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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431416/caring-for-critically-injured-children-an-analysis-of-56-pediatric-damage-control-laparotomies
#1
Miguel A Villalobos, Joshua P Hazelton, Rachel L Choron, Lisa Capano-Wehrle, Krystal Hunter, John P Gaughan, Steven E Ross, Mark J Seamon
BACKGROUND: Injury is the leading cause of death in children under 18 years. Damage control principles have been extensively studied in adults but remain relatively unstudied in children. Our primary study objective was to evaluate the use of damage control laparotomy (DCL) in critically injured children. METHODS: An American College of Surgeons-verified Level 1 trauma center review (1996-2013) of pediatric trauma laparotomies was undertaken. Exclusion criteria included: age older than 18 years, laparotomy for abdominal compartment syndrome or delayed longer than 2 hours after admission...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431375/radioactivity-in-wastes-generated-from-shale-gas-exploration-and-production-north-eastern-poland
#2
Paweł Jodłowski, Jan Macuda, Jakub Nowak, Chau Nguyen Dinh
In the present study, the K-40, U-238, Ra-226, Pb-210, Ra-228 and Th-228 activity concentrations were measured in 64 samples of wastes generated from shale gas exploration in North-Eastern Poland. The measured samples consist of drill cuttings, solid phase of waste drilling muds, fracking fluids, return fracking fluids and waste proppants. The measured activity concentrations in solid samples vary in a wide range from 116 to around 1100 Bq/kg for K-40, from 14 to 393 Bq/kg for U-238, from 15 to 415 Bq/kg for Ra-226, from 12 to 391 Bq/kg for Pb-210, from a few Bq/kg to 516 Bq/kg for Ra-228 and from a few Bq/kg to 515 Bq/kg for Th-228...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431352/degradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-by-uv-uv-h2o2-and-uv-persulfate-pds-formation-of-oxidation-products-and-effect-of-bicarbonate
#3
Yi Yang, Xinglin Lu, Jin Jiang, Jun Ma, Guanqi Liu, Ying Cao, Weili Liu, Juan Li, Suyan Pang, Xiujuan Kong, Congwei Luo
The frequent detection of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in wastewater and surface waters gives rise of concerns about their ecotoxicological effects and potential risks to induce antibacterial resistant genes. UV/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) and UV/persulfate (UV/PDS) advanced oxidation processes have been demonstrated to be effective for the elimination of SMX, but there is still a need for a deeper understanding of product formations. In this study, we identified and compared the transformation products of SMX in UV, UV/H2O2 and UV/PDS processes...
March 28, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431347/improving-water-quality-in-china-environmental-investment-pays-dividends
#4
Yongqiang Zhou, Jianrong Ma, Yunlin Zhang, Boqiang Qin, Erik Jeppesen, Kun Shi, Justin D Brookes, Robert G M Spencer, Guangwei Zhu, Guang Gao
This study highlights how Chinese economic development detrimentally impacted water quality in recent decades and how this has been improved by enormous investment in environmental remediation funded by the Chinese government. To our knowledge, this study is the first to describe the variability of surface water quality in inland waters in China, the affecting drivers behind the changes, and how the government-financed conservation actions have impacted water quality. Water quality was found to be poorest in the North and the Northeast China Plain where there is greater coverage of developed land (cities + cropland), a higher gross domestic product (GDP), and higher population density...
April 14, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431336/beam-induced-back-streaming-electron-suppression-analysis-for-an-accelerator-type-neutron-generator-designed-for-40-ar-39-ar-geochronology
#5
Cory Waltz, Mauricio Ayllon, Tim Becker, Lee Bernstein, Ka-Ngo Leung, Leo Kirsch, Paul Renne, Karl Van Bibber
A facility based on a next-generation, high-flux D-D neutron generator has been commissioned and it is now operational at the University of California, Berkeley. The current generator designed for (40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of geological materials produces nearly monoenergetic 2.45MeV neutrons at outputs of 10(8)n/s. The narrow energy range is advantageous relative to the (235)U fission spectrum neutrons due to (i) reduced (39)Ar recoil energy, (ii) minimized production of interfering argon isotopes from K, Ca, and Cl, and (iii) reduced total activity for radiological safety and waste generation...
April 13, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431329/stealth-recombinant-human-serum-albumin-nanoparticles-conjugating-5-fluorouracil-augmented-drug-delivery-and-cytotoxicity-in-human-colon-cancer-ht-29-cells
#6
Ankita Sharma, Amanpreet Kaur, Upendra Kumar Jain, Ramesh Chandra, Jitender Madan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a first-line chemotherapeutic drug in colorectal cancer. However, intravenous administration of 5-FU at the dose of 7-12mg/kg exhibits curbs like short half-life (20min) and toxic side-effects on bone marrow cells. Therefore, in present investigation, 5-FU was conjugated to poly (ethylene glycol) anchored recombinant human serum albumin nanoparticles (5-FU-rHSA-PEG-NPs) to improve the pharmacokinetic and therapeutic profiles. METHODS AND RESULTS: The mean particle size of 5-FU-rHSA-NPs was measured to be 44...
April 12, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431327/dendrimer-conjugated-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-as-stimuli-responsive-drug-carriers-for-thermally-activated-chemotherapy-of-cancer
#7
Saumya Nigam, Dhirendra Bahadur
In recent years, functional nanomaterials have found an appreciable place in the understanding and treatment of cancer. This work demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of a new class of cationic, biocompatible, peptide dendrimers, which were then used for stabilizing and functionalizing magnetite nanoparticles for combinatorial therapy of cancer. The synthesized peptide dendrimers have an edge over the widely used PAMAM dendrimers due to better biocompatibility and negligible cytotoxicity of their degradation products...
April 13, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431325/bfgf-neutralization-stimulates-vegf-secretion-in-melanoma-b16-cells
#8
Zhiyong Wang, Pei Wei, Junjian Xiang, Hong Wang
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), which is expressed by most melanoma cells, can stimulate other growth factors secretion. It is well known that bFGF induces VEGF production; however, the influence of bFGF blockade remains uncertain. Here, we investigated the effect of bFGF neutralization on VEGF expression in B16 melanoma cells. We found that bFGF blockade resulting in increased VEGF expression and activated PI3K/AKT and P44/42 MAPK pathways. Moreover, combined inhibition of bFGF and VEGF led to enhanced activity against B16 tumors in vitro and in vivo...
April 17, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431318/assessing-seasonal-variation-of-synthetic-musks-in-beach-sands-from-oporto-coastal-area-a-case-study
#9
Vera Homem, Inês Magalhães, Arminda Alves, Lúcia Santos
Synthetic musk compounds are widely used in the formulation of several cosmetics, personal care and household products. Due to their massive and widespread use, together with some health concerns, they are considered emerging pollutants and have been detected in different environmental compartments. This study focused on the evaluation of the concentration of synthetic musks (five nitro, five polycyclic and one macrocyclic musks) in beach sands, from Oporto coastal area (Portugal), contributing to the enhancement of the knowledge of levels, trends and behaviour of these compounds in this particular matrix...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#10
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431262/immunologic-approaches-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#11
REVIEW
Leo Rasche, Niels Weinhold, Gareth J Morgan, Frits van Rhee, Faith E Davies
The FDA approval of two monoclonal antibodies in 2015has heralded a new era of targeted immunotherapies for multiple myeloma (MM). In this review we discuss the recent approaches using different immunological components to treat MM. In particular, we review current monoclonal antibody based therapies, engineered T- and NK cell products, 'off-target' immunomodulation, and strategies utilizing allogeneic cell transplantation in MM. We discuss how an immunologic approach offers promise for the treatment of this genetically heterogeneous disease, and how patients with acquired drug resistance may particularly benefit from these therapies...
April 6, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431261/dietary-patterns-and-depression-risk-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Ye Li, Mei-Rong Lv, Yan-Jin Wei, Ling Sun, Ji-Xiang Zhang, Huai-Guo Zhang, Bin Li
Although some studies have reported potential associations of dietary patterns with depression risk, a consistent perspective hasn't been estimated to date. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the relation between dietary patterns and the risk of depression. A literature research was conducted searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to September 2016. In total, 21 studies from ten countries met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present meta-analysis. A dietary pattern characterized by a high intakes of fruit, vegetables, whole grain, fish, olive oil, low-fat dairy and antioxidants and low intakes of animal foods was apparently associated with a decreased risk of depression...
April 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431252/engineered-regulatory-systems-modulate-gene-expression-of-human-commensals-in-the-gut
#13
Bentley Lim, Michael Zimmermann, Natasha A Barry, Andrew L Goodman
The gut microbiota is implicated in numerous aspects of health and disease, but dissecting these connections is challenging because genetic tools for gut anaerobes are limited. Inducible promoters are particularly valuable tools because these platforms allow real-time analysis of the contribution of microbiome gene products to community assembly, host physiology, and disease. We developed a panel of tunable expression platforms for the prominent genus Bacteroides in which gene expression is controlled by a synthetic inducer...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431246/fatty-acids-regulate-germline-sex-determination-through-acs-4-dependent-myristoylation
#14
Hongyun Tang, Min Han
Fat metabolism has been linked to fertility and reproductive adaptation in animals and humans, and environmental sex determination potentially plays a role in the process. To investigate the impact of fatty acids (FA) on sex determination and reproductive development, we examined and observed an impact of FA synthesis and mobilization by lipolysis in somatic tissues on oocyte fate in Caenorhabditis elegans. The subsequent genetic analysis identified ACS-4, an acyl-CoA synthetase and its FA-CoA product, as key germline factors that mediate the role of FA in promoting oocyte fate through protein myristoylation...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431225/retraction-notice-to-targeting-mycobacterial-enzymes-with-natural-products
#15
Elwira Sieniawska
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431207/syntheses-of-chroman-2-ones-and-%C3%AE-amino-acids-through-a-diastereoselective-domino-reaction
#16
D Balaji Chandrasekhar, Shwu-Chen Tsay, Tapan K Pradhan, Jih Ru Hwu
Many 3-aminochroman-2-ones and β,β-diarylalanines exhibit significant biological activities. A new method was thus developed for the syntheses of these compounds with high efficiency and diastereoselectivity. First, treatment of various phenols with Erlenmeyer-Plochl (Z)-azlactones and AlCl3 in toluene produced the desired cis-3-aminochroman-2-ones in 65-90% yields under kinetic control. This coupling reaction involved a domino process of Friedel-Crafts alkylation, 1,4-AlCl3 shift, transesterification, and protodealumination in a "single-flask...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431183/efficacy-of-tiamulin-alone-or-in-combination-with-chlortetracycline-against-experimental-mycoplasma-gallisepticum-infection-in-chickens
#17
A Garmyn, M Vereecken, K Degussem, W Depondt, F Haesebrouck, A Martel
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (M. gallisepticum) remains one of the most important diseases in poultry production. Controlling the impact of the disease is done by eradication of positive breeder flocks or by vaccination and medication. A widely used molecule in medication programs is tiamulin, a pleuromutilin antibiotic. Since recent data on the in vivo efficacy of this molecule are scarce, 2 challenge studies were conducted using a recently isolated M. gallisepticum strain belonging to the wildtype population with regard to its tiamulin and tetracycline minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431181/protective-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-against-the-development-of-intracranial-aneurysm-rupture-in-mice
#18
Atsushi Kuwabara, Jia Liu, Yoshinobu Kamio, Airan Liu, Michael T Lawton, Jae-Woo Lee, Tomoki Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem or stromal cells found in multiple tissues. Intravenous MSC injections have been used to treat various diseases with an inflammatory component in animals and humans. Inflammation is emerging as a key component of pathophysiology of intracranial aneurysms. Modulation of inflammation by MSCs may affect sustained inflammatory processes that lead to aneurysmal rupture. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of MSCs on the development of aneurysm rupture using a mouse model...
April 19, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431174/opportunities-for-exercise-during-pullet-rearing-part-ii-long-term-effects-on-bone-characteristics-of-adult-laying-hens-at-the-end-of-lay
#19
T M Casey-Trott, D R Korver, M T Guerin, V Sandilands, S Torrey, T M Widowski
Osteoporosis in laying hens has been a production and welfare concern for several decades. The objective of this study was to determine whether differing opportunities for exercise during pullet rearing influences long-term bone quality characteristics in end-of-lay hens. A secondary objective was to assess whether differing opportunities for exercise in adult housing systems alters bone quality characteristics in end-of-lay hens. Four flock replicates of 588 Lohmann Selected Leghorn-Lite pullets were reared in either conventional cages (Conv) or an aviary rearing system (Avi) and placed into conventional cages (CC), 30-bird furnished cages (FC-S), or 60-bird furnished cages (FC-L) for adult housing...
April 18, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431149/next-generation-non-starch-polysaccharide-degrading-multi-carbohydrase-complex-rich-in-xylanase-and-arabinofuranosidase-to-enhance-broiler-feed-digestibility
#20
Pierre Cozannet, Michael T Kidd, Roberto Montanhini Neto, Pierre-André Geraert
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of a multi-carbohydrase complex ( ) rich in xylanase ( ) and arabinofuranosidase ( ) on overall broiler feed digestibility in broilers. Energy utilization and digestibility of dry matter ( ), organic matter ( ), protein, starch, fat, and insoluble and soluble fibers were measured using the mass-balance method. The experiment was carried out on 120 broilers (3-week-old chickens). Broilers were distributed over 8 treatments to evaluate the effect of the dietary arabinoxylan content and nutrient density with and without MCC (Rovabio® Advance)...
April 20, 2017: Poultry Science
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