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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933887/ontogeny-of-emotional-and-behavioral-problems-in-a-low-income-mexican-american-sample
#1
Betty Lin, Keith A Crnic, Linda J Luecken, Nancy A Gonzales
Clinically meaningful behavior problems are thought to be present beginning in the early toddler years, yet few studies have investigated correlates of behavior problems assessed before age 2 years. The current study investigated the direct and interactive contributions of early infant and caregiver characteristics thought to play an important role in the ontogeny of behavior problems. Specifically, the study examined: (a) the links between infant temperamental reactivity and toddler behavioral symptoms, (b) whether maternal sensitivity moderated associations between temperamental reactivity and behavioral symptoms, (c) whether variability in temperamental reactivity was explained by exposure to maternal stressful life events (SLEs) in utero, and (d) whether child sex moderated these pathways...
September 21, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924262/prenatal-glucocorticoid-exposure-modifies-endocrine-function-and-behaviour-for-3-generations-following-maternal-and-paternal-transmission
#2
Vasilis G Moisiadis, Andrea Constantinof, Alisa Kostaki, Moshe Szyf, Stephen G Matthews
Fetal exposure to high levels of glucocorticoids programs long-term changes in the physiologic stress response and behaviours. However, it is not known whether effects manifest in subsequent generations of offspring following maternal (MT) or paternal (PT) transmission. We treated pregnant guinea pigs with three courses of saline or synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) at a clinically relevant dose. Altered cortisol response to stress and behaviours transmitted to juvenile female and male F2 and F3 offspring from both parental lines...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916632/tissue-sex-and-age-specific-dna-methylation-of-rat-glucocorticoid-receptor-gene-promoter-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-2-imprinting-control-region
#3
Ogechukwu Brenda Agba, Ludwig Lausser, Klaus Huse, Christoph Bergmeier, Niels Jahn, Marco Groth, Martin Bens, Arne Sahm, Maria Gall, Otto W Witte, Hans A Kestler, Matthias Schwab, Matthias Platzer
Tissue-, sex- and age-specific epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are largely unknown. Changes in DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) and imprinting control region (ICR) of IGF2 and H19 genes during the lifespan are particularly interesting since these genes are susceptible to epigenetic modifications by prenatal stress or malnutrition. They are important regulators of development and aging. Methylation changes of NR3C1 affect glucocorticoid receptor expression, which is associated with stress sensitivity and stress-related diseases predominantly occurring during aging...
September 15, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915355/thiamin-deficiency-on-fetal-brain-development-with-and-without-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#4
Olena Kloss, Michael Eskin, Miyoung Suh
Adequate thiamin levels are crucial for optimal health, through maintenance of homeostasis and viability of metabolic enzymes, which require thiamine as a co-factor. Thiamin deficiency occurs during pregnancy when dietary intake is inadequate or excessive alcohol is consumed. Thiamin deficiency leads to brain dysfunction due to its involvement in synthesis of myelin and neurotransmitters (eg. acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate), and increases oxidative stress by decreasing the production of reducing agents...
September 15, 2017: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911972/sex-specific-effects-of-developmental-lead-exposure-on-the-immune-neuroendocrine-network
#5
REVIEW
Jane Kasten-Jolly, David A Lawrence
The environmental toxicant lead (Pb) has long been known to induce neurological deficits. The 1st century Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides noted that "lead makes the mind give way". Current studies are suggesting the effects of Pb on behaviors may involve the immune system and conversely some immunomodulatory changes may be due to Pb effects in the central nervous system. Although Pb-induced disorders do not appear to discriminate among females and males, this report discusses the differences observed in human and animal studies regarding differential gender effects on gene expression after Pb exposure...
September 11, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911811/an-intergenerational-effect-of-neuroendocrine-metabolic-programming-alteration-induced-by-prenatal-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#6
Hao Kou, Lang Shen, Han-Wen Luo, Liao-Bin Chen, Dong-Fang Wu, Hui Wang
Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related neuroendocrine metabolic programming alteration in the first generation (F1) rats. In this study, the HPA hormones and glucose/lipid phenotypes under basal state and stressed condition induced by a fortnight ice-water swimming were examined in F2 to verify the intergenerational effect. Under the basal state, serum corticosterone (CORT) and glucose of some PEE groups were lowered while those of serum triglycerides (TG) were increased comparing with controls...
September 11, 2017: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911168/developmental-programming-impact-of-gestational-steroid-and-metabolic-milieus-on-mediators-of-insulin-sensitivity-in-prenatal-testosterone-treated-female-sheep
#7
Muraly Puttabyatappa, Victoria Andriessen, Makeda Mesquitta, Lixia Zeng, Subramaniam Pennathur, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Prenatal testosterone (T) excess in sheep leads to peripheral insulin resistance (IR), reduced adipocyte size, and tissue-specific changes, with liver and muscle but not adipose tissue being insulin resistant. To determine the basis for the tissue-specific differences in insulin sensitivity, we assessed changes in negative (inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity) and positive mediators (adiponectin and antioxidants) of insulin sensitivity in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of control and prenatal T-treated sheep...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901864/prenatal-stress-enhances-susceptibility-to-allergic-diseases-of-offspring
#8
Maria Moustaki, Sophia Tsabouri, Kostas Priftis, Konstantinos Douros
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Maternal prenatal stress (MPS) may result in a range of long-term consequences in the offspring among which is susceptibility to allergic diseases. This review presents the current knowledge on the pathways through which MPS may affect the fetus, and the existing evidence regarding the association between MPS and development of allergy in the offspring. RESULT AND DISCUSSION: A pivotal mediator triggered in response to stress is the release of glucocorticoids (GC)...
September 12, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900372/psychological-stress-has-a-higher-rate-of-developing-addictive-behaviors-compared-to-physical-stress-in-rat-offspring
#9
Masoud Nazeri, Arezoo Ebrahimi, Iraj Aghaei, Samaneh Ghotbi Ravandi, Mohammad Shabani
Prenatal stress could have great influence on development of offspring and might alter cognitive function and other physiological processes of children. The current study was conducted to study the effect of physical or psychological prenatal stress on addictive and anxiety-like behavior of male and female offspring during their adolescence period (postnatal day (PND) 40). Adult female rats were exposed to physical (swimming) or psychological (observing another female rat swimming) stress from day six of gestation for 10 days...
2017: EXCLI journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893381/the-association-between-prenatal-stress-and%C3%A2-externalizing-symptoms-in-childhood-evidence-from-the-avon-longitudinal-study-of%C3%A2-parents-and-children
#10
Nathalie MacKinnon, Mila Kingsbury, Liam Mahedy, Jonathan Evans, Ian Colman
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that prenatal maternal stress may increase the risk of childhood externalizing disorders, yet no large cohort study has investigated this association across a large range of acute stressors. Our objective was to estimate the association between prenatal stressful events and risk of offspring conduct disorder and hyperactivity. METHODS: We used data from 10,184 mother-offspring pairs from the United Kingdom-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
July 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893219/a-case-of-a-four-year-old-child-adopted-at-eight-months-with-unusual-mood-patterns-and-significant-polypharmacy
#11
Magdalena Romanowicz, Alastair J McKean, Jennifer Vande Voort
BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of neglect in early life are still widely unknown. Diversity of outcomes can be explained by differences in genetic risk, epigenetics, prenatal factors, exposure to stress and/or substances, and parent-child interactions. Very common sub-threshold presentations of children with history of early trauma are challenging not only to diagnose but also in treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: A Caucasian 4-year-old, adopted at 8 months, male patient with early history of neglect presented to pediatrician with symptoms of behavioral dyscontrol, emotional dysregulation, anxiety, hyperactivity and inattention, obsessions with food, and attachment issues...
September 11, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888992/associations-between-biological-markers-of-prenatal-stress-and-infant-negative-emotionality-are-specific-to-sex
#12
Elizabeth C Braithwaite, Susannah E Murphy, Paul G Ramchandani, Jonathan Hill
PURPOSE: Fetal programming is the idea that environmental stimuli can alter the development of the fetus, which may have a long-term effect on the child. We have recently reported that maternal prenatal cortisol predicts infant negative emotionality in a sex-dependent manner: high prenatal cortisol was associated with increased negative emotionality in females, and decreased negative emotionality in males. This study aims to test for this sex-specific effect in a different cohort, and investigate whether sex differences in fetal programming may be specific to glucocorticoid mechanisms by also examining a maternal salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) by sex interaction...
September 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888152/altered-functional-connectivity-to-stressful-stimuli-in-prenatally-cocaine-exposed-adolescents
#13
Yasmin Zakiniaeiz, Sarah W Yip, Iris M Balodis, Cheryl M Lacadie, Dustin Scheinost, R Todd Constable, Linda C Mayes, Rajita Sinha, Marc N Potenza
BACKGROUND: Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is linked to addiction and obesity vulnerability. Neural responses to stressful and appetitive cues in adolescents with PCE versus those without have been differentially linked to substance-use initiation. However, no prior studies have assessed cue-reactivity responses among PCE adolescents using a connectivity-based approach. METHODS: Twenty-two PCE and 22 non-prenatally drug-exposed (NDE) age-, sex-, IQ- and BMI-matched adolescents participated in individualized guided imagery with appetitive (favorite-food), stressful and neutral-relaxing cue scripts during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
August 19, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886886/are-changes-in-excitability-in-the-hippocampus-of-adult-male-rats-induced-by-prenatal-methamphetamine-exposure-or-stress
#14
Klara Bernaskova, Simona Tomkova, Romana Slamberova
Prenatal stress and drug exposure induce permanent alterations of the brain. Even though different brain structures are involved, alterations almost always refer to the hippocampus. The aim of this study was to investigate the excitability of hippocampal slices in low-magnesium epilepsy model of prenatally methamphetamine (MA, 5mg/kg sc.) or saline (sc., stress model) exposed animals in adult male rats. The second aim was to investigate, if a low dose of MA (1ml/kgs.c.) administered in adulthood changes the hippocampal activity of these animals...
September 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884727/-disturbance-of-oligodendrocyte-differentiation-in-schizophrenia-in-relation-to-main-hypothesis-of-the-disease
#15
N S Kolomeets
Increasing evidence coming from neuroimaging, molecular genetic and post-mortem studies have implicated oligodendrocyte abnormalities and compromised myelin integrity in schizophrenia. Activity-dependent myelination in adult brain is considered to be an important mechanism of neural circuit's plasticity due to the presence of a large population of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) in the adult CNS. Growing evidence for impairment of oligodendrocyte differentiation has been reported in the brain of schizophrenia subjects...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882411/prenatal-stress-induced-impairments-of-cognitive-flexibility-and-bidirectional-synaptic-plasticity-are-possibly-associated-with-autophagy-in-adolescent-male-offspring
#16
Hui Zhang, Yingchun Shang, Xi Xiao, Mei Yu, Tao Zhang
Prenatal stress (PS) brings numerous outcomes on offspring, including anxiety, depression-like behavior and other cognitive disorder. In this study, a rat model of PS was established by using restraint stress for 45min three times per day from the 15th to 21st day of pregnancy. Behavioral tests, including open field test (OPT), elevated plus-maze (EPM) and Morris water-maze (MWM), were performed in adolescent male-offspring. The bidirectional synaptic plasticity, including long-term potential (LTP) and depotentiation (DEP), from the hippocampal Schaffer collaterals to CA1 region was subsequently measured...
September 4, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881145/secondhand-tobacco-smoke-and-severity-in-wheezing-children-nasal-oxidant-stress-and-inflammation
#17
Ozge Yilmaz, Ahmet Turkeli, Ece Onur, Sema Bilge, Hasan Yuksel
OBJECTIVES: Prenatal and postnatal smoke exposures are associated with many lung diseases in children due to impaired lung function, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. We aimed to determine the influence of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on the levels of nasal glutathione, IL-8, IL-17, MMP-9, and TIMP-1, as well as serum surfactant protein-D (SP-D) in wheezy children. METHODS: We enrolled 150 children with recurrent wheezing and recorded wheezing characteristics at enrollment...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874680/prenatal-noise-stress-impairs-hpa-axis-and-cognitive-performance-in-mice
#18
Zahra Jafari, Jogender Mehla, Bryan E Kolb, Majid H Mohajerani
Noise stress is a common environmental pollutant whose adverse effect on offspring performance has been less studied. This study was novel in terms of using "noise" as a prenatal stress compared with physical stress to explore the effect of stress during gestation on HPA axis activation, cognitive performance, and motor coordination, as well as in investigating the effect of behavioral assessments on the corticosterone (CORT) levels. Three groups of C57BL/6 mice with a gestational history of either noise stress (NS), physical stress (PS), or no stress were examined in several behavioral tests...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870159/obstetric-professionals-perceptions-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-for-down-syndrome-clinical-usefulness-compared-with-existing-tests-and-ethical-implications
#19
Olivia Miu Yung Ngan, Huso Yi, Samuel Yeung Shan Wong, Daljit Sahota, Shenaz Ahmed
BACKGROUND: While non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidy is commercially available in many countries, little is known about how obstetric professionals in non-Western populations perceive the clinical usefulness of NIPT in comparison with existing first-trimester combined screening (FTS) for Down syndrome (DS) or invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD), or perceptions of their ethical concerns arising from the use of NIPT. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey among 327 obstetric professionals (237 midwives, 90 obstetricians) in Hong Kong...
September 5, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867654/preterm-behavioral-epigenetics-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Livio Provenzi, Elena Guida, Rosario Montirosso
Behavioral epigenetics is revealing new pathways that lead individuals from early adversity exposures to later-in-life detrimental outcomes. Preterm birth constitutes one of the major adverse events in human development. Preterm infants are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they are exposed to life-saving yet pain-inducing procedures and to protective care. The application of behavioral epigenetics to the field of preterm studies (i.e., Preterm Behavioral Epigenetics, PBE) is rapidly growing and holds promises to provide valid insights for research and clinical activity...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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