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hematopoietic stem cell crayfish

Irene Söderhäll
Hematopoiesis is the process by which blood cells (hemocytes) mature and subsequently enter the circulation and we have developed a new technique to culture the hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro. The reason for the successful culture was the isolation of a plasma protein that turned out to be a novel cytokine, astakine 1 (Ast1) containing a domain present in several vertebrates, so-called prokineticins. Now we have detected several astakines from other invertebrate species. Depending on our discovery of the cytokine Ast1 we have an opportunity to study in detail the differentiation of cells in the hematopoietic tissue of a crustacean, a tissue of evolutionary interest for studies of the connection between the vascular system and the nervous system...
October 2013: Cytotechnology
Netnapa Saelee, Chadanat Noonin, Benjamas Nupan, Kingkamon Junkunlo, Amornrat Phongdara, Xionghui Lin, Kenneth Söderhäll, Irene Söderhäll
Thymosin proteins are well known for their actin-binding activity. Thymosin beta 4 (Tβ4) has been associated with biological activities in tissue repair and cell migration via interaction with ATP-synthase in vertebrates, while the information of similar thymosin functions in invertebrates is limited. We have shown previously that ATP-synthase is present on the surface of crayfish hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells, and that astakine 1 (Ast1, an invertebrate cytokine) was found to interact with this β-subunit of ATP synthase...
2013: PloS One
Jeanne L Benton, Paula Grazielle Chaves da Silva, David C Sandeman, Barbara S Beltz
Adult-born neurons in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) are the progeny of 1st-generation precursor cells (functionally analogous to neuronal stem cells in vertebrates) that are located in a neurogenic niche on the ventral surface of the brain. The daughters of these precursor cells migrate along the processes of bipolar niche cells to proliferation zones in the cell clusters where the somata of the olfactory interneurons reside. Here they divide again, producing offspring that differentiate into olfactory local and projection neurons...
November 2013: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Paula Grazielle Chaves da Silva, Jeanne L Benton, David C Sandeman, Barbara S Beltz
Neuronal stem cells residing in a niche on the surface of the adult crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) brain are not self-renewing. However, the neuronal precursors in the niche are not depleted despite continued neurogenesis and the exit of precursor cells from the niche throughout the organism's life. The neurogenic niche is therefore not a closed system, and we have previously proposed that the stem cell pool is replenished from the hematopoietic system. Noonin et al. (2012) demonstrated that the hematopoietic system in the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus includes an anterior proliferation center (APC) lying near the brain; they suggest that multipotent stem cells are concentrated in this region, and that the APC may provide neuronal stem cells for adult neurogenesis...
April 1, 2013: Stem Cells and Development
Barbara S Beltz, Yi Zhang, Jeanne L Benton, David C Sandeman
New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the first-generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors co-exist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined...
September 2011: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jeanne L Benton, Yi Zhang, Colleen R Kirkhart, David C Sandeman, Barbara S Beltz
BACKGROUND: Adult neurogenesis, the production and integration of new neurons into circuits in the brains of adult animals, is a common feature of a variety of organisms, ranging from insects and crustaceans to birds and mammals. In the mammalian brain the 1st-generation neuronal precursors, the astrocytic stem cells, reside in neurogenic niches and are reported to undergo self-renewing divisions, thereby providing a source of new neurons throughout an animal's life. In contrast, our work shows that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) brain, which also have glial properties and lie in a neurogenic niche resembling that of vertebrates, undergo geometrically symmetrical divisions and both daughters appear to migrate away from the niche...
2011: BMC Neuroscience
Hai-peng Liu, Rong-yuan Chen, Qiu-xia Zhang, Hui Peng, Ke-jian Wang
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important viral pathogens in crustaceans. During WSSV infection, multiple cell signaling cascades are activated, leading to the generation of antiviral molecules and initiation of programmed cell death of the virus infected cells. To gain novel insight into cell signaling mechanisms employed in WSSV infection, we have used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to elucidate the cellular response to WSSV challenge at the gene level in red claw crayfish haematopoietic tissue (Hpt) stem cell cultures...
July 2011: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Apiruck Watthanasurorot, Kenneth Söderhäll, Pikul Jiravanichpaisal, Irene Söderhäll
Invertebrate circulating hemocytes are key players in the innate immune defense and their continuous renewal from hematopoietic tissues is tightly regulated in crustaceans by astakine, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK) domain. In vertebrates, brain PROKs function as transmitters of circadian rhythms and we present evidence that hemocyte release from hematopoietic tissues in crayfish is under circadian regulation, a direct result of rhythmic expression of astakine. We demonstrate that the observed variation in astakine expression has an impact on innate immunity assessed as susceptibility to a pathogenic Pseudomonas species...
January 2011: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Xionghui Lin, Kenneth Söderhäll, Irene Söderhäll
BACKGROUND: Transglutaminases (TGases) form a group of enzymes that have many different substrates and among the most well known are fibrin for Factor XIIIa and the clotting protein in crustaceans. We also found that TGase is an abundant protein in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) cells of crayfish and hence we have studied the possible function of this enzyme in hematopoiesis. RESULTS: TGase is one of the most abundant proteins in the Hpt and its mRNA expression as well as enzyme activity is very high in the Hpt cells, lesser in the semi-granular hemocytes and very low in the granular cells...
2008: BMC Immunology
Pikul Jiravanichpaisal, Kenneth Söderhäll, Irene Söderhäll
Replication of White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in haematopoietic cells (hpt cells) derived from haematopoietic tissue (hpt) of freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. Temperature and type of inoculum for virus replication were studied. The cell culture remained viable at a wide range of temperatures ranging from 4 to 25 degrees C. WSSV replicated in cells, as evidenced by in situ hybridization, RT-PCR and by the presence of virions visualized with an electron microscope. Moreover, the results showed that the infectivity of WSSV to hpt cells is dependent on temperature and a supplemented growth factor (cytokine) astakine...
April 2006: Journal of General Virology
Pikul Jiravanichpaisal, Siripavee Sricharoen, Irene Söderhäll, Kenneth Söderhäll
WSSV particles were detected in separated granular cells (GCs) and semigranular cells (SGCs) by in situ hybridisation from WSSV-infected crayfish and the prevalence of WSSV-infected GCs was 5%, whereas it was 22% in SGCs. This indicates that SGCs are more susceptible to WSSV and that this virus replicated more rapidly in SGCs than in GCs and as a result the number of SGCs gradually decreased from the blood circulation. The effect of haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), containing the degranulation factor (peroxinectin), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 on GCs from WSSV-infected and sham-injected crayfish was studied...
May 2006: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Irene Söderhäll, Eakaphun Bangyeekhun, Susan Mayo, Kenneth Söderhäll
Regulation of hematopoiesis in invertebrates is largely unknown, although the hemocytes are essential in immunity, performing functions such as phagocytosis, encapsulation and lysis of foreign cells. We have developed a method to isolate hematopoietic stem cells from the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, and therefore, this animal provides a powerful tool for studies on invertebrate hematopoiesis. The hematopoietic tissue of crayfish was found to be actively proliferating. Injection of a beta1,3-glucan caused a severe loss of hemocytes, followed by a rapid recovery, due to release from the hematopoietic organ...
September 2003: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
X Romero, J F Turnbull, R Jiménez
A study of the ultrastructural characteristics of an intracellular bacterium infecting the redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, a pathogen referred to previously as a rickettsia-like organism (RLO), revealed the presence of different developmental stages. These included a rod-shaped and uniformly electron-dense elementary body (EB) and an intermediate body (IB). The length of the EB varied between 0.48 and 0.6 microm, and the diameter was 0.3 microm. The IB was 0.75 to 1.1 microm long by 0.36 to 0.44 microm in diameter...
August 2000: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
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