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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734982/isolation-and-characterization-of-renin-like-aspartic-proteases-from-echis-ocellatus-venom
#1
M C Wilkinson, D J H Nightingale, R A Harrison, S C Wagstaff
Three aspartic proteases (SVAPs) have been isolated from venom of the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus. In confirmation of prior transcriptomic predictions, all three forms match to sequences of either of the two SVAP transcripts (EOC00051 and EOC00123), have a molecular weight of 42 kDa and possess a single N-glycan. The SVAPs act in a renin-like manner, specifically cleaving human and porcine angiotensinogen into angiotensin-1 and possess no general protease activity. Their activity is completely inhibited by the aspartyl protease inhibitor Pepstatin A...
July 19, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734272/glycosylation-patterns-of-selected-proteins-in-individual-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-samples
#2
Isabella Karlsson, Lorena Ndreu, Alessandro Quaranta, Gunnar Thorsén
A method we previously developed has been applied to the determination of the glycosylation pattern of specific proteins in biological samples. Six proteins (alpha-1-antitrypsin, transferrin, haptoglobin, C1 inhibitor, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and immunoglobulin G) were studied in serum samples from five individuals and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from three individuals, to investigate the expected normal distribution of glycosylation patterns and to assess whether this methodology can be used to discriminate between samples from different individuals...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733331/n-glycosylation-is-required-for-fdnc5-stabilization-and-irisin-secretion
#3
Yong Wei Nie, Dong Jun Liu
Irisin, a myokine derived from extracellular domain of FNDC5, has been shown to mediate thermogenesis of white adipose tissue. Biochemical data has shown that N-glycosylation of FNDC5 was unlikely to affect ligand or receptor activation of irisin. The N-glycosylation of FNDC5 remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze N-glycosylation sites of FNDC5 and find that two potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn36 and Asn81) could indeed be occupied by N-glycan. We further show that the lack of N-glycosylation decreases the secretion of irisin, which is relevant to the instability of FNDC5 and the deficiency of cleavage of signal peptide...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732158/deleterious-consequences-of-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-inhibition-for-nematodes
#4
Valerie J Winton, Alexander M Justen, Helen Deng, Laura L Kiessling
Parasitic nematodes pose a serious threat to agriculture, livestock, and human health. Increasing resistance to anti-parasitic agents underscores the need to replenish our anthelmintic arsenal. The non-pathogenic Caenorhabditis elegans, which serves as an effective model of parasitic helminths, has been used to search for new anthelmintic leads. We previously reported small-molecule inhibitors of the essential C. elegans protein UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM or Glf). This enzyme is required for the generation of galactofuranose (Galf)-containing glycans and is needed in nematodes for proper cuticle formation...
July 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731076/simple-gd-3-neu5nac-complexation-results-in-nmr-chemical-shift-asymmetries-of-structurally-equivalent-complex-type-n-glycan-branches
#5
Konstantin Usachev, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Masayuki Takamatsu, Nataliya Pavlova, Vladimir Klochkov, Almira Kurbangalieva, Takefumi Murase, Taiji Shimoda, Katsunori Tanaka
In the present Communication, we propose a quite simple but previously overlooked approach for conveniently analyzing, assigning, and extracting sialic acid-containing N-glycan structures using high-resolution NMR spectroscopy without pre-installing metal chelators. Paramagnetic metals, such as Gd(3+), appear to bind to the carboxyl groups of N-acetylneuraminic acid when introduced at room temperature, leading to the measurement of nonequivalent proton and carbon NMR spectral signals among otherwise "identical" glycan branched structures...
July 21, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729422/o-glycosylation-modulates-the-stability-of-epidermal-growth-factor-like-repeats-and-thereby-regulates-notch-trafficking
#6
Hideyuki Takeuchi, Hongjun Yu, Huilin Hao, Megumi Takeuchi, Atsuko Ito, Huilin Li, Robert S Haltiwanger
Glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is closely associated with protein folding and quality control. We recently described a non-canonical ER quality control mechanism for folding of thrombospondin type 1 repeats by Protein O-fucosyltransferase 2 (POFUT2). Epidermal Growth Factor-like (EGF) repeats are also small, cysteine rich protein motifs that can be O-glycosylated by several ER-localized enzymes including Protein O-glucosyltransferase 1 (POGLUT1) and POFUT1. Both POGLUT1 and POFUT1 modify the Notch receptor on multiple EGF repeats and are essential for full Notch function...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729420/revisiting-the-substrate-specificity-of-mammalian-%C3%AE-1-6-fucosyltransferase-fut8-reveals-that-it-catalyzes-core-fucosylation-of-n-glycans-lacking-%C3%AE-1-3-arm-glcnac
#7
Qiang Yang, Roushu Zhang, Hui Cai, Lai-Xi Wang
The mammalian α1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) catalyzes the core fucosylation of N-glycans in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins. Previously, intensive in vitro studies with crude extract or purified enzyme concluded that the attachment of a GlcNAc on the α1,3 mannose arm of N-glycan is essential for FUT8 catalyzed core fucosylation. In contrast, we have recently shown that expression of erythropoietin (EPO) in a GnTI-knockout, FUT8 overexpressing cell line results in the production of fully core-fucosylated glycoforms of the oligomannose substrate Man5GlcNAc2, suggesting that FUT8 can catalyze core fucosylation of N-glycans lacking an α1,3arm GlcNAc in cells...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726512/human-milk-oligosaccharide-categories-define-the-microbiota-composition-in-human-colostrum
#8
J Aakko, H Kumar, S Rautava, A Wise, C Autran, L Bode, E Isolauri, S Salminen
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally diverse unconjugated glycans with a composition unique to each lactating mother. While HMOs have been shown to have an impact on the development of infant gut microbiota, it is not well known if HMOs also already affect milk microbial composition. To address this question, we analysed eleven colostrum samples for HMO content by high-pressure liquid chromatography and microbiota composition by quantitative PCR. Higher total HMO concentration was associated with higher counts of Bifidobacterium spp...
July 20, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725264/identification-of-developmental-stage-and-anatomical-fraction-contributions-to-cell-wall-recalcitrance-in-switchgrass
#9
Jacob D Crowe, Nicholas Feringa, Sivakumar Pattathil, Brian Merritt, Cliff Foster, Dayna Dines, Rebecca G Ong, David B Hodge
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity within herbaceous biomass can present important challenges for processing feedstocks to cellulosic biofuels. Alterations to cell wall composition and organization during plant growth represent major contributions to heterogeneity within a single species or cultivar. To address this challenge, the focus of this study was to characterize the relationship between composition and properties of the plant cell wall and cell wall response to deconstruction by NaOH pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for anatomical fractions (stem internodes, leaf sheaths, and leaf blades) within switchgrass at various tissue maturities as assessed by differing internode...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725221/cell-surface-glycosylation-is-required-for-efficient-mating-of-haloferax-volcanii
#10
Yarden Shalev, Israela Turgeman-Grott, Adi Tamir, Jerry Eichler, Uri Gophna
Halophilic archaea use a fusion-based mating system for lateral gene transfer across cells, yet the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Previous work implied that cell fusion involves cell-cell recognition since fusion occurs more efficiently between cells from the same species. Long believed to be restricted only to Eukarya, it is now known that cells of all three domains of life perform N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select target asparagine residues in proteins, and that this post-translational modification is common for archaeal cell surface proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723077/comparison-of-methods-to-release-mucin-type-o-glycans-for-glycomic-analysis
#11
Yukinobu Goso, Tsukiko Sugaya, Kazuhiko Ishihara, Makoto Kurihara
Mucin-type O-glycans (O-glycans) are one of the most common glycans attached to proteins. To develop an optimized glycomic analysis protocol, O-glycans were released from glycoproteins using hydrazine, ammonia, or sodium hydroxide treatment, followed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography to evaluate O-glycan release. We found that porcine gastric mucin or bovine fetuin treated at 60°C for 6 h with hydrazine gas in the presence of malonic acid yielded O-glycans with only a small amount of degraded, so-called "peeled" products...
July 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722428/bsa-sugar-conjugates-as-ideal-building-blocks-for-spr-based-glycan-biosensors
#12
Shun Tao, Tian-Wei Jia, Yang Yang, Li-Qiang Chu
Controlled immobilization of sugar probes is of key importance for the development of glycan biosensors. To this end, a series of BSA-sugar conjugates with different numbers of mannose units are prepared via the squaric acid-mediated coupling reaction. The conjugates can absorb directly on gold substrate without any derivation reactions, thus providing a simple and effective method for the construction of SPR-based glycan biosensors. SPR measurements show that the BSA-mannose conjugate with 11 mannoses exhibit the highest affinity to the lectin concanavalin A with a limit of detection of ca...
January 27, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722313/cellular-glycosylation-senses-metabolic-changes-and-modulates-cell-plasticity-during-emt
#13
REVIEW
P Carvalho-Cruz, F Alisson-Silva, A R Todeschini, W B Dias
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program reactivated by tumor cells that leads to the switch from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype. During EMT, cells are transcriptionally regulated to decrease E-cadherin expression while expressing mesenchymal markers such as vimentin, fibronectin and N-cadherin. Growing body of evidences suggest that cells engaged in EMT undergo a metabolic reprograming process, redirecting glucose flux toward Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway (HBP) which fuels aberrant glycosylation patterns that are extensively observed in cancer cells...
July 19, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721502/mucin-cross-feeding-of-infant-bifidobacteria-and-eubacterium-hallii
#14
Vera Bunesova, Christophe Lacroix, Clarissa Schwab
Mucus production is initiated before birth and provides mucin glycans to the infant gut microbiota. Bifidobacteria are the major bacterial group in the feces of vaginally delivered and breast milk-fed infants. Among the bifidobacteria, only Bifidobacterium bifidum is able to degrade mucin and to release monosaccharides which can be used by other gut microbes colonizing the infant gut. Eubacterium hallii is an early occurring commensal that produces butyrate and propionate from fermentation metabolites but that cannot degrade complex oligo- and polysaccharides...
July 18, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720847/the-glycointeractome-of-serogroup-b-neisseria-meningitidis-strain-mc58
#15
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Evgeny A Semchenko, Freda E-C Jen, Yogitha N Srikhanta, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Neisseria meningitidis express numerous virulence factors that enable it to interact with diverse microenvironments within the host, during both asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization and invasive disease. Many of these interactions involve bacterial or host glycans. In order to characterise the meningococcal glycointeractome, glycan arrays representative of structures found on human cells, were used as a screening tool to investigate host glycans bound by N. meningitidis. Arrays probed with fluorescently labelled wild-type MC58 revealed binding to 223 glycans, including blood group antigens, mucins, gangliosides and glycosaminoglycans...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717006/extrinsic-sialylation-is-dynamically-regulated-by-systemic-triggers-in-vivo
#16
Charles T Manhardt, Patrick R Punch, Christopher W L Dougher, Joseph T Y Lau
Recent reports documented that extracellular sialyltransferases can remodel both cell surface and secreted glycans by a process other than the canonical cell-autonomous glycosylation that occurs within the intracellular secretory apparatus. Despite association of the abundance of these extracellular sialyltransferases, particularly ST6Gal-1, with disease states such as cancer and a variety of inflammatory conditions, the prevalence of this extrinsic glycosylation pathway in vivo remains unknown. Here we observed no significant extrinsic sialylation in resting mice, suggesting that extrinsic sialylation is not a constitutive process...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716912/sialylation-on-o-glycans-protects-platelets-from-clearance-by-liver-kupffer-cells
#17
Yun Li, Jianxin Fu, Yun Ling, Tadayuki Yago, J Michael McDaniel, Jianhua Song, Xia Bai, Yuji Kondo, Yannan Qin, Christopher Hoover, Samuel McGee, Bojing Shao, Zhenghui Liu, Roberto Sonon, Parastoo Azadi, Jamey D Marth, Rodger P McEver, Changgeng Ruan, Lijun Xia
Most platelet membrane proteins are modified by mucin-type core 1-derived glycans (O-glycans). However, the biological importance of O-glycans in platelet clearance is unclear. Here, we generated mice with a hematopoietic cell-specific loss of O-glycans (HC C1galt1(-/-) ). These mice lack O-glycans on platelets and exhibit reduced peripheral platelet numbers. Platelets from HC C1galt1(-/-) mice show reduced levels of α-2,3-linked sialic acids and increased accumulation in the liver relative to wild-type platelets...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716827/galectin-1-driven-tolerogenic-programs-aggravate-yersinia-enterocolitica-infection-by-repressing-antibacterial-immunity
#18
Roberto C Davicino, Santiago P Méndez-Huergo, Ricardo J Eliçabe, Juan C Stupirski, Ingo Autenrieth, María S Di Genaro, Gabriel A Rabinovich
Yersinia enterocolitica is an enteropathogenic bacterium that causes gastrointestinal disorders, as well as extraintestinal manifestations. To subvert the host's immune response, Y. enterocolitica uses a type III secretion system consisting of an injectisome and effector proteins, called Yersinia outer proteins (Yops), that modulate activation, signaling, and survival of immune cells. In this article, we show that galectin-1 (Gal-1), an immunoregulatory lectin widely expressed in mucosal tissues, contributes to Y...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716211/to-serve-and-protect-the-modulatory-role-of-von-willebrand-factor-on-factor-viii-immunogenicity
#19
REVIEW
Robin B Hartholt, Alice S van Velzen, Ivan Peyron, Anja Ten Brinke, Karin Fijnvandraat, Jan Voorberg
Hemophilia A is a bleeding disorder characterized by the absence or dysfunction of blood coagulation factor VIII (FVIII). Patients are treated with regular infusions of FVIII concentrate. In response to treatment, approximately 30% of patients with severe hemophilia A develop inhibitory antibodies targeting FVIII. Both patient and treatment related risk factors for inhibitor development have been described. Multiple studies comparing the immunogenicity of recombinant and plasma-derived FVIII have yielded conflicting results...
July 4, 2017: Blood Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714909/the-interplay-between-the-host-receptor-and-influenza-virus-hemagglutinin-and-neuraminidase
#20
REVIEW
Lauren Byrd-Leotis, Richard D Cummings, David A Steinhauer
The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) glycoproteins of influenza A virus are responsible for the surface interactions of the virion with the host. Entry of the virus is mediated by functions of the HA: binding to cellular receptors and facilitating fusion of the virion membrane with the endosomal membrane. The HA structure contains receptor binding sites in the globular membrane distal head domains of the trimer, and the fusion machinery resides in the stem region. These sites have specific characteristics associated with subtype and host, and the differences often define species barriers...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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