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embryo reproduction

M Schneider, I Schmeh, A Fruth, C Whybra-Trümpler, E Mildenberger
Monozygotic twins were previously regarded as "identical". By now an increasing number of case reports of monozygotic but discordant twins have been reported, and therefore discordance between monozygotic twins is being investigated intensively. We report a case of female preterm monozygotic twins who were discordant for fetal megacystis due to cloacal dysgenesis. Pregnancy was achieved after intracytoplasmatic sperm injection and transfer of 2 embryos. By the first trimester fetal megacystis with consecutive oligohydramnios and hypoplasia of the lungs was diagnosed...
October 2016: Zeitschrift Für Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie
Hemant Gujar, Subba Reddy Palli
To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicole Yoder, Reshef Tal, J Ryan Martin
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality during the first trimester and the incidence increases dramatically with assisted-reproductive technology (ART), occurring in approximately 1.5-2.1 % of patients undergoing in-vitro fertilization (IVF). Abdominal ectopic pregnancy is a rare yet clinically significant form of ectopic pregnancy due to potentially high maternal morbidity. While risk factors for ectopic pregnancy after IVF have been studied, very little is known about risk factors specific for abdominal ectopic pregnancy...
October 19, 2016: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Gilvandro Lins de Oliveira, Fernando Cesar Serralheiro, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Onésimo Duarte Ribeiro, Fernando Adami, Denise Maria Christofolini, Bianca Bianco, Caio Parente Barbosa
Objective: To compare the anesthetic techniques using propofol and fentanyl versus midazolam and remifentanil associated with a paracervical block with lidocaine in performing ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte aspiration. Methods: A randomized double-blind clinical trial (#RBR-8kqqxh) performed in 61 women submitted to assisted reproductive treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: anesthetic induction with 1mcg/kg of fentanyl associated with 1.5mg/kg of propofol (FP Group, n=32), in comparison with anesthetic induction using 0...
July 2016: Einstein
N Aleksandrova, E Shubina, A Ekimov, T Kodyleva, I Mukosey, N Makarova, E Kulakova, L Levkov, D Trofimov, G Sukhikh
Chromosomal aneuploidies are known for being the main cause of abnormal development of embryos with normal morphology, their implantation failure and early reproductive losses in IVF treatments. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) allows selecting embryos with normal chromosomal content and increases IVF treatment efficiency due to higher implantation rates and less frequent early pregnancy losses. New technologies used for PGS allow making genome-wide analysis of the presence of all chromosomes in embryos...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Scott M Weir, David E Scott, Christopher J Salice, Stacey L Lance
Chemical contamination is often suggested as an important contributing factor to amphibian population declines, but direct links are rarely reported. Population modeling provides a quantitative method to integrate toxicity data with demographic data to understand the long-term effects of contaminants on population persistence. In this study we use laboratory-derived embryo and larval toxicity data for two anuran species to investigate the potential for toxicity to contribute to population declines. We use the southern toad (Anaxyrus terrestris) and the southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus) as model species to investigate copper (Cu) toxicity...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Tonghua Wu, Biao Yin, Yuanchang Zhu, Guangui Li, Lijun Ye, Chunmei Chen, Yong Zeng, Desheng Liang
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion (SA) is the most common complication of pregnancy, and chromosome aberrations are the principal cause of the first trimester abortuses in natural conception (NC) The increasing use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has raised concern about chromosome abnormalities in ART-initiated pregnancies. Up to date, the literature on the risk of aneuploidy in failed pregnancies among various ART factors remain limited and inconclusive. This study aimed to explore the genetic etiology of pregnancy loss conceived from varying ART procedures...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
X L Ren, P Liu, Y Lian, J Huang, X Y Zheng, Y J Zhu, J Qiao
OBJECTIVE: To compare two flexible embryo catheters and determine whether clinical outcome differs in the in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) cycles. METHODS: This prospective control study was conducted by one doctor between July 2012 and November 2013. In the study, 2 064 patients undergoing fresh embryo transfer by using IVF-ET/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)-ET in Reproductive Medical Center of Peking University Third Hospital were recruited...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Yongsheng Zhu, Hong Lu, Zhenghao Huo, Zhanbin Ma, Jie Dang, Wei Dang, Lin Pan, Jing Chen, Huijun Zhong
Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common health problem that affects women of reproductive age. Recent studies have indicated that microRNAs are important factors in miscarriage. This study investigated the role of miR-16 in regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the pathogenesis of RSA. In this report, clinical samples revealed that miR-16 expression was significantly elevated in the villi and decidua of RSA patients. In vitro, miR-16 upregulation inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tetsuya Ishii
Genome editing based on site-directed nucleases facilitated efficient and versatile genetic modifications in human cells. However, recent reports, demonstrating CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in human embryos have raised profound concerns worldwide. This commentary explores the clinical justification and feasibility of reproductive medicine using germline genome editing. Despite the perceived utility of reproductive medicine for treating intractable infertility, it is difficult to justify germline genome editing from the perspective of the prospective child...
October 5, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Yves J R Menezo, Erica Silvestris, Brian Dale, Kay Elder
The negative effect of oxidative stress on the human reproductive process is no longer a matter for debate. Oxidative stress affects female and male gametes and the developmental capacity of embryos. Its effect can continue through late stages of pregnancy. Metabolic disorders and psychiatric problems can also be caued by DNA methylation and epigenetic errors. Age has a negative effect on oxidative stress and DNA methylation, and recent observations suggest that older men are at risk of transmitting epigenetic disorders to their offspring...
September 27, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Xinqi Zhong, Jianqiao Liu, Qiliang Cui, Shaozhen Liang, Yuanqing Lin, Haiying Liu, Qiyi Zeng
Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are widely used to treat infertility. Emerging evidence suggested that ART was associated with perinatal or neonatal problems, however, little is known about the ART related risk factors. Here using 21136 ART cases, we determined the impacts of parental physiological conditions in the ART mediated pregnancy outcomes. In addition, we further evaluated the effects of three different ART methods (frozen-thawed embryo transfer [FET], in vitro fertilization [IVF] and intracytoplasmic sperm injection [ICSI]) in the pregnancy and birth outcomes in ART mediated pregnancy...
October 10, 2016: Oncotarget
Jessica E Miller, Soo Hyun Ahn, Stephany P Monsanto, Kasra Khalaj, Madhuri Koti, Chandrakant Tayade
Endometriosis is a complex, inflammatory disease that affects 6-10% of reproductive-aged women. Almost half of the women with endometriosis experience infertility. Despite the excessive prevalence, the pathogenesis of endometriosis and its associated infertility is unknown and a cure is not available. While many theories have been suggested to link endometriosis and infertility, a consensus among investigators has not emerged. In this extensive review of the literature as well as research from our laboratory, we provide potential insights into the role of immune dysfunction in endometriosis associated infertility...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Saghar Salehpour, Marzieh Zamaniyan, Nasrin Saharkhiz, Shahrzad Zadeh Modares, Sedighe Hosieni, Samira Seif, Narges Malih, Parinaz Rezapoor, Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi
BACKGROUND: Recurrent implantation failure is one of the most issues in IVF cycles. Some researchers found that beneficial effects of endometrial Scratching in women with recurrent implantation failure, while some authors demonstrated contrary results. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of intrauterine. Saline infusion as a form of endometrial injury, during fresh in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycle, among patients with recurrent implantation failure...
September 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Constantine A Simintiras, Thomas Fröhlich, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Georg J Arnold, Susanne E Ulbrich, Henry J Leese, Roger G S Sturmey
Oviduct fluid is the microenvironment that supports early reproductive processes including fertilisation, embryo cleavage, and genome activation. However, the composition and regulation of this critical environment remains rather poorly defined. This study uses an in vitro preparation of the bovine oviduct epithelium, to investigate the formation and composition of in vitro derived oviduct fluid (ivDOF) within a controlled environment. We confirm the presence of oviduct specific glycoprotein 1 in ivDOF and show that the amino acid and carbohydrate content resembles that of previously reported in vivo data...
October 13, 2016: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
F W Grimstad, Ajay K Nangia, B Luke, J E Stern, W Mak
STUDY QUESTION: Does ICSI improve outcomes in ART cycles without male factor, specifically in couples with a history of tubal ligation as their infertility diagnosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: The use of ICSI showed no significant improvement in fertilization rate and resulted in lower pregnancy and live birth (LB) rates for women with the diagnosis of tubal ligation and no male factor. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Prior studies have suggested that ICSI use does not improve fertilization, pregnancy or LB rates in couples with non-male factor infertility...
October 13, 2016: Human Reproduction
Fu Mei, Xu Kehui, Xu Wenming
Dicer, an RNAse III endonuclease, is critical for the biogenesis of small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), including the biogenesis of microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, which transcriptionally and post-transcription ally regulate mRNA expression through binding to target mRNA and leading to subsequent mRNA degradation. Recent studies show that Dicer plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. It has been attracted more and more attention in the reproductive field. In the male reproduction field, mouse model shows that Dicer is critical for the development of spermatogenic cell, sperm maturation, sperm motility and morphology...
July 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Maeghan O'Neill, Cristina Ballesteros, Lucienne Tritten, Erica Burkman, Weam I Zaky, Jianguo Xia, Andrew Moorhead, Steven A Williams, Timothy G Geary
The use of microfilaricidal drugs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) necessitates prolonged yearly dosing. Prospects for elimination or eradication of these diseases would be enhanced by the availability of a macrofilaricidal drug. Flubendazole (FLBZ), a benzimidazole anthelmintic, is an appealing candidate. FLBZ has demonstrated potent macrofilaricidal effects in a number of experimental rodent models and in one human trial. Unfortunately, FLBZ was deemed unsatisfactory for use in mass drug administration campaigns due to its limited oral bioavailability...
October 1, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Subathra Poopalasundaram, David Chambers, Anthony Graham, Pierre-Marc Bouloux
The hypothalamic gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are a small group of cells that regulate the reproductive axis. These neurons are specified within the olfactory placode, delaminate from this structure and then migrate to enter the forebrain before populating the hypothalamus. We have employed microarray technology to analyse the transcriptome of the olfactory placode at a number of key time points for GnRH ontogeny using the chick embryo. This resulted in the identification of a large number of genes whose expression levels change significantly over this period...
October 12, 2016: Endocrinology
W P Martins, C O Nastri, L Rienzi, S Z van der Poel, C Gracia, C Racowsky
OBJECTIVES: Blastocyst transfer could be advantageous because it allows a more physiologic timing of exposure of the embryo to the uterine environment and permit embryo self-selection after activation of the embryonic genome on day 3. Conversely, the in vitro environment is probably inferior to that provided in vivo and in vitro culture beyond embryonic genomic activation could potentially harm embryos. Our objective was to identify, appraise and summarize the available evidence comparing the effectiveness of blastocyst and cleavage stage embryo transfer...
October 12, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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