, Stephanie E Brown, Casey A Rimland, Ingrid Simonic, Susan E Davies, Kim B Jensen, Matthias Zilbauer, William T H Gelson, Graeme J Alexander, Sanjay Sinha, Nicholas R F Hannan, Thomas A Wynn, Tom H Karlsen, Espen Melum, Athina E Markaki, Kourosh Saeb-Parsy, Ludovic Vallier
The treatment of common bile duct (CBD) disorders, such as biliary atresia or ischemic strictures, is restricted by the lack of biliary tissue from healthy donors suitable for surgical reconstruction. Here we report a new method for the isolation and propagation of human cholangiocytes from the extrahepatic biliary tree in the form of extrahepatic cholangiocyte organoids (ECOs) for regenerative medicine applications. The resulting ECOs closely resemble primary cholangiocytes in terms of their transcriptomic profile and functional properties...
July 3, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671339/role-of-erbb-her-family-of-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-in-cholangiocyte-biology
#18
REVIEW
Anna Pellat, Javier Vaquero, Laura Fouassier
The ErbB/HER family comprises four distinct tyrosine kinase receptors, EGFR/ErbB1/HER1, ErbB2/HER2, ErbB3/HER3 and ErbB4/HER4, which trigger intracellular signals at the origin of essential cellular functions including differentiation, proliferation, survival and migration. Epithelial cells, named cholangiocytes, that line intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, contribute substantially to biliary secretory functions and bile transport. Although ErbB receptors have been widely studied in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignancy of the biliary tract, knowledge of these receptors in biliary epithelium physiology and in non-malignant cholangiopathies is far from completed...
July 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671021/upregulation-of-transferrin-receptor-1-induces-cholangiocarcinoma-progression-via-induction-of-labile-iron-pool
#19
Wassana Jamnongkan, Raynoo Thanan, Anchalee Techasen, Nisana Namwat, Watcharin Loilome, Piyapharom Intarawichian, Attapol Titapun, Puangrat Yongvanit
Labile iron pool is a cellular source of ions available for Fenton reactions resulting in oxidative stress. Living organisms avoid an excess of free irons by a tight control of iron homeostasis. We investigated the altered expression of iron regulatory proteins and iron discrimination in the development of liver fluke-associated cholangiocarcinoma. Additionally, the levels of labile iron pool and the functions of transferrin receptor-1 on cholangiocarcinoma development were also identified. Iron deposition was determined using the Prussian blue staining method in human cholangiocarcinoma tissues...
July 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668846/inhibitory-effects-of-atp-and-adenosine-on-cholangiocarcinoma-cell-proliferation-and-motility
#20
Jomnarong Lertsuwan, Mathuros Ruchirawat
BACKGROUND/AIM: Inhibitory effects of extracellular nucleotides have been investigated in many types of cancers. Herein, we aimed to determine the effects of ATP and adenosine and their receptor profile on cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two CCA and one immortalized cholangiocyte cell line were used. The effects of ATP and adenosine on cell proliferation and motility were examined by MTT and wound-healing/trans-well invasion assays, respectively...
July 2017: Anticancer Research
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