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Daniel S Joyce, Beatrix Feigl, Andrew J Zele
Purpose: We determine the effect of short-term light adaptation on the pupil light reflex and the melanopsin mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR). Inner and outer retinal photoreceptor contributions to the dark-adapted pupil response were estimated. Methods: In Experiment A, light adaptation was studied using short wavelength lights ranging from subthreshold to suprathreshold irradiances for melanopsin signaling that were presented before (5-60 seconds) and after (30 seconds) a melanopsin-exciting stimulus pulse...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ahmad A Abdul-Aziz, Rodney A Hayward, Keith D Aaronson, Scott L Hummel
Importance: US hospitals receive financial penalties for excess risk-standardized 30-day readmissions and mortality in Medicare patients. Under current policy, readmission prevention is incentivized over 10-fold more than mortality reduction. Objective: To determine how penalties for US hospitals would change if policy equally weighted 30-day readmissions and mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Publicly available hospital-level data for fiscal year 2014 was obtained, including excess readmission ratio (ERR; risk-standardized predicted over expected 30-day readmissions) and 30-day mortality rates for heart failure, pneumonia, and acute myocardial infarction, as well as readmission penalties (as percent of Medicare Diagnosis Group payments)...
October 26, 2016: JAMA Cardiology
Zhe Li, Jian-Guo Zhang, Yan Ye, Xiaoping Li
BACKGROUND: Accurate implantation of a depth electrode into the brain is of the greatest importance in deep brain stimulation (DBS), and various stereotactic systems have been developed for electrode implantation. However, an updated analysis of depth electrode implantation in the modern era of DBS is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aims at providing an updated review on targeting accuracy of DBS electrode implantation by analyzing contemporary DBS electrode implantation operations from the perspective of precision engineering...
October 27, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Anna Grandone, Francesca Del Vecchio Blanco, Annalaura Torella, Manuela Caruso, Filippo De Luca, Raffaella Di Mase, Maria Francesca Messina, Maria Carolina Salerno, Alessia Sallemi, Lucia Perone, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Emanuele Miraglia Del Giudice, Vincenzo Nigro, Laura Perrone
AIMS: We aimed at evaluating a standard multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probe set for the detection of aneuploidy to diagnose Turner syndrome (TS). We first fixed an MLPA ratio cutoff able to detect all cases of TS in a pilot TS group. We then tested this value on a second group of TS patients and a short-stature population to measure specificity and sensitivity. METHODS: 15 TS patients with X mosaicism or X structural abnormalities (Pilot TS Group), 45 TS karyotype-assessed patients (TS Group), and 74 prepubertal female patients with apparent idiopathic short stature (Short-Stature Group) were enrolled...
October 27, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Min Ma, Fuwei Pi, Jiasheng Wang, Jian Ji, Xiulan Sun
Humans are most likely to be exposed to microcystins (MCs) combined with other water pollutants rather than to individual compounds through the consumption of contaminated drinking water or through recreational activities, such as swimming. However, the combined effects of MC-LR, estradiol (EST), and ractopamine (RAC) have not been extensively researched. The goal of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these compounds. For this purpose, cytotoxicity was evaluated in HepG2 cells treated with single or combined doses of MC-LR, EST, and RAC based on concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA), and Chou-Talalay's combination-index (CI) methods...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Joseph O Okeme, Eva M Webster, J Mark Parnis, Miriam L Diamond
Partition coefficients between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPUF-Air) are important when using PUF as a passive air sampler for semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and when considering the fate of SVOCs indoors where PUF is a common material. Here, KPUF-Air for selected SVOCs was estimated using published methods, since measured data are unavailable for most of these compounds. Estimates of KPUF-Air were within one order of magnitude for SVOCs having values of log octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA) of 5, but differed by nearly three orders of magnitude for SVOCs with log KOA of 12...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Binbin Fang, Jing Guo, Fuxing Li, John P Giesy, Lianjun Wang, Wei Shi
Industrialized development of the Yangtze River Delta, China, has resulted in larger amounts of wastes, including sludges from treatment of these wastes. Methods to manage and dispose, including reuse were urgently needed. Sludge and reused products were collected from two largest factories, KEYUAN and HENGJIA where treated sludges were turned into bricks or sludge cake to be placed in landfills, respectively. Metals and organic compounds were quantified in sludges and leachates assessed by use of toxicity characterized leaching procedure (TCLP) while acute toxicity was determined by Daphnia magna...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Pauline Mendola, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Germaine M Buck Louis, Liping Sun, Maeve E Wallace, Melissa M Smarr, Seth Sherman, Yeyi Zhu, Qi Ying, Danping Liu
We aimed to study the potential impact of proximity to major roadways on time-to-pregnancy and infertility in couples attempting pregnancy in the Longitudinal Investigation of Fertility and Environment (LIFE) study (2005-2009), a population-based, prospective cohort study. Couples attempting pregnancy (n=500) were enrolled and followed prospectively until pregnancy or 12months of trying and 393 couples (78%) had complete data and full follow-up. Time-to-pregnancy was based on a standard protocol using fertility monitors, tracking estrone-3-glucuonide and luteinizing hormone, and pregnancy test kits to detect human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)...
October 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Maria Freytsis, Julia C Phillippi, Kim J Cox, Amy Romano, Leslie Cragin
In 2014, the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) launched a project called Clarity in Collaboration to develop data definitions related to midwifery and maternity care delivery processes. These definitions are needed to ensure midwifery care delivered in collaborative care models is accurately and consistently captured in clinical documentation systems, data registries, and systems being developed as part of health care restructuring and payment reform. The Clarity in Collaboration project builds on the efforts of the Women's Health Registry Alliance (WHRA), which was recently established by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
Ryan A Durfee, Scott A Sabo, G Douglas Letson, Odion Binitie, David Cheong
Metastatic lesions of the acetabulum can be painful and debilitating. First-line treatment is multimodal and consists of disease-specific chemotherapy, osteoclastic inhibitors, analgesics, and radiation therapy. When these therapies fail, surgical intervention usually is indicated and varies from regional defect stabilization to large periacetabular reconstructions that are demanding procedures with high rates of complications. Percutaneous cement augmentation (acetabuloplasty) of lesions in selected patients has been explored as a less invasive method of lesional control...
October 25, 2016: Orthopedics
Danielle Walker, Terese Verklan
BACKGROUND: The clinical setting creates significant anxiety for students that can decrease their ability to learn. METHOD: This quasi-experimental study examined whether nursing students who participate in peer mentoring during their first clinical experience (n = 18) experienced less anxiety than those in traditional clinical experiences (n = 19). Anxiety was measured using the standardized State Trait Anxiety Index and the Clinical Experiences Anxiety Form (CEAF)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Mary L Padden-Denmead, Rose M Scaffidi, Regina M Kerley, Amy Lee Farside
BACKGROUND: Simulation and guided reflective journaling have been identified as effective teaching and learning methods to develop critical thinking (CT) and clinical reasoning skills in nursing students. METHOD: A descriptive correlational design was used to determine the relationship between CT and level of reflection using the Holistic Critical Thinking Skills Rubric (HCTSR) and the level of reflection on action assessment (LORAA), respectively, to evaluate 23 baccalaureate student-guided reflective journal entries after a simulation exercise with guided debriefing and after two subsequent clinical experiences...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Kaisy Pereira Martins, Tatiana Ferreira da Costa, Thayris Mariano de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Melo Fernandes, Inácia Sátiro Xavier de França, Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo Costa
This study aimed at evaluating the internal structure of Family Health Units in relation to the access of people with physical and/or sensory disabilities. It is a descriptive, exploratory, population-based research, held in Family Health Units of the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. For the collection of data, a checklist based on Technical Standard 9050 was used. For the analysis, the descriptive and exploratory analysis of the data and the Chi-square test were applied. As a result, of the 90 buildings evaluated, only 47...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Bruna Rafaela de Batista, Márcia Duarte, Fabiana Cia
The presence of a disabled person causes transformations in the family that demand a redefinition of the role of each member. Siblings, like all other members, experience frustration, acceptance, guilt and adaptation. In this respect, an attempt was made to; (a) analyze the interaction between a sibling with standard development and a sibling with Down syndrome; (b) identify what information and reaction the siblings with standard development have regarding the diagnosis of Down syndrome; (c) verify whether or not there were changes in the family context and also changes in their own lives after the birth of the sibling with Down syndrome...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Nádia Xavier Moreira, Ludmila Fontenele Cavalcanti, Rodriane de Oliveira Souza
This is a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews, with the aim of analyzing the meanings associated with a social phenomenon, specifically disabilities in the military field. A total of 22 people were interviewed, 3 managers and 19 Brazilian Navy professionals responsible for coordinating, standardizing, enforcing and overseeing the Special Care Program (Programa de Assistência Especial) in Rio de Janeiro. Data was processed using the Interpretation of Meaning Approach, based on the concept of disablement and military habitus...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Denise Espíndola Antunes, Karolline Alves Viana, Paulo Sucasas Costa, Luciane Rezende Costa
There is little evidence on the long-term effects of pharmacological management in children undergoing dental treatment. This study aimed to assess children's behavior in consecutive dental sessions following oral rehabilitation using different pharmacological regimens for behavioral control. Participants were preschoolers who were previously treated for caries under one of the following: no sedative, oral sedation with midazolam, oral sedation with midazolam/ketamine, or general anesthesia. The children's behavior in the follow-up sessions was assessed using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS); higher scores represented less cooperative behavior (range 5-20)...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Thaís Flôr da Rocha, Juliana Gibbon Neves, Karin Viegas
Objective: to identify the severity of patients admitted to an emergency trauma. Method: A cross-sectional and retrospective study with 115 trauma patients classified as orange (Manchester System), from June 2013 to July 2014. The data were presented as mean and standard deviation, in addition to the Pearson Chi-square test, One-Way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results: from the sample, 81.7% were male with mean age of 39.46±19.71 years. Higher incidence of major trauma (48...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Michele Fernanda Borges da Silva, Patrícia Dias de Brito, Lusiele Guaraldo
Objective: to describe the profile of standardized oral drugs at a hospital unit and assess their adequacy for use via enteral feeding tubes, according to recommendations from the literature. Method: descriptive study, with data on drugs collected from the Pharmacy Service Dispensing System. Specific recommendations for the use of these drugs via enteral feeding tubes were found after searches in literary databases, books, manuals, guidelines and package insert collections...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Aline Cruz Esmeraldo Áfio, Aline Tomaz de Carvalho, Luciana Vieira de Caravalho, Andréa Soares Rocha da Silva, Lorita Marlena Freitag Pagliuca
Objective: to assess the automatic accessibility of assistive technology in online courses for the hearing impaired. Method: evaluation study guided by the Assessment and Maintenance step proposed in the Model of Development of Digital Educational Material. The software Assessor and Simulator for the Accessibility of Sites (ASES) was used to analyze the online course "Education on Sexual and Reproductive Health: the use of condoms" according to the accessibility standards of national and international websites...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Pablo Guardado-Calvo, Eduardo A Bignon, Eva Stettner, Scott Allen Jeffers, Jimena Pérez-Vargas, Gerard Pehau-Arnaudet, M Alejandra Tortorici, Jean-Luc Jestin, Patrick England, Nicole D Tischler, Félix A Rey
Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
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