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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136418/nano-object-release-during-machining-of-polymer-based-nanocomposites-depends-on-process-factors-and-the-type-of-nanofiller
#1
Yaobo Ding, Wendel Wohlleben, Mael Boland, Klaus Vilsmeier, Michael Riediker
We tested the nanomaterial release from composites during two different mechanical treatment processes, automated drilling and manual sawing. Polyurethane (PU) polymer discs (1-cm thickness and 11-cm diameter) were created using different nanomaterial fillers: multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), carbon black (CB), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and an unfilled PU control. Drilling generated far more submicron range particles than sawing. In the drilling experiments, none of the tested nanofillers showed a significant influence on particle number concentrations or sizes, except for the PU/MWCNT samples, from which larger particles were released than from control samples...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135231/solid-semisolid-and-liquid-phase-states-of-individual-submicrometer-particles-directly-probed-using-atomic-force-microscopy
#2
Hansol D Lee, Kamal K Ray, Alexei V Tivanski
Currently, the impact of various phase states of aerosols on the climate is not well understood, especially for submicrometer sized aerosol particles that typically have extended lifetime in the atmosphere. This is largely due to the inherent size limitations present in current experimental techniques that aim to directly assess the phase states of fine aerosol particles. Herein we present a technique that uses atomic force microscopy to probe directly for the phase states of individual, submicrometer particles by using nanoindentation and nano-Wilhelmy methodologies as a function of relative humidity (RH) and ambient temperature conditions...
November 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116744/transforming-a-simple-commercial-glue-into-highly-robust-superhydrophobic-surfaces-via-aerosol-assisted-chemical-vapor-deposition
#3
Aoyun Zhuang, Ruijin Liao, Yao Lu, Sebastian C Dixon, Arreerat Jiamprasertboon, Faze Chen, Sanjayan Sathasivam, Ivan P Parkin, Claire J Carmalt
Robust superhydrophobic surfaces were synthesized as composites of the widely commercially available adhesives epoxy resin (EP) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The EP layer provided a strongly adhered micro/nanoscale structure on the substrates, while the PDMS was used as a post-treatment to lower the surface energy. In this study, the depositions of EP films were taken at a range of temperatures, deposition times, and substrates via aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). A novel dynamic deposition temperature approach was developed to create multiple-layered periodic micro/nanostructures that significantly improved the surface mechanical durability...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068693/in-vivo-pulmonary-delivery-and-magnetic-targeting-of-dry-powder-nano-in-microparticles
#4
Dominique N Price, Loreen R Stromberg, Nitesh K Kunda, Pavan Muttil
This brief communication evaluates the cytotoxicity and targeting capability of a dry powder chemotherapeutic. Nano-in-microparticles (NIMs) are a dry powder drug delivery vehicle containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) and either doxorubicin (w/w solids) or fluorescent nanospheres (w/v during formulation; as a drug surrogate) in a lactose matrix. In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in A549 adenocarcinoma cells using MTS and LDH assays to assess viability and toxicity after 48 hours of NIMs exposure...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051446/characterization-of-aerosols-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-following-three-generation-methods-using-an-optimized-aerosolization-system-designed-for-experimental-inhalation-studies
#5
Igor Pujalté, Alessandra Serventi, Alexandra Noël, Denis Dieme, Sami Haddad, Michèle Bouchard
Nanoparticles (NPs) can be released in the air in work settings, but various factors influence the exposure of workers. Controlled inhalation experiments can thus be conducted in an attempt to reproduce real-life exposure conditions and assess inhalation toxicology. Methods exist to generate aerosols, but it remains difficult to obtain nano-sized and stable aerosols suitable for inhalation experiments. The goal of this work was to characterize aerosols of titanium dioxide (TiO₂) NPs, generated using a novel inhalation system equipped with three types of generators-a wet collision jet nebulizer, a dry dust jet and an electrospray aerosolizer-with the aim of producing stable aerosols with a nano-diameter average (<100 nm) and monodispersed distribution for future rodent exposures and toxicological studies...
July 1, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951895/confined-phase-separation-of-aqueous-organic-nanodroplets
#6
Fawaz Hrahsheh, Yakubu Sani Wudil, Gerald Wilemski
Nano-confined supercooled water occurs frequently in aqueous-organic aerosol nanodroplets that are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and in many industrial processes such as natural gas refining. The structure of these nanodroplets is important because it influences droplet growth and evaporation rates, nucleation rates, and radiative properties. We used classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the structures of binary water-butanol nanodroplets for several temperatures and droplet sizes. Water-butanol cross interactions are calculated using a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential with non-bonded specific parameters adjusted to reproduce the experimentally observed mutual solubilities of water-butanol at 295 K...
October 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939873/brain-inflammation-blood-brain-barrier-dysfunction-and-neuronal-synaptophysin-decrease-after-inhalation-exposure-to-titanium-dioxide-nano-aerosol-in-aging-rats
#7
Clémence Disdier, Monique Chalansonnet, François Gagnaire, Laurent Gaté, Frédéric Cosnier, Jérôme Devoy, Wadad Saba, Amie K Lund, Emilie Brun, Aloïse Mabondzo
Notwithstanding potential neurotoxicity of inhaled titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), the toxicokinetics and consequences on blood-brain barrier (BBB) function remain poorly characterized. To improve risk assessment, we need to evaluate the impact on BBB under realistic environmental conditions and take into account vulnerability status such as age. 12-13 week and 19-month-old male rats were exposed by inhalation to 10 mg/m(3) of TiO2 nano-aerosol (6 hrs/day, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks). We showed an age-dependent modulation of BBB integrity parameters suggesting increased BBB permeability in aging rats...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904269/the-effectiveness-of-specific-risk-mitigation-techniques-used-in-the-production-and-handling-of-manufactured-nanomaterials-a-systematic-review
#8
Toshihiko Myojo, Tomohisa Nagata, Jos Verbeek
Many kinds of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) have been developed and used as basic materials of industrial products, and they may pose health risks for workers in not only developed countries but also in developing countries. Few studies have looked at the evidence for effects of controls that mitigate the risk of exposure to MNMs. Therefore, we systematically searched the literature from the year 2000 to 2015. We included studies that compared the use of an exposure control to the situation without such a technique and those that measured the exposure to MNMs as the outcome...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883490/in-vitro-exposure-of-simulated-meat-cooking-fumes-to-assess-adverse-biological-effects
#9
Bijay Kumar Poudel, Jungwook Choi, Jae Hong Park, Kyung-Oh Doh, Jeong Hoon Byeon
The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is considered as a human carcinogenic or mutagenic compound that is produced from the co-condensation of creatinine and amino acids as meats cook at high temperatures. The cooking of meats at high temperatures produces fumes, and these fumes can be suspended as aerosols via the vapor-to-particle (or -droplet) process in a temperature gradient field. Size distributions of the aerosols included a significant portion of nano- and submicron-sized particles, and these can be directly deposited in the lungs and on skin by particle transport phenomena near cooking areas...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871214/rapid-analysis-of-the-size-distribution-of-metal-containing-aerosol
#10
Jae Hong Park, Imali A Mudunkotuwa, Kathryn J Crawford, T Renée Anthony, Vicki H Grassian, Thomas M Peters
Conventional methods to measure the metallic content of particles by size are time consuming and expensive, requiring collection of particles with a cascade impactor and subsequent metals analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In this work, we describe a rapid way to measure the size distribution of metal-containing particles from 10 nm to 20 μm, using a nano micro-orifice uniform-deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI) to size-selective and collect particles that are then analyzed with a field portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to determine metal composition and concentration...
2017: Aerosol Science and Technology: the Journal of the American Association for Aerosol Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774811/the-interaction-of-dendrimer-doxorubicin-conjugates-with-a-model-pulmonary-epithelium-and-their-cosolvent-free-pseudo-solution-formulations-in-pressurized-metered-dose-inhalers
#11
Qian Zhong, Bruno V Humia, Alisha R Punjabi, Francine F Padilha, Sandro R P da Rocha
Oral inhalation (OI) of nano-chemotherapeutics holds great potentials in the treatment of lung cancers as it enables direct targeting of drugs to lung tissues, spatial and temporal control of drug release, and decrease in drug-associated systemic and local lung toxicity. Therefore, the design of chemistry of the nanocarriers and their OI formulations for chemotherapeutics delivery to the peripheral lungs and extrapulmonary tissues of relevance such as lymph nodes, may thus afford new opportunities for treating such relevant diseases...
July 31, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711833/assessment-of-nanoparticles-release-into-the-environment-during-drilling-of-carbon-nanotubes-epoxy-and-carbon-nanofibres-epoxy-nanocomposites
#12
Kristof Starost, Evelien Frijns, Jo Van Laer, Nadimul Faisal, Ainhoa Egizabal, Cristina Elizextea, Maria Blazquez, Inge Nelissen, James Njuguna
The risk assessment, exposure and understanding of the release of embedded carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) from commercial high performance composites during machining processes are yet to be fully evaluated and quantified. In this study, CNTs and CNFs were dispersed in epoxy matrix through calendaring process to form nanocomposites. The automated drilling was carried out in a specially designed drilling chamber that allowed elimination of background noise from the measurements. Emission measurements were taken using condensed particle counter (CPC), scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and DMS50 Fast Particulate Size Spectrometer...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602287/optimization-of-plasma-sampling-depth-and-aerosol-gas-flow-rates-for-single-particle-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#13
Ildikó Kálomista, Albert Kéri, Gábor Galbács
We performed experiments to assess the separate and also the combined effect of the sampling depth and the aerosol gas flow rates on the signal formation in single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) measurements by using dispersions containing Ag and Au NPs. It was found that the NP signal can significantly be improved by the optimization of the sampling depth. With respect to the "robust" setting, a signal improvement of nearly 100% could be achieved, which translates into a 25-30% improvement in size detection limits...
September 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585473/computer-aided-generation-and-lung-deposition-modeling-of-nano-scale-particle-aggregates
#14
Robert Sturm
The study sets its main focus on the introduction of a random-walk-based model for the generation of variably shaped particle aggregates consisting of a predefined number of spherical components. With the help of a well-defined algorithm, the user is enabled to select between isodimensional, chain-like and platelet-like aggregates, for which related aerodynamic parameters (dynamic shape factors, volume-equivalent diameters, aerodynamic diameters) are determined automatically. The theoretical approach for random aggregate construction is directly connected with the previously developed stochastic particle transport and deposition model...
June 6, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581833/novel-nano-cellulose-excipient-for-generating-non-newtonian-droplets-for-targeted-nasal-drug-delivery
#15
Paul M Young, Daniela Traini, Hui Xin Ong, Angelo Granieri, Bing Zhu, Santo Scalia, Jie Song, Patrick T Spicer
PURPOSE: Thickening polymers have been used as excipients in nasal formulations to avoid nasal run-off (nasal drip) post-administration. However, increasing the viscosity of the formulation can have a negative impact on the quality of the aerosols generated. Therefore, the study aims to investigate the use of a novel smart nano-cellulose excipient to generate suitable droplets for nasal drug delivery that simultaneously has only marginally increased viscosity while still reducing nasal drips...
October 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573268/atmospheric-gas-to-particle-conversion-why-npf-events-are-observed-in-megacities
#16
M Kulmala, V-M Kerminen, T Petäjä, A J Ding, L Wang
In terms of the global aerosol particle number load, atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) dominates over primary emissions. The key for quantifying the importance of atmospheric NPF is to understand how gas-to-particle conversion (GTP) takes place at sizes below a few nanometers in particle diameter in different environments, and how this nano-GTP affects the survival of small clusters into larger sizes. The survival probability of growing clusters is tied closely to the competition between their growth and scavenging by pre-existing aerosol particles, and the key parameter in this respect is the ratio between the condensation sink (CS) and the cluster growth rate (GR)...
August 24, 2017: Faraday Discussions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557463/synthesis-of-dual-size-cellulose-polyvinylpyrrolidone-nanofiber-composites-via-one-step-electrospinning-method-for-high-performance-air-filter
#17
Ratna Balgis, Hiroyuki Murata, Yohsuke Goi, Takashi Ogi, Kikuo Okuyama, Li Bao
Dual-size nanofibers consisting of a random mixture of nano- and submicron-size nanofibers are promising structures for specific applications such as air filters because of their increased specific surface area and low pressure drop. Synthesis of dual-size nanofibers using one-step electrospinning was reported here for the first time. The formation of well-mixed nano- and submicron-size cellulose-polyvinylpyrrolidone nanofiber composites was accomplished utilizing the physical properties of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers (i...
June 7, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450064/a-paradoxical-response-of-the-rat-organism-to-long-term-inhalation-of-silica-containing-submicron-predominantly-nanoscale-particles-of-a-collected-industrial-aerosol-at-realistic-exposure-levels
#18
Marina P Sutunkova, Svetlana N Solovyeva, Boris A Katsnelson, Vladimir B Gurvich, Larisa I Privalova, Ilzira A Minigalieva, Tatyana V Slyshkina, Irene E Valamina, Oleg H Makeyev, Vladimir Ya Shur, Ilya V Zubarev, Dmitry K Kuznetsov, Ekaterina V Shishkina
While engineered SiO2 nanoparticle toxicity is being widely investigated, mostly on cell lines or in acute animal experiments, the practical importance of as well as the theoretical interest in industrial condensation aerosols with a high SiO2 particle content seems to be neglected. That is why, to the best of our knowledge, long-term inhalation exposure to nano-SiO2 has not been undertaken in experimental nanotoxicology studies. To correct this data gap, female white rats were exposed for 3 or 6 months 5 times a week, 4h a day to an aerosol containing predominantly submicron (nanoscale included) particles of amorphous silica at an exposure concentration of 2...
June 1, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406371/inhalation-exposure-during-spray-application-and-subsequent-sanding-of-a-wood-sealant-containing-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#19
Michael R Cooper, Gavin H West, Leonard G Burrelli, Daniel Dresser, Kelsey N Griffin, Alan M Segrave, Jon Perrenoud, Bruce E Lippy
Nano-enabled construction products have entered into commerce. There are concerns about the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, and exposure assessments are needed for a more complete understanding of risk. This study assessed potential inhalation exposure to ZnO nanoparticles during spray application and power sanding of a commercially available wood sealant and evaluated the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation in reducing exposure. A tradesperson performed the spraying and sanding inside an environmentally-controlled chamber...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394614/synthetic-macromolecular-antibiotic-platform-for-inhalable-therapy-against-aerosolized-intracellular-alveolar-infections
#20
Debobrato Das, Jasmin Chen, Selvi Srinivasan, Abby M Kelly, Brian Lee, Hye-Nam Son, Frank Radella, T Eoin West, Daniel M Ratner, Anthony J Convertine, Shawn J Skerrett, Patrick S Stayton
Lung-based intracellular bacterial infections remain one of the most challenging infectious disease settings. For example, the current standard for treating Franciscella tularensis pneumonia (tularemia) relies on administration of oral or intravenous antibiotics that poorly achieve and sustain pulmonary drug bioavailability. Inhalable antibiotic formulations are approved and in clinical development for upper respiratory infections, but sustained drug dosing from inhaled antibiotics against alveolar intracellular infections remains a current unmet need...
May 9, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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