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Particulate matter india

Zainab Q Hakim, Gufran Beig, Srinivas Reka, Shakil A Romshoo, Irfan Rashid
The Kashmir Valley in India is one of the world's major tourist attractions and perceived as a pristine environment. Long term monitoring of fine particulate matter, PM2.5 (particles having aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less), responsible for deteriorating human health, has been done for the period 2013-14. Results indicate that air quality of the capital city Srinagar (34.1°N, 74.8°E) deteriorates significantly in particular during winter, where level of PM2.5 touches a peak value of 348 μg/m³ against the Indian permissible limit of 60 μg/m³...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luke Conibear, Edward W Butt, Christoph Knote, Stephen R Arnold, Dominick V Spracklen
Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading contributor to diseases in India. Previous studies analysing emission source attributions were restricted by coarse model resolution and limited PM2.5 observations. We use a regional model informed by new observations to make the first high-resolution study of the sector-specific disease burden from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. Observed annual mean PM2.5 concentrations exceed 100 μg m-3 and are well simulated by the model. We calculate that the emissions from residential energy use dominate (52%) population-weighted annual mean PM2...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
A Curto, D Donaire-Gonzalez, J Barrera-Gómez, J D Marshall, M J Nieuwenhuijsen, G A Wellenius, C Tonne
Exposure to household air pollution is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. However, due to the lack of validated low-cost monitors with long-lasting batteries in indoor environments, most epidemiologic studies use self-reported data or short-term household air pollution assessments as proxies of long-term exposure. We evaluated the performance of three low-cost monitors measuring fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) in a wood-combustion experiment conducted in one household of Spain for 5 days (including the co-location of 2 units of HAPEX and 3 units of TZOA-R for PM2...
February 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Arideep Mukherjee, Madhoolika Agrawal
Responses of urban vegetation to air pollution stress in relation to their tolerance and sensitivity have been extensively studied, however, studies related to air pollution responses based on different leaf functional traits and tree characteristics are limited. In this paper, we have tried to assess combined and individual effects of major air pollutants PM 10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 µm), TSP (total suspended particulate matter), SO 2 (sulphur dioxide), NO 2 (nitrogen dioxide) and O 3 (ozone) on thirteen tropical tree species in relation to fifteen leaf functional traits and different tree characteristics...
February 1, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Gopi C Khilnani, Pawan Tiwari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review describes current status of air pollution in India, summarizes recent research on adverse health effects of ambient and household air pollution, and outlines the ongoing efforts and future actions required to improve air quality and reduce morbidity and mortality because of air pollution in India. RECENT FINDINGS: Global burden of disease data analysis reveals more than one million premature deaths attributable to ambient air pollution in 2015 in India...
January 2, 2018: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
Kalpana Balakrishnan, Santu Ghosh, Gurusamy Thangavel, Sankar Sambandam, Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Naveen Puttaswamy, Arulselvan Sadasivam, Padmavathi Ramaswamy, Priscilla Johnson, Rajarajeswari Kuppuswamy, Durairaj Natesan, Uma Maheshwari, Amudha Natarajan, Gayathri Rajendran, Rengaraj Ramasami, Sathish Madhav, Saraswathy Manivannan, Srinivasan Nargunanadan, Srinivasan Natarajan, Sudhakar Saidam, Moumita Chakraborty, Lingeswari Balakrishnan, Vijayalakshmi Thanasekaraan
BACKGROUND: Exposure to PM2.5 (fine particulate matter <less than 2.5µm in aerodynamic diameter) related to ambient and household air pollution has been associated with low birthweight. Few of these studies, however, have been conducted in high exposure settings that are commonly encountered in low and middle income countries (LMICs). OBJECTIVES: We examined whether PM2.5 exposures during pregnancy were associated with birthweight in an integrated rural-urban, mother-child cohort in the state of Tamil Nadu, India...
February 2018: Environmental Research
Dinesh Sah, Puneet Kumar Verma, K Maharaj Kumari, Anita Lakhani
The bioavailability and human health risks of As, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr and Cd in fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) at an urban site on a National highway in Agra, India were investigated. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer was used for metal analysis in sequentially extracted samples to ascertain the highly mobile, reducible, bioavailable and immobile fractions of the metals. Cancer risk resulting from inhalation, dermal and ingestion exposure to each metal in these fractions was calculated according to US EPA models...
September 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
Muhammad Junaid, Jabir Hussain Syed, Naeem Akhtar Abbasi, Muhammad Zaffar Hashmi, Riffat Naseem Malik, De-Sheng Pei
Exposure to particulate emissions poses a variety of public health concerns worldwide, specifically in developing countries. This review summarized the documented studies on indoor particulate matter (PM) emissions and their major health concerns in South Asia. Reviewed literature illustrated the alarming levels of indoor air pollution (IAP) in India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh, while Sri Lanka and Bhutan are confronted with relatively lower levels, albeit not safe. To our knowledge, data on this issue are absent from Afghanistan and Maldives...
January 2018: Chemosphere
Prashant Rajput, Dharmendra Kumar Singh, Amit Kumar Singh, Tarun Gupta
A comprehensive study was carried out from central part of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP; at Kanpur) to understand abundance, temporal variability, processes (secondary formation and fog-processing) and source-apportionment of PM1-bound species (PM1: particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1.0 μm) during wintertime. A total of 50 PM1 samples were collected of which 33 samples represent submicron aerosol characteristics under non-foggy condition whereas 17 samples represent characteristics under thick foggy condition...
October 19, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Sushil Kumar Bharti, Dhananjay Kumar, Sangeeta Anand, Poonam, Shymal Chandra Barman, Narendra Kumar
Airborne particulate matters were collected during the period of October 2015 to September 2016 in Lucknow at different sampling sites. The annual mean concentration of particulate matter was found to be relatively higher than the limits prescribed by National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS), United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and World Health Organization (WHO). Particulate matters were studied for morphological analysis, elemental composition and functional group variability with the help of Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) followed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
September 14, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
S Singh, S Tiwari, P K Hopke, C Zhou, J R Turner, A S Panicker, P K Singh
Light-absorbing, atmospheric particles have gained greater attention in recent years because of their direct and indirect impacts on regional and global climate. Atmospheric black carbon (BC) aerosol is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties in the global direct aerosol radiative forcing remain large. Based on a year of aerosol absorption measurements at seven wavelengths, BC concentrations were investigated in Dhanbad, the coal capital of India. Coal is routinely burned for cooking and residential heat as well as in small industries...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yusheng Shi, Tsuneo Matsunaga, Yasushi Yamaguchi, Zhengqiang Li, Xingfa Gu, Xuehong Chen
Fine particulate matter, or PM2.5, is a serious air pollutant and has significant effects on human health, including premature death. Based on a long-term series of satellite-retrieved PM2.5 concentrations, this study analyzed the spatial and temporal characteristics of PM2.5 in South and Southeast Asia (SSEA) from 1999 to 2014 using standard deviation ellipse and trend analyses. A health risk assessment of human exposure to PM2.5 between 1999 and 2014 was then undertaken. The results show that PM2.5 concentrations increased in most areas of SSEA from 1999 to 2014 and exceeded the World Health Organization average annual limit of primary PM2...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Smaranika Panda, S M Shiva Nagendra
In the present study, a modified approach was adopted to quantify the assimilative capacity (i.e., the maximum emission an area can take without violating the permissible pollutant standards) of a major industrial cluster (Manali, India) and to assess the effectiveness of adopted air pollution control measures at the region. Seasonal analysis of assimilative capacity was carried out corresponding to critical, high, medium, and low pollution levels to know the best and worst conditions for industrial operations...
December 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Fatima Khanum, Muhammad Nawaz Chaudhry, Prashant Kumar
This study aims to assess the long-term trend of fine particles (PM2.5; ≤2.5 μm) at two urban sites of Lahore during 2007-2011. These sites represent two distinct areas: commercial (Townhall) and residential cum industrial (Township). The highest daily mean concentrations of PM2.5 were noted as 389 and 354 μg m(-3) at the Townhall and Township sites, respectively. As expected, the annual seasonal mean of PM2.5 was about 53 and 101% higher during winter compared with the summer and monsoon/post-monsoon seasons, respectively...
2017: Air Quality, Atmosphere, & Health
Monikankana Sharma, S Dasappa
Biomass as a fuel for cooking is a common practice in rural India, and about 700 million people use traditional stoves to meet their energy demand. However, the thermal and the combustion efficiencies of these stoves are very low, leading to an inefficient use of biomass, and also, resulting in significant indoor air pollution. Research development has however led to the development of some improved stoves viz., natural draft and forced draft for both domestic as well as large scale cooking applications and government is trying to promote them...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
D Sharma, A K Srivastava, K Ram, A Singh, D Singh
A comprehensive measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) mass concentrations have been carried out over Patiala, a semi-urban site in northwest India during October 2008 to September 2010. The measured aerosol data was incorporated in an aerosol optical model to estimate various aerosol optical parameters, which were subsequently used for radiative forcing estimation. The measured AOD at 500 nm (AOD500) shows a significant seasonal variability, with maximum value of 0...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
V A Sheeba, Anas Abdulaziz, T R Gireeshkumar, Anirudh Ram, P S Rakesh, C Jasmin, P S Parameswaran
Particulate matter (PM), which are chemically and biochemically complicated particles, accommodate a plethora of microorganisms. In the present study, we report the influence of heavy metal pollution on the abundance and community structure of archaea and bacteria associated with PM samples collected from polluted and non-polluted regions of Cochin Estuary (CE), Southwest coast of India. We observed an accumulation of heavy metals in PM collected from CE, and their concentrations were in the order Fe > Zn > Mn > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd > Co > Ni...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
Hao Guo, Sri Harsha Kota, Shovan Kumar Sahu, Jianlin Hu, Qi Ying, Aifang Gao, Hongliang Zhang
In recent years, severe pollution events were observed frequently in India especially at its capital, New Delhi. However, limited studies have been conducted to understand the sources to high pollutant concentrations for designing effective control strategies. In this work, source-oriented versions of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) were applied to quantify the contributions of eight source types (energy, industry, residential, on-road, off-road, agriculture, open burning and dust) to fine particulate matter (PM2...
December 2017: Environmental Pollution
Xiangying Wei, Shiheng Lyu, Ying Yu, Zonghua Wang, Hong Liu, Dongming Pan, Jianjun Chen
Air pollution is air contaminated by anthropogenic or naturally occurring substances in high concentrations for a prolonged time, resulting in adverse effects on human comfort and health as well as on ecosystems. Major air pollutants include particulate matters (PMs), ground-level ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). During the last three decades, air has become increasingly polluted in countries like China and India due to rapid economic growth accompanied by increased energy consumption...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yi Yang, Bo Chen, James Hower, Michael Schindler, Christopher Winkler, Jessica Brandt, Richard Di Giulio, Jianping Ge, Min Liu, Yuhao Fu, Lijun Zhang, Yuru Chen, Shashank Priya, Michael F Hochella
Coal, as one of the most economic and abundant energy sources, remains the leading fuel for producing electricity worldwide. Yet, burning coal produces more global warming CO2 relative to all other fossil fuels, and it is a major contributor to atmospheric particulate matter known to have a deleterious respiratory and cardiovascular impact in humans, especially in China and India. Here we have discovered that burning coal also produces large quantities of otherwise rare Magnéli phases (Tix O2x-1 with 4 ≤ x ≤ 9) from TiO2 minerals naturally present in coal...
August 8, 2017: Nature Communications
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