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EMS Shrimp

V Boonyawiwat, T Patanasatienkul, J Kasornchandra, C Poolkhet, S Yaemkasem, L Hammell, J Davidson
Asian shrimp farming industry has experienced massive production losses due to a disease caused by toxins of Vibrio bacteria, known as early mortality syndrome/acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (EMS/AHPND) for the last 5 years. The disease can cause up to 100% cumulative pond mortality within a week. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with AHPND occurrence on shrimp farms. A case-control study was carried out on shrimp farms in four provinces of Thailand. Factors related to farm characteristics, farm management, pond and water preparation, feed management, post-larvae (PL) shrimp and stock management were evaluated...
September 5, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Leda Restrepo, Bonny Bayot, Irma Betancourt, Andres Pinzón
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a pathogenic bacteria which has been associated to the early mortality syndrome (EMS) also known as hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) causing high mortality in shrimp farms. Pathogenic strains contain two homologous genes related to insecticidal toxin genes, PirA and PirB, these toxin genes are located on a plasmid contained within the bacteria. Genomic sequences have allowed the finding of two strains with a divergent structure related to the geographic region from where they were found...
September 2016: Genomics Data
H-L Yang, L Qiu, Q Liu, X-Y Wan, S Liu, L-L Zhu, B Yang, Q-L Zhang, J Huang
UNLABELLED: A new genotype of yellow head virus (YHV), designated as YHV-8, was found in farmed shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis suffering suspectedly from EMS/AHPNS (early mortality disease/acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease) in China in 2012. In this study, a one-step, real-time reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (rRT-LAMP) assay was developed for better detection of both genotypes of YHV-1 and YHV-8. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed targeting a conserved region of the YHV genome...
August 2016: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Narong Arunrut, Jantana Kampeera, Sarawut Sirithammajak, Piyachat Sanguanrut, Porranee Proespraiwong, Rungkarn Suebsing, Wansika Kiatpathomchai
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a component cause of early mortality syndrome (EMS) of shrimp. In 2013, the causative agent was found to be unique isolates of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VPAHPND) that contained a 69 kbp plasmid (pAP1) carrying binary Pir-like toxin genes PirvpA and PirvpB. In Thailand, AHPND was first recognized in 2012, prior to knowledge of the causative agent, and it subsequently led to a precipitous drop in shrimp production. After VPAHPND was characterized, a major focus of the AHPND control strategy was to monitor broodstock shrimp and post larvae for freedom from VPAHPND by nucleic acid amplification methods, most of which required use of expensive and sophisticated equipment not readily available in a shrimp farm setting...
2016: PloS One
L Sperling, T Alter, S Huehn
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms...
November 2015: Journal of Food Protection
Hung-Chiao Lai, Tze Hann Ng, Masahiro Ando, Chung-Te Lee, I-Tung Chen, Jie-Cheng Chuang, Rapeepat Mavichak, Sheng-Hsiung Chang, Mi-De Yeh, Yi-An Chiang, Haruko Takeyama, Hiro-o Hamaguchi, Chu-Fang Lo, Takashi Aoki, Han-Ching Wang
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also called early mortality syndrome (EMS), is a recently emergent shrimp bacterial disease that has resulted in substantial economic losses since 2009. AHPND is known to be caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that contain a unique virulence plasmid, but the pathology of the disease is still unclear. In this study, we show that AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus secrete the plasmid-encoded binary toxin PirAB(vp) into the culture medium. We further determined that, after shrimp were challenged with AHPND-causing bacteria, the bacteria initially colonized the stomach, where they started to produce PirAB(vp) toxin...
December 2015: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jee Eun Han, Kathy F J Tang, Loc H Tran, Donald V Lightner
The 69 kb plasmid pVPA3-1 was identified in Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain 13‑028/A3 that can cause acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND). This disease is responsible for mass mortalities in farmed penaeid shrimp and is referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS). The plasmid has a GC content of 45.9% with a copy number of 37 per bacterial cell as determined by comparative quantitative PCR analyses. It consists of 92 open reading frames that encode mobilization proteins, replication enzymes, transposases, virulence-associated proteins, and proteins similar to Photorhabdus insect-related (Pir) toxins...
February 10, 2015: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Yu-Yuan Chen, Jiann-Chu Chen, Yong-Chin Lin, Suwaree Kitikiew, Hui-Fang Li, Jia-Chin Bai, Kuei-Chi Tseng, Bo-Wei Lin, Po-Chun Liu, Yin-Ze Shi, Yi-Hsuan Kuo, Yu-Hsuan Chang
Invertebrates rely on an innate immune system to combat invading pathogens. The system is initiated in the presence of cell wall components from microbes like lipopolysaccharide (LPS), β-1,3-glucan (βG) and peptidoglycan (PG), altogether known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), via a recognition of pattern recognition protein (PRP) or receptor (PRR) through complicated reactions. We show herein that shrimp hemocytes incubated with LPS, βG, and PG caused necrosis and released endogenous molecules (EMs), namely EM-L, EM-β, and EM-P, and found that shrimp hemocytes incubated with EM-L, EM-β, and EM-P caused changes in cell viability, degranulation and necrosis of hemocytes, and increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity and respiratory burst (RB) indicating activation of immunity in vitro...
2014: PloS One
Linda Nunan, Donald Lightner, Carlos Pantoja, Silvia Gomez-Jimenez
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has also been referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS), initially emerged as a destructive disease of cultured shrimp species in Asia in 2009. The pathogen associated with the disease, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, subsequently spread to the Western Hemisphere and emerged in Mexico in early 2013. The spread to the Western Hemisphere is a major concern to shrimp producers in the region. To date, the only peer-reviewed published method for determining whether mortalities are due to AHPND is through histological examination...
August 21, 2014: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Bruno Gomez-Gil, Sonia Soto-Rodríguez, Rodolfo Lozano, Miguel Betancourt-Lozano
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also known as early mortality syndrome (EMS), causes high mortalities in cultured shrimps in Asia (L. Tran et al., Dis. Aquat. Organ. 105:45-55, 2013, Here, we report the draft genome sequence of one Mexican strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that causes similar clinical signs in diseased shrimps.
2014: Genome Announcements
Sandhya Sukumaran, Alastair Grant
There is considerable evidence that genetic damage in organisms occurs in the environment as a result of exposure to genotoxins and ionising radiation, but we have limited understanding of the extent to which this results in adverse consequences at a population level. We used inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers to quantify genotoxic effects of the mutagen ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS) on a sexual (Artemia franciscana) and an asexual (Artemia parthenogenetica) species of brine shrimp. The method provides information similar to that obtained with assessment of RAPD (random amplification of polymorphic DNA) but is more robust...
September 18, 2013: Mutation Research
Loc Tran, Linda Nunan, Rita M Redman, Leone L Mohney, Carlos R Pantoja, Kevin Fitzsimmons, Donald V Lightner
A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture...
July 9, 2013: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
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