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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929388/derivation-of-the-cram%C3%A3-r-rao-bound-in-the-gnss-reflectometry-context-for-static-ground-based-receivers-in-scenarios-with-coherent-reflection
#1
Miguel Angel Ribot, Cyril Botteron, Pierre-André Farine
The use of the reflected Global Navigation Satellite Systems' (GNSS) signals in Earth observation applications, referred to as GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R), has been already studied for more than two decades. However, the estimation precision that can be achieved by GNSS-R sensors in some particular scenarios is still not fully understood yet. In an effort to partially fill this gap, in this paper, we compute the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) for the specific case of static ground-based GNSS-R receivers and scenarios where the coherent component of the reflected signal is dominant...
December 5, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910958/switchable-3d-optofluidic-y-branch-waveguides-tuned-by-dean-flows
#2
L Li, X Q Zhu, L Liang, Y F Zuo, Y S Xu, Y Yang, Y J Yuan, Q Q Huang
Optical branch waveguides are one of the most important optical elements and have been widely exploited for optical communication systems. However, prevailing devices are typically solid and have limit in tunability. Liquid optical devices have attracted more interest for the advantage of tunability of liquid media, but their signals suffer serious leakage if the refractive index (RI) of liquid is smaller than that of solid channels. This paper demonstrates the tunable three-dimensional (3D) optofluidic Y-branch waveguides in plannar microchannels by simply introducing Dean flow...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910697/sensitivity-of-magnetic-field-line-pitch-angle-measurements-to-sawtooth-events-in-tokamaks
#3
J Ko
The sensitivity of the pitch angle profiles measured by the motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic to the evolution of the safety factor, q, profiles during the tokamak sawtooth events has been investigated for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). An analytic relation between the tokamak pitch angle, γ, and q estimates that Δγ ∼ 0.1° is required for detecting Δq ∼ 0.05 near the magnetic axis (not at the magnetic axis, though). The pitch angle becomes less sensitive to the same Δq for the middle and outer regions of the plasma (Δγ ∼ 0...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910507/the-progress-in-development-of-edge-tangential-thomson-scattering-system-on-hl-2a-tokamak
#4
C H Liu, Y Huang, Y Q Wang, Z Feng, Z P Hou, B Z Fu
The edge tangential Thomson scattering system (ETTSS) was developed for the first time on a HL-2A tokamak. A Nd:YAG laser with a 1064 nm wavelength, 4 J energy, and 30 Hz repetition rate is employed on the ETTSS. The laser beam injects the plasma in the tangential direction on the mid-plane of the machine, and the angles between the laser injection direction and the scattered light collection direction are in the range from 157.5° to 162.8°. The scattered light collection optics with 0.21-0.47 magnification is utilized to collect the scattered light of measurement range from R = 1900 mm to 2100 mm (the normalized radius is from r/a = 0...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910330/scintillator-based-fast-ion-loss-measurements-in-the-east
#5
J F Chang, M Isobe, K Ogawa, J Huang, C R Wu, Z Xu, Z Jin, S Y Lin, L Q Hu
A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector (FILD) has been installed on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to investigate the fast ion loss behavior in high performance plasma with neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). A two dimensional 40 mm × 40 mm scintillator-coated (ZnS:Ag) stainless plate is mounted in the front of the detector, capturing the escaping fast ions. Photons from the scintillator plate are imaged with a Phantom V2010 CCD camera. The lost fast ions can be measured with the pitch angle from 60° to 120° and the gyroradius from 10 mm to 180 mm...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910327/optical-configuration-optimization-and-calibration-for-the-point-system-on-east
#6
Z Y Zou, H Q Liu, W M Li, H Lian, S X Wang, Y Yao, T Lan, L Zeng, Y X Jie
Calibration of the polarimeter system is one of the key elements to determine the overall measurement accuracy. The anisotropic reflection and transmission properties of the mesh beam splitters can easily distort the polarization state of the circularly polarized beams. Using a rotating crystal quartz λ/2-waveplate to replace the plasma can effectively allow us to obtain the ratio of the measured Faraday rotation angle to the known rotation angle of the waveplate. This ratio is used to estimate the calibration factor for each chord to be accurately determined and help to minimize distortions introduced by the wire-mesh beam splitters...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904790/current-concepts-in-the-treatment-of-gross-patellofemoral-instability
#7
Grant Buchanan, LeeAnne Torres, Brian Czarkowski, Charles E Giangarra
: Patellofemoral instability is a painful and commonly recurring condition, which often must be managed surgically. Diagnosis can be aided by the use of a variety of physical exam signs, such as the Q angle, Beighton hypermobility score, glide test, J sign, patellar tilt test, and apprehension test. Imaging modalities including x-ray, CT, and MRI guide both diagnosis and management by revealing trochlear dysplasia, bony malalignment, and ligamentous injury that contribute to instability...
December 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890596/monoacyl-phosphatidylcholine-inhibits-the-formation-of-lipid-multilamellar-structures-during-in-vitro-lipolysis-of-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-systems
#8
Thuy Tran, Scheyla D V S Siqueira, Heinz Amenitsch, Thomas Rades, Anette Müllertz
The colloidal structures formed during lipolysis of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) might affect the solubilisation and possibly the absorption of drugs. The aim of the current study is to elucidate the structures formed during the in vitro lipolysis of four SEDDS containing medium-chain glycerides and caprylocaproyl polyoxyl-8 glycerides (Labrasol), with or without monoacyl phosphatidylcholine (MAPC). In situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was combined with ex situ cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) to elucidate the generated structures...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872012/biomimetic-collagen-elastin-meshes-for-ventral-hernia-repair-in-a-rat-model
#9
Silvia Minardi, Francesca Taraballi, Xin Wang, Fernando J Cabrera, Jeffrey L Van Eps, Andrew B Robbins, Monica Sandri, Michael R Moreno, Bradley K Weiner, Ennio Tasciotti
: Ventral hernia repair remains a major clinical need. Herein, we formulated a type I collagen/elastin crosslinked blend (CollE) for the fabrication of biomimetic meshes for ventral hernia repair. To evaluate the effect of architecture on the performance of the implants, CollE was formulated both as flat sheets (CollE Sheets) and porous scaffolds (CollE Scaffolds). The morphology, hydrophylicity and in vitro degradation were assessed by SEM, water contact angle and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867131/neuronavigation-based-on-track-density-image-extracted-from-deterministic-high-definition-fiber-tractography-a-case-report
#10
Peng-Hu Wei, Fei Cong, Ge Chen, Ming-Chu Li, Xin-Guang Yu, Yu-Hai Bao
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging(DTI)-based navigation is unable to resolve crossing fibers or to determine with accuracy the fanning, origin, and termination of fibers. It is important to improve the accuracy of localizing white matter fibers for improved surgical approaches. We propose a solution to this problem using navigation based on track density imaging(TDI)extracted from high definition fiber tractography(HDFT). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 28-year-old asymptomatic female patient with a left-lateral ventricle meningioma was enrolled in the present study...
November 17, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865481/the-influence-of-tethering-and-gravity-on-the-stability-of-compliant-liquid-lined-airways
#11
Jeremy Whang, Chandler Faulman, Thomas A Itin, Donald P Gaver
This study revolves around two simple questions: 1) how does pulmonary airway recruitment/de-recruitment (RecDer) depend on the tethering support provided by surrounding airways and alveoli, and 2) does airway angle of inclination (θ) influence airway stability? These two questions are critical to understanding the existence and prevention of atelectrauma, which may contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). To address these questions, we develop PDMS 2mm ID compliant tubes that mimic pulmonary airways...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862777/deriving-structural-information-from-experimentally-measured-data-on-biomolecules
#12
REVIEW
Wilfred F van Gunsteren, Jane R Allison, Xavier Daura, Jožica Dolenc, Niels Hansen, Alan E Mark, Chris Oostenbrink, Victor H Rusu, Lorna J Smith
During the past half century, the number and accuracy of experimental techniques that can deliver values of observables for biomolecular systems have been steadily increasing. The conversion of a measured value Q(exp) of an observable quantity Q into structural information is, however, a task beset with theoretical and practical problems: 1) insufficient or inaccurate values of Q(exp) , 2) inaccuracies in the function Q(r→) used to relate the quantity Q to structure r→ , 3) how to account for the averaging inherent in the measurement of Q(exp) , 4) how to handle the possible multiple-valuedness of the inverse r→(Q) of the function Q(r→) , to mention a few...
November 8, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849627/composition-and-temperature-dependent-liquid-structures-in-al-cu-alloys-an-ab-initio-molecular-dynamics-and-x-ray-diffraction-study
#13
L H Xiong, X D Wang, Q P Cao, D X Zhang, H L Xie, T Q Xiao, J Z Jiang
The composition- and temperature-dependent liquid structures in eight Alrich-Cu binary alloys (from hypoeutectic Al93Cu7 to hypereutectic Al70Cu30) have been experimentally and computationally studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. The remarkable agreements of structure factors for all liquid Alrich-Cu alloys obtained from high-temperature high-energy XRD measurements and AIMD simulations have been achieved, which consolidates the analyses of structural evolutions in Alrich-Cu liquids during the cooling processing by AIMD simulations...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830221/kinetics-of-liquid-liquid-phase-separation-in-protein-solutions-exhibiting-lcst-phase-behavior-studied-by-time-resolved-usaxs-and-vsans
#14
Stefano Da Vela, Michal K Braun, Andreas Dörr, Alessandro Greco, Johannes Möller, Zhendong Fu, Fajun Zhang, Frank Schreiber
We study the kinetics of the liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and its arrest in protein solutions exhibiting a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase behavior using the combination of ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and very-small angle neutron scattering (VSANS). We employ a previously established model system consisting of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solutions with YCl3. We follow the phase transition from sub-second to 10(4) s upon an off-critical temperature jump. After a temperature jump, the USAXS profiles exhibit a peak that grows in intensity and shifts to lower q values with time...
November 10, 2016: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828145/absorption-correction-and-phase-function-shape-effects-on-the-closure-of-apparent-optical-properties
#15
J Pitarch, G Volpe, S Colella, R Santoleri, V Brando
We present a closure experiment between new inherent optical properties (IOPs: absorption a, scattering b, backscattering b<sub>b</sub>) and apparent optical properties (AOPs: remote-sensing reflectance R<sub>rs</sub>, irradiance reflectance R, and anisotropic factor at nadir Q<sub>n</sub>) data of Ionian and Adriatic seawaters, from very clear to turbid waters, ranging across one order of magnitude in R<sub>rs</sub>. The internal consistency of the IOP-AOP matchups was investigated though radiative transfer closure...
October 20, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826500/the-self-similarity-theory-of-high-pressure-torsion
#16
Yan Beygelzimer, Roman Kulagin, Laszlo S Toth, Yulia Ivanisenko
By analyzing the problem of high pressure torsion (HPT) in the rigid plastic formulation, we show that the power hardening law of plastically deformed materials leads to self-similarity of HPT, admitting a simple mathematical description of the process. The analysis shows that the main parameters of HPT are proportional to β (q) , with β being the angle of the anvil rotation. The meaning of the parameter q is: q = 0 for velocity and strain rate, q = 1 for shear strain and von Mises strain, q = n for stress, pressure and torque (n is the exponent of a power hardening law)...
2016: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789793/effect-of-the-incorporation-of-chitosan-on-the-physico-chemical-mechanical-properties-and-biological-activity-on-a-mixture-of-polycaprolactone-and-polyurethanes-obtained-from-castor-oil
#17
Fabian Arévalo, Yomaira L Uscategui, Luis Diaz, Martha Cobo, Manuel F Valero
In the present study, polyurethane materials were obtained from castor oil, polycaprolactone and isophorone diisocyanate by incorporating different concentrations of chitosan (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% w/w) as an additive to improve the mechanical properties and the biological activity of polyurethanes. The polyurethanes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, stress/strain fracture tests and swelling analysis, and the hydrophilic character of the surface was determined by contact angle trials...
November 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782614/energy-dispersive-small-angle-x-ray-scattering-with-cone-collimation-using-x-ray-capillary-optics
#18
Fangzuo Li, Zhiguo Liu, Tianxi Sun
Energy-dispersive small-angle X-ray scattering (ED-SAXS) with an innovative design of cone collimation based on an ellipsoidal single-bounce capillary (ESBC) and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) had been explored. Using this new cone collimation system, scattering angle 2θ has a theoretical minimum angle related to the mean half-opening angle of the hollow cone beam of 1.42 mrad, and with the usable X-ray energy ranging from 4 to 30 keV, the resulting observable scattering vector q is down to a minimum value of about 0...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782511/differential-steric-effects-in-cl-reactions-with-aligned-chd3-v1-1-by-the-r-0-and-q-1-transitions-i-attacking-the-excited-c-h-bond
#19
Fengyan Wang, Kopin Liu
When a CHD3 molecule is pumped to the C-H stretching-excited state by absorbing a linearly polarized infrared (IR) photon via the R(0) branch of the v1 = 1←0 transition, the rotational angular momentum j of the prepared state jK=10 preferentially lies in a plane perpendicular to the IR polarization axis εIR. By way of contrast, when the Q(1) branch is used, the state of jK=1±1 is prepared with j aligned along the direction of εIR. Reported here is a detailed study of the title reaction by actively controlling the collision geometries under these two IR-excitation schemes at collision energy Ec = 8...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776095/ultrasound-guided-cervical-medial-branch-radiofrequency-neurotomy-can-multitined-deployment-cannulae-be-the-solution
#20
Roderick J Finlayson, Atikun Thonnagith, Maria Francisca Elgueta, Jordi Perez, John-Paul B Etheridge, De Q H Tran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Novel multitined cannulae constitute an attractive option for ultrasound-guided radiofrequency neurotomy of cervical medial branches. The deployment tines increase the cannula's active area, thus altering its lesion size. Despite their theoretical benefits, multitined cannulae have not been assessed. In this bench study, we sought to investigate the lesions produced by a standard 18-gauge and 2 commercially available multitined deployment cannulae. We created ex vivo models to evaluate lesion morphology at a periosteal interface using approach angles likely to be encountered during an ultrasound-guided technique...
October 21, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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