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embryo reproduction

Mandar Ankolkar, Sharvari S Deshpande, Nafisa H Balasinor
Sperm chromatin packaging is a very complex and highly regulated phenomenon. While most of the sperm chromatin is replaced by protamines, some are retained in nucleosomes. It is recently being recognised that these nucleosomes are intentionally retained and could be contributing to the expression of genes in the very early stages of embryogenesis. Endocrine disruption has been previously shown to affect reproductive outcome and sperm DNA methylation. This study aims to decipher the possibility of changes in nucleosome occupancy in sperm chromatin, induced by tamoxifen (selective oestrogen receptor modulator) and cyproterone acetate (androgen antagonist)...
June 19, 2018: Andrologia
Antonis Makrigiannakis, Thomas Vrekoussis, Emmanouel Zoumakis, Vassilia Hatzidakis, Eugenia Vlachou, Nicolaos Salakos, Sophia N Kalantaridou
Endometrial corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) has been described as a mediator of decidualisation and as a contributor of maternal-fetal immunotolerance. Deregulation of the CRH expression pattern has been associated with unfavourable reproductive outcomes as well as chronic endometrium-derived inflammatory disorders, such as endometriosis and adenomyosis. The current review summarises the evidence produced regarding the role of CRH in endometrial physiology and pathophysiology and highlights recent clinical data regarding the role of CRH in improving clinical pregnancy rates in women with repeated implantation failures following in vitro fertilisation and embryo transfer...
June 18, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Monise Santos, Ivan Henrique Yoshida, Caroline Zulim, Michelli Suemi Tanada, Emerson Barchi Cordts, Caio Parente Barbosa
This paper reports the case of a patient who sought assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment and was referred to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) on account of a chromosomal translocation presented with secondary infertility. The patient underwent a highly complex ART treatment and had 14 metaphase II oocytes collected on the day of follicular aspiration. The embryos were taken to extended culture and five were biopsied and vitrified. The embryo genetic report showed aneuploidy in four of the blastocysts, while the other resulted in 46, XX...
June 18, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
Xiao Yang, Hongguo Zhang, Yang Yu, Haibo Zhu, Xiaonan Hu, Yuting Jiang, Ruixue Wang, Ruizhi Liu
BACKGROUND The literature indicates that chromosome 6 is involved in balanced translocation and is involved in reproductive failure. This aim of this study was to explore the clinical features of chromosome 6 translocation in male carriers. MATERIAL AND METHODS We identified 10 patients who were carriers of chromosome 6 translocations and excluded the patients with varicocele, ejaculatory duct obstruction, and the other cause of infertility. The karyotype was analyzed using G-banding. A search for translocations on chromosome 6 involved in male infertility was performed using PubMed...
June 18, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
(no author information available yet)
Posthumous gamete (sperm or oocyte) retrieval or use for reproductive purposes is ethically justifiable if written documentation from the deceased authorizing the procedure is available. Retrieval of sperm or eggs does not commit a center to their later use for reproduction, but may be permissible under the circumstances outlined in this opinion. Embryo use is also justifiable with such documentation. In the absence of written documentation from the decedent, programs open to considering requests for posthumous use of embryos or gametes should only do so when such requests are initiated by the surviving spouse or partner...
June 13, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Emily C Holden, Banafsheh N Kashani, Sara S Morelli, Donald Alderson, Sangita K Jindal, Pamela A Ohman-Strickland, Peter G McGovern
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is a difference in obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in blastocyst frozen-thawed embryo transfers (FETs) compared with cleavage-stage FET. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing autologous FETs at either the blastocyst stage (n = 118,572) or the cleavage stage (n = 117,619) reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology in the years 2004-2013...
June 13, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
David A Landry, Lia Rossi-Perazza, Simon Lafontaine, Marc-Andre Sirard
The use of younger gamete donors in dairy cattle genetic selection programs significantly accelerates genetic gains by decreasing the interval between generations. Ovarian stimulation and the practice of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) withdrawal, also known as coasting, are intensively used in pre-pubertal heifers without detrimental effects on subsequent reproductive performance but generally with lower embryo yields. However, recent data from embryo transfer programs showed similar embryo yields in younger and sexually mature animals but with a significant difference in the coasting period...
June 15, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Rafael Herrera Alvarez, Guilherme Pugliesi, Fabio Luis Nogueira Natal, Cecilia Constantino Rocha, Gilmar Arantes Ataide Júnior, Alfredo José Ferreira Melo, Ivani Posar Otzuk, Claudio Alvarenga de Oliveira, Patrice Humblot
Two experiments were performed to evaluate the reproductive performance of zebu beef cows treated with different doses of eCG at the end of a progesterone (P4)/estrogen based protocol for timed artificial insemination (TAI). In Experiment 1, suckling Bos indicus Nelore cows (n = 261) received, on day 0, a progesterone (P4) intravaginal device (PD) and an injection of 1 mg estradiol benzoate (EB). On day 8, the PD was removed, 500 μg of cloprostenol was injected, and cows were assigned to one of the following groups: Control (no treatment), 300 (300 IU of eCG), 600 (600 IU of eCG), and 900 (900 IU of eCG)...
June 8, 2018: Theriogenology
Thaís Abritta Zacarias, Taynan Stonoga Kawamoto, João Ricardo Scaliante Júnior, Ana Luiza Silva Guimarães, Maurício Machaim Franco, Ricardo Alamino Figueiredo
The inclusion of pre-pubertal bovine females in reproductive management could allow in vitro embryo production and reduce generation interval, thereby causing faster genetic gain of the herd. However, oocytes of pre-pubertal females have lower competence, blastocyst production, and pregnancy rates than those collected from pubertal animals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an induced hormonal stimulation on the serum concentrations of Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and FSH, ovarian responses, ovum pick up (OPU), and in vitro produced embryos (IVP) from oocytes obtained from four-to seven-months old Nelore female cattle...
May 31, 2018: Theriogenology
Glaucia B Cabral, Vera T C Carneiro, Ana Cristina M M Gomes, Ana Luiza Lacerda, Adriana P Martinelli, Diva M A Dusi
Brachiaria brizantha is a forage grass well adapted to tropical areas and cultivated in millions of hectares in Brazil. The apomictic mode of reproduction in this species, in addition to differences in ploidy between sexual and apomictic plants, impairs crossbreeding. The development of a methodology to transform apomictic cultivars will provide an option to introduce agronomic important traits to B. brizantha cv. Marandu. In addition, it will open the possibility to study in vivo the function of candidate genes involved in the apomictic reproduction...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Z Li, A Y Wang, M Bowman, K Hammarberg, C Farquhar, L Johnson, N Safi, E A Sullivan
STUDY QUESTION: What is the cumulative live birth rate following ICSI cycles compared with IVF cycles for couples with non-male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: ICSI resulted in a similar cumulative live birth rate compared with IVF for couples with non-male factor infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The ICSI procedure was developed for couples with male factor infertility. There has been an increased use of ICSI regardless of the cause of infertility...
June 12, 2018: Human Reproduction
Hongfang Liu, Xiaodong Xie, Xiaojuan Xu, Bin Mao, Lin Liu, Xuehong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of assisted reproductive technology(ART) on the incidence of fetal chromosomal abnormalities by analyzing spontaneous abortions during the first trimester following natural conception(NC) or assisted reproductive technology(ART). METHODS: Three hundred and fourteen chorionic villus samples of women with first trimester spontaneous abortion were collected. Cell culture and G-banding karyotyping analysis were carried out, which included 125 cases by in vitro fertilization(IVF), 87 cases by intracytoplasmic sperm injection(ICSI) and 102 cases by natural conception(NC)...
June 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Benjamin Piña, Laia Navarro, Carlos Barata, Demetrio Raldúa, Rubén Martínez, Marta Casado
The genome revolution represents a complete change on our view of biological systems. The quantitative determination of changes in all major molecular components of the living cells, the "omics" approach, opened whole new fields for all health sciences. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and others, together with appropriate prediction and modeling tools, will mark the future of developmental toxicity assessment both for wildlife and humans. This is especially true for disciplines, like teratology, which rely on studies in model organisms, as studies at lower levels of organization are difficult to implement...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bo Liang, Chi Chiu Wang
In vivo pregnant study protocols covering preconceptional exposure as well as prenatal and postnatal development including the lactation period to screen the toxic effects on specific elements of the highly complicated reproductive cycle are time-consuming and expensive. Morphology-based whole embryo culture is the most common alternative in vitro embryotoxicity method to evaluate the early developmental toxicity of drugs. Here we share our procedures and experience in the whole embryo culture for drug embryotoxicity assessments...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Juliana Miron Vani, Laynna de Carvalho Schweich, Karla Regina Warszawski de Oliveira, Sarah Alves Auharek, Andréa Luiza Cunha-Laura, Andréia Conceição Millan Brochado Antoniolli-Silva, Carlos Eduardo Domingues Nazario, Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira
Temephos is considered the gold standard by the Ministry of Health for controlling the larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The present study evaluated the effects of Temephos larvicide on the reproductive performance, embryo-fetal development and DNA integrity of Swiss mice. This study used 30 pregnant female mice: 10 were controls treated with drinking water at a dosage of 0.1 mL/10 g (body weight - b.w., administered orally - a.o.), and 20 were treated with Temephos at doses of 0.0043 mg/kg and 0...
June 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yuval Fouks, Yoni Cohen, Togas Tulandi, Amir Meiri, Ishai Levin, Benny Almog, Aviad Cohen
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical course, surgical and fertility outcomes of patients diagnosed with tuboovarian abscess (TOA) following fertility treatment. DESIGN: Parallel case series over 10 consecutive years. DESIGN CLASSIFICATION: Canadian Task Force classification II-2. SETTING: Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, a tertiary university-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-seven women who were diagnosed with TOA following fertility treatments (in-vitro fertilization and intrauterine insemination) were compared with 313 women who were diagnosed with TOA not associated with fertility treatments during the same time period...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
José Bellver, Carlos Simón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent findings related to possible causes of recurrent implantation failure of endometrial origin in normal uterus. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidences suggest that in apparently normal endometria, RIF may associate with molecular and functional changes in the uterus such as abnormal endometrial microbiota, including the presence of chronic endometritis, poor synchronization between the blastocyst and endometrium, and/or excessive uterine peristalsis...
June 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Ulrike Scherer, Ralph Tiedemann, Ingo Schlupp
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the potential role of indirect benefits for female mate preferences in a highly promiscuous species of live-bearing fishes, the sailfin molly Poecilia latipinna using an integrative approach that combines methods from animal behavior, life-history evolution, and genetics. Males of this species solely contribute sperm for reproduction, and consequently females do not receive any direct benefits. Despite this, females typically show clear mate preferences. It has been suggested that females can increase their reproductive success through indirect benefits from choosing males of higher quality...
June 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Kemal Ozgur, Hasan Bulut, Murat Berkkanoglu, Faruk O Basegmez, Kevin Coetzee
In this study, the endometrial developmental and reproductive outcomes of frozen embryo transfers (FETs) which were performed subsequent to miscarriages managed by dilation and curettage (D and C) were investigated. The intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) blastocyst freeze-all cycles performed between January 2014 and August 2016 were screened for the patients who had undergone their FET (first), miscarriages (>5 < 14 weeks), D and C, and the patients who had undergone their FET (second) (study group; n = 71); and patients who underwent FET (1st), a chemical pregnancy loss (PL) (<5 weeks) and FET (2nd) (reference group; n = 38)...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Elizabeth E Puscheck, Alan Bolnick, Awoniyi Awonuga, Yu Yang, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Quanwen Li, Eric Secor, Erica Louden, Maik Hüttemann, Daniel A Rappolee
Here we examine recent evidence suggesting that many drugs and diet supplements (DS), experimental AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonists as well as energy-depleting stress, lead to decreases in anabolism, growth or proliferation, and potency of cultured oocytes, embryos, and stem cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Surprising data for DS and drugs that have some activity as AMPK agonists in in vitro experiments show possible toxicity. This needs to be balanced against a preponderance of evidence in vivo that these drugs and DS are beneficial for reproduction...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
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