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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904269/the-effectiveness-of-specific-risk-mitigation-techniques-used-in-the-production-and-handling-of-manufactured-nanomaterials-a-systematic-review
#1
Toshihiko Myojo, Tomohisa Nagata, Jos Verbeek
Many kinds of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) have been developed and used as basic materials of industrial products, and they may pose health risks for workers in not only developed countries but also in developing countries. Few studies have looked at the evidence for effects of controls that mitigate the risk of exposure to MNMs. Therefore, we systematically searched the literature from the year 2000 to 2015. We included studies that compared the use of an exposure control to the situation without such a technique and those that measured the exposure to MNMs as the outcome...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883490/in-vitro-exposure-of-simulated-meat-cooking-fumes-to-assess-adverse-biological-effects
#2
Bijay Kumar Poudel, Jungwook Choi, Jae Hong Park, Kyung-Oh Doh, Jeong Hoon Byeon
The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is considered as a human carcinogenic or mutagenic compound that is produced from the co-condensation of creatinine and amino acids as meats cook at high temperatures. The cooking of meats at high temperatures produces fumes, and these fumes can be suspended as aerosols via the vapor-to-particle (or -droplet) process in a temperature gradient field. Size distributions of the aerosols included a significant portion of nano- and submicron-sized particles, and these can be directly deposited in the lungs and on skin by particle transport phenomena near cooking areas...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871214/rapid-analysis-of-the-size-distribution-of-metal-containing-aerosol
#3
Jae Hong Park, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, Kathryn J Crawford, T Renée Anthony, Vicki H Grassian, Thomas M Peters
Conventional methods to measure the metallic content of particles by size are time consuming and expensive, requiring collection of particles with a cascade impactor and subsequent metals analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In this work, we describe a rapid way to measure the size distribution of metal-containing particles from 10 nm to 20 μm, using a nano micro-orifice uniform-deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI) to size-selective and collect particles that are then analyzed with a field portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to determine metal composition and concentration...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774811/the-interaction-of-dendrimer-doxorubicin-conjugates-with-a-model-pulmonary-epithelium-and-their-cosolvent-free-pseudo-solution-formulations-in-pressurized-metered-dose-inhalers
#4
Qian Zhong, Bruno V Humia, Alisha R Punjabi, Francine F Padilha, Sandro R P da Rocha
Oral inhalation (OI) of nano-chemotherapeutics holds great potentials in the treatment of lung cancers as it enables direct targeting of drugs to lung tissues, spatial and temporal control of drug release, and decrease in drug-associated systemic and local lung toxicity. Therefore, the design of chemistry of the nanocarriers and their OI formulations for chemotherapeutics delivery to the peripheral lungs and extrapulmonary tissues of relevance such as lymph nodes, may thus afford new opportunities for treating such relevant diseases...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711833/assessment-of-nanoparticles-release-into-the-environment-during-drilling-of-carbon-nanotubes-epoxy-and-carbon-nanofibres-epoxy-nanocomposites
#5
Kristof Starost, Evelien Frijns, Jo Van Laer, Nadimul Faisal, Ainhoa Egizabal, Cristina Elizextea, Maria Blazquez, Inge Nelissen, James Njuguna
The risk assessment, exposure and understanding of the release of embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from commercial high performance composites during machining processes are yet to be fully evaluated and quantified. In this study, CNTs and CNFs were dispersed in epoxy matrix through calendaring process to form nanocomposites. The automated drilling was carried out in a specially designed drilling chamber that allowed elimination of background noise from the measurements. Emission measurements were taken using condensed particle counter (CPC), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and DMS50 Fast Particulate Size Spectrometer...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602287/optimization-of-plasma-sampling-depth-and-aerosol-gas-flow-rates-for-single-particle-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#6
Ildikó Kálomista, Albert Kéri, Gábor Galbács
We performed experiments to assess the separate and also the combined effect of the sampling depth and the aerosol gas flow rates on the signal formation in single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) measurements by using dispersions containing Ag and Au NPs. It was found that the NP signal can significantly be improved by the optimization of the sampling depth. With respect to the "robust" setting, a signal improvement of nearly 100% could be achieved, which translates into a 25-30% improvement in size detection limits...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585473/computer-aided-generation-and-lung-deposition-modeling-of-nano-scale-particle-aggregates
#7
Robert Sturm
The study sets its main focus on the introduction of a random-walk-based model for the generation of variably shaped particle aggregates consisting of a predefined number of spherical components. With the help of a well-defined algorithm, the user is enabled to select between isodimensional, chain-like and platelet-like aggregates, for which related aerodynamic parameters (dynamic shape factors, volume-equivalent diameters, aerodynamic diameters) are determined automatically. The theoretical approach for random aggregate construction is directly connected with the previously developed stochastic particle transport and deposition model...
June 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581833/novel-nano-cellulose-excipient-for-generating-non-newtonian-droplets-for-targeted-nasal-drug-delivery
#8
Paul M Young, Daniela Traini, Hui Xin Ong, Angelo Granieri, Bing Zhu, Santo Scalia, Jie Song, Patrick T Spicer
PURPOSE: Thickening polymers have been used as excipients in nasal formulations to avoid nasal run-off (nasal drip) post-administration. However, increasing the viscosity of the formulation can have a negative impact on the quality of the aerosols generated. Therefore, the study aims to investigate the use of a novel smart nano-cellulose excipient to generate suitable droplets for nasal drug delivery that simultaneously has only marginally increased viscosity while still reducing nasal drips...
June 21, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573268/atmospheric-gas-to-particle-conversion-why-npf-events-are-observed-in-megacities
#9
M Kulmala, V-M Kerminen, T Petäjä, A J Ding, L Wang
In terms of the global aerosol particle number load, atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) dominates over primary emissions. The key for quantifying the importance of atmospheric NPF is to understand how gas-to-particle conversion (GTP) takes place at sizes below a few nanometers in particle diameter in different environments, and how this nano-GTP affects the survival of small clusters into larger sizes. The survival probability of growing clusters is tied closely to the competition between their growth and scavenging by pre-existing aerosol particles, and the key parameter in this respect is the ratio between the condensation sink (CS) and the cluster growth rate (GR)...
August 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557463/synthesis-of-dual-size-cellulose-polyvinylpyrrolidone-nanofiber-composites-via-one-step-electrospinning-method-for-high-performance-air-filter
#10
Ratna Balgis, Hiroyuki Murata, Yohsuke Goi, Takashi Ogi, Kikuo Okuyama, Li Bao
Dual-size nanofibers consisting of a random mixture of nano- and submicron-size nanofibers are promising structures for specific applications such as air filters because of their increased specific surface area and low pressure drop. Synthesis of dual-size nanofibers using one-step electrospinning was reported here for the first time. The formation of well-mixed nano- and submicron-size cellulose-polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofiber composites was accomplished utilizing the physical properties of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (i...
June 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450064/a-paradoxical-response-of-the-rat-organism-to-long-term-inhalation-of-silica-containing-submicron-predominantly-nanoscale-particles-of-a-collected-industrial-aerosol-at-realistic-exposure-levels
#11
Marina P Sutunkova, Svetlana N Solovyeva, Boris A Katsnelson, Vladimir B Gurvich, Larisa I Privalova, Ilzira A Minigalieva, Tatyana V Slyshkina, Irene E Valamina, Oleg H Makeyev, Vladimir Ya Shur, Ilya V Zubarev, Dmitry K Kuznetsov, Ekaterina V Shishkina
While engineered SiO2 nanoparticle toxicity is being widely investigated, mostly on cell lines or in acute animal experiments, the practical importance of as well as the theoretical interest in industrial condensation aerosols with a high SiO2 particle content seems to be neglected. That is why, to the best of our knowledge, long-term inhalation exposure to nano-SiO2 has not been undertaken in experimental nanotoxicology studies. To correct this data gap, female white rats were exposed for 3 or 6 months 5 times a week, 4h a day to an aerosol containing predominantly submicron (nanoscale included) particles of amorphous silica at an exposure concentration of 2...
June 1, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406371/inhalation-exposure-during-spray-application-and-subsequent-sanding-of-a-wood-sealant-containing-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#12
Michael R Cooper, Gavin H West, Leonard G Burrelli, Daniel Dresser, Kelsey N Griffin, Alan M Segrave, Jon Perrenoud, Bruce E Lippy
Nano-enabled construction products have entered into commerce. There are concerns about the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, and exposure assessments are needed for a more complete understanding of risk. This study assessed potential inhalation exposure to ZnO nanoparticles during spray application and power sanding of a commercially available wood sealant and evaluated the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation in reducing exposure. A tradesperson performed the spraying and sanding inside an environmentally-controlled chamber...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394614/synthetic-macromolecular-antibiotic-platform-for-inhalable-therapy-against-aerosolized-intracellular-alveolar-infections
#13
Debobrato Das, Jasmin Chen, Selvi Srinivasan, Abby M Kelly, Brian Lee, Hye-Nam Son, Frank Radella, T Eoin West, Daniel M Ratner, Anthony J Convertine, Shawn J Skerrett, Patrick S Stayton
Lung-based intracellular bacterial infections remain one of the most challenging infectious disease settings. For example, the current standard for treating Franciscella tularensis pneumonia (tularemia) relies on administration of oral or intravenous antibiotics that poorly achieve and sustain pulmonary drug bioavailability. Inhalable antibiotic formulations are approved and in clinical development for upper respiratory infections, but sustained drug dosing from inhaled antibiotics against alveolar intracellular infections remains a current unmet need...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388528/porous-nano-structured-micro-granules-from-silica-milk-bi-colloidal-suspension-synthesis-and-characterization
#14
Priyanka Biswas, D Sen, S Mazumder, J S Melo, C B Basak, Kinshuk Dasgupta
Synthesis and characterization of nano-structured porous granules, with fairly defined morphology and porosity, is crucial because such granules are widely utilized for various technological applications. However, an easy, one-step, economic synthesis protocol for large scale production is extremely desirable. In the present work, we have reported the synthesis and characterization of the nano-structured micro-granules using aerosol drying of bi-colloidal suspension of nano-silica and milk. Removal of soft organic component from the granules results in formation of meso and macro pores with moderate specific surface area...
June 1, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339192/a-novel-exposure-system-termed-navetta-for-in-vitro-laminar-flow-electrodeposition-of-nanoaerosol-and-evaluation-of-immune-effects-in-human-lung-reporter-cells
#15
Evelien Frijns, Sandra Verstraelen, Linda Corinna Stoehr, Jo Van Laer, An Jacobs, Jan Peters, Kristof Tirez, Matthew Samuel Powys Boyles, Mark Geppert, Pierre Madl, Inge Nelissen, Albert Duschl, Martin Himly
A new prototype air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system, a flatbed aerosol exposure chamber termed NAVETTA, was developed to investigate deposition of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cultured human lung A549 cells directly from the gas phase. This device mimics human lung cell exposure to NPs due to a low horizontal gas flow combined with cells exposed at the ALI. Electrostatic field assistance is applied to improve NP deposition efficiency. As proof-of-principle, cell viability and immune responses after short-term exposure to nanocopper oxide (CuO)-aerosol were determined...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336883/evaluating-adverse-effects-of-inhaled-nanoparticles-by-realistic-in-vitro-technology
#16
REVIEW
Marianne Geiser, Natalie Jeannet, Martin Fierz, Heinz Burtscher
The number of daily products containing nanoparticles (NP) is rapidly increasing. NP in powders, dispersions, or sprays are a yet unknown risk for incidental exposure, especially at workplaces during NP production and processing, and for consumers of any health status and age using NP containing sprays. We developed the nano aerosol chamber for in vitro toxicity (NACIVT), a portable instrument for realistic safety testing of inhaled NP in vitro and evaluated effects of silver (Ag) and carbon (C) NP-which belong to the most widely used nanomaterials-on normal and compromised airway epithelia...
February 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300204/non-invasive-aerosol-delivery-and-transport-of-gold-nanoparticles-to-the-brain
#17
Ramesh Raliya, Debajit Saha, Tandeep S Chadha, Baranidharan Raman, Pratim Biswas
Targeted delivery of nanoscale carriers containing packaged payloads to the central nervous system has potential use in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Moreover, understanding of the bio-interactions of the engineered nanoparticles used for tissue-specific delivery by non-invasive delivery approaches are also of paramount interest. Here, we have examined this issue systematically in a relatively simple invertebrate model using insects. We synthesized 5 nm, positively charged gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and targeted their delivery using the electrospray aerosol generator...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273047/sensing-of-single-electrons-using-micro-and-nano-technologies-a-review
#18
Jubayer Jalil, Yong Zhu, Chandima Ekanayake, Yong Ruan
During the last three decades, the remarkable dynamic features of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), and advances in solid-state electronics hold much potential for the fabrication of extremely sensitive charge sensors. These sensors have a broad range of applications, such as those involving the measurement of ionization radiation, detection of bio-analyte and aerosol particles, mass spectrometry, scanning tunneling microscopy, and quantum computation. Designing charge sensors (also known as charge electrometers) for electrometry is deemed significant because of the sensitivity and resolution issues in the range of micro- and nano-scales...
April 7, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133538/aerosol-synthesis-of-phase-controlled-iron-graphene-nanohybrids-through-feooh-nanorod-intermediates
#19
X S Lv, Y Qiu, Z Y Wang, G M Jiang, Y T Chen, X H Xu, R H Hurt
Iron-based nanoparticles form the basis for a host of sustainable alternative technologies based on this earth-abundant, low-toxicity element that can adopt a variety of oxidation states, crystal phases, and functions. Control of size, shape, and phase stability is a challenge for many nano-iron-based technologies, especially those involving Fe(0) that is susceptible to oxidation under ambient conditions. This article presents a continuous method for hybridizing Fe-based nanoparticles with carbon in the form of graphene-encapsulated Fe-based particles with core-shell symmetry that allows flexible control of iron particle size, shape, and phase stability...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126628/investigation-of-discharged-aerosol-nanoparticles-during-chemical-precipitation-and-spray-pyrolysis-for-developing-safety-measures-in-the-nano-research-laboratory
#20
Еvgeny Kolesnikov, Gopalu Karunakaran, Anna Godymchuk, Levina Vera, Andrey Grigorjevich Yudin, Alexander Gusev, Denis Kuznetsov
Nowadays, the demands for the nanoparticles are increasing due to their tremendous applications in various fields. As a consequence, the discharge of nanoparticles into the atmosphere and environment is also increasing, posing a health threat and environmental damage in terms of pollution. Thus, an extensive research is essential to evaluate the discharge of these nanoparticles into the environment. Keeping this in mind, the present investigation aimed to analyze the discharge of aerosol nanoparticles that are synthesized in the laboratory via chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis methods...
May 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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