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Particulate matter india

Prachi Shenai-Tirodkar, Mangesh Gauns, Girish Kumar, Zakir Ansari
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between physicochemical parameters and heavy metal (Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd) concentrations from sediment, seawater, and its accumulation in tissues of oyster species (Crassostrea madrasensis and C. gryphoides) from the three sites (Chicalim Bay (CB), Nerul Creek (NC), Chapora Bay (ChB)) along the Goa coast (India). Results showed enrichment of Cu and Ni in sediment exceeding the effect range low (ERL) level. The higher concentrations of Cu and Ni in sediments and in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from all the study sites are indicative of severe contamination of estuarine and associated habitats...
May 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M Kishore Kumar, V Sreekanth, Maëlle Salmon, Cathryn Tonne, Julian D Marshall
This study uses spatiotemporal patterns in ambient concentrations to infer the contribution of regional versus local sources. We collected 12 months of monitoring data for outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) in rural southern India. Rural India includes more than one-tenth of the global population and annually accounts for around half a million air pollution deaths, yet little is known about the relative contribution of local sources to outdoor air pollution. We measured 1-min averaged outdoor PM2.5 concentrations during June 2015-May 2016 in three villages, which varied in population size, socioeconomic status, and type and usage of domestic fuel...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Yusheng Shi, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Yasushi Yamaguchi, Aimei Zhao, Zhengqiang Li, Xingfa Gu
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) poses a potential threat to human health, including premature mortality under long-term exposure. Based on a long-term series of high-resolution (0.01°×0.01°) satellite-retrieved PM2.5 concentrations, this study estimated the premature mortality attributable to PM2.5 in South and Southeast Asia (SSEA) from 1999 to 2014. Then, the long-term trends and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 -induced premature deaths (1999-2014) were analyzed using trend analyses and standard deviation ellipses...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Himanshi Rohra, Rahul Tiwari, Puja Khare, Ajay Taneja
Attempts have been made to comprehend size distribution pattern of Particulate Matter (PM) and associated elemental concentration within coarse (2.5-10μm), quasi-accumulation (q-Acc) (0.25-2.5μm) and quasi-ultrafine (q-UF) (<0.25μm) ranges at indoors and outdoors of residential homes of Agra. Overall, the average mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in indoors were found to be 263.24±59.24 and 212.01±38.06μgm-3 while in outdoors the concentrations accounted to 194.28±15.25 and 152.88±16.31μgm-3 respectively; exceeding WHO standards...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Simon Provençal, Pavel Kishcha, Arlindo M da Silva, Emily Elhacham, Pinhas Alpert
NASA recently extended the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) with an atmospheric aerosol reanalysis which includes five particulate species: sulfate, organic matter, black carbon, mineral dust and sea salt. The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) is an innovative tool to study air quality issues around the world for its global and constant coverage and its distinction of aerosol speciation expressed in the form of aerosol optical depth (AOD). The purpose of this manuscript is to apply MERRAero to the study of urban air pollution at the global scale by analyzing the AOD over a period of 13 years (2003-2015) and over a selection of 200 of the world's most populated cities in order to assess the impacts of urbanization, industrialization, air quality regulations and regional transport which affect urban aerosol load...
June 2017: Urban climate
Gopinath Kalaiarasan, Raj Mohan Balakrishnan, Neethu Anitha Sethunath, Sivamoorthy Manoharan
Particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5 ) samples were collected from six sites in urban Mangalore and the mass concentrations for PM10 and PM2.5 were measured using gravimetric technique. The measurements were found to exceed the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) limits, with the highest concentration of 231.5 μg/m3 for PM10 particles at Town hall and 120.3 μg/m3 for PM2.5 particles at KMC Attavar. The elemental analysis using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICPOES) revealed twelve different elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sr and Zn) for PM10 particles and nine different elements (Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) for PM2...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Margaux Sanchez, Albert Ambros, Carles Milà, Maëlle Salmon, Kalpana Balakrishnan, Sankar Sambandam, V Sreekanth, Julian D Marshall, Cathryn Tonne
Land-use regression (LUR) has been used to model local spatial variability of particulate matter in cities of high-income countries. Performance of LUR models is unknown in less urbanized areas of low-/middle-income countries (LMICs) experiencing complex sources of ambient air pollution and which typically have limited land use data. To address these concerns, we developed LUR models using satellite imagery (e.g., vegetation, urbanicity) and manually-collected data from a comprehensive built-environment survey (e...
April 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anil Markandya, Jon Sampedro, Steven J Smith, Rita Van Dingenen, Cristina Pizarro-Irizar, Iñaki Arto, Mikel González-Eguino
BACKGROUND: Although the co-benefits from addressing problems related to both climate change and air pollution have been recognised, there is not much evidence comparing the mitigation costs and economic benefits of air pollution reduction for alternative approaches to meeting greenhouse gas targets. We analysed the extent to which health co-benefits would compensate the mitigation cost of achieving the targets of the Paris climate agreement (2°C and 1·5°C) under different scenarios in which the emissions abatement effort is shared between countries in accordance with three established equity criteria...
March 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Sukanta Nayek, Pratap Kumar Padhy
More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition...
March 27, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zainab Q Hakim, Gufran Beig, Srinivas Reka, Shakil A Romshoo, Irfan Rashid
The Kashmir Valley in India is one of the world's major tourist attractions and perceived as a pristine environment. Long term monitoring of fine particulate matter, PM2.5 (particles having aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less), responsible for deteriorating human health, has been done for the period 2013-14. Results indicate that air quality of the capital city Srinagar (34.1°N, 74.8°E) deteriorates significantly in particular during winter, where level of PM2.5 touches a peak value of 348 μg/m³ against the Indian permissible limit of 60 μg/m³...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luke Conibear, Edward W Butt, Christoph Knote, Stephen R Arnold, Dominick V Spracklen
Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is a leading contributor to diseases in India. Previous studies analysing emission source attributions were restricted by coarse model resolution and limited PM2.5 observations. We use a regional model informed by new observations to make the first high-resolution study of the sector-specific disease burden from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. Observed annual mean PM2.5 concentrations exceed 100 μg m-3 and are well simulated by the model. We calculate that the emissions from residential energy use dominate (52%) population-weighted annual mean PM2...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
A Curto, D Donaire-Gonzalez, J Barrera-Gómez, J D Marshall, M J Nieuwenhuijsen, G A Wellenius, C Tonne
Exposure to household air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. However, due to the lack of validated low-cost monitors with long-lasting batteries in indoor environments, most epidemiologic studies use self-reported data or short-term household air pollution assessments as proxies of long-term exposure. We evaluated the performance of three low-cost monitors measuring fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) in a wood-combustion experiment conducted in one household of Spain for 5 days (including the co-location of 2 units of HAPEX and 3 units of TZOA-R for PM2...
May 2018: Environmental Research
Arideep Mukherjee, Madhoolika Agrawal
Responses of urban vegetation to air pollution stress in relation to their tolerance and sensitivity have been extensively studied, however, studies related to air pollution responses based on different leaf functional traits and tree characteristics are limited. In this paper, we have tried to assess combined and individual effects of major air pollutants PM10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 µm), TSP (total suspended particulate matter), SO2 (sulphur dioxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) and O3 (ozone) on thirteen tropical tree species in relation to fifteen leaf functional traits and different tree characteristics...
May 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Gopi C Khilnani, Pawan Tiwari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. RECENT FINDINGS: Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Kalpana Balakrishnan, Santu Ghosh, Gurusamy Thangavel, Sankar Sambandam, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Naveen Puttaswamy, Arulselvan Sadasivam, Padmavathi Ramaswamy, Priscilla Johnson, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy, Durairaj Natesan, Uma Maheshwari, Amudha Natarajan, Gayathri Rajendran, Rengaraj Ramasami, Sathish Madhav, Saraswathy Manivannan, Srinivasan Nargunanadan, Srinivasan Natarajan, Sudhakar Saidam, Moumita Chakraborty, Lingeswari Balakrishnan, Vijayalakshmi Thanasekaraan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter <less than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter) related to ambient and household air pollution has been associated with low birthweight. Few of these studies, however, have been conducted in high exposure settings that are commonly encountered in low and middle income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: We examined whether PM2.5 exposures during pregnancy were associated with birthweight in an integrated rural-urban, mother-child cohort in the state of Tamil Nadu, India...
February 2018: Environmental Research
Dinesh Sah, Puneet Kumar Verma, K Maharaj Kumari, Anita Lakhani
The bioavailability and human health risks of As, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr and Cd in fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) at an urban site on a National highway in Agra, India were investigated. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer was used for metal analysis in sequentially extracted samples to ascertain the highly mobile, reducible, bioavailable and immobile fractions of the metals. Cancer risk resulting from inhalation, dermal and ingestion exposure to each metal in these fractions was calculated according to US EPA models...
September 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Muhammad Junaid, Jabir Hussain Syed, Naeem Akhtar Abbasi, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Riffat Naseem Malik, De-Sheng Pei
Exposure to particulate emissions poses a variety of public health concerns worldwide, specifically in developing countries. This review summarized the documented studies on indoor particulate matter (PM) emissions and their major health concerns in South Asia. Reviewed literature illustrated the alarming levels of indoor air pollution (IAP) in India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, while Sri Lanka and Bhutan are confronted with relatively lower levels, albeit not safe. To our knowledge, data on this issue are absent from Afghanistan and Maldives...
January 2018: Chemosphere
Prashant Rajput, Dharmendra Kumar Singh, Amit Kumar Singh, Tarun Gupta
A comprehensive study was carried out from central part of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP; at Kanpur) to understand abundance, temporal variability, processes (secondary formation and fog-processing) and source-apportionment of PM1 -bound species (PM1 : particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 μm) during wintertime. A total of 50 PM1 samples were collected of which 33 samples represent submicron aerosol characteristics under non-foggy condition whereas 17 samples represent characteristics under thick foggy condition...
February 2018: Environmental Pollution
Sushil Kumar Bharti, Dhananjay Kumar, Sangeeta Anand, Poonam, Shymal Chandra Barman, Narendra Kumar
Airborne particulate matters were collected during the period of October 2015 to September 2016 in Lucknow at different sampling sites. The annual mean concentration of particulate matter was found to be relatively higher than the limits prescribed by National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and World Health Organization (WHO). Particulate matters were studied for morphological analysis, elemental composition and functional group variability with the help of Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) followed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
December 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
S Singh, S Tiwari, P K Hopke, C Zhou, J R Turner, A S Panicker, P K Singh
Light-absorbing, atmospheric particles have gained greater attention in recent years because of their direct and indirect impacts on regional and global climate. Atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosol is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties in the global direct aerosol radiative forcing remain large. Based on a year of aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths, BC concentrations were investigated in Dhanbad, the coal capital of India. Coal is routinely burned for cooking and residential heat as well as in small industries...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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