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diffusion kurtosis

Nandin-Erdene Enkhbaatar, Shigeaki Inoue, Hiroshi Yamamuro, Shuichi Kawada, Masashi Miyaoka, Naoya Nakamura, Sotaro Sadahiro, Yutaka Imai
Purpose To determine response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) by using magnetic resonance (MR) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis. Materials and Methods Ninety-two patients with LARC underwent MR imaging with rectal barium before and after chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CRT). Rectal expansion with barium expanded the lumen, provided similar imaging geometry before and after CRT, and eliminated fecal matter, air, and residual fluid...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Jianzhong Yin, Haizhen Sun, Zhiyun Wang, Hongyan Ni, Wen Shen, Phillip Zhe Sun
Purpose To determine the relationship between diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in patients with acute stroke at admission and the tissue outcome 1 month after onset of stroke. Materials and Methods Patients with stroke underwent DWI (b values = 0, 1000 sec/mm2 along three directions) and DKI (b values = 0, 1000, 2000 sec/mm2 along 20 directions) within 24 hours after symptom onset and 1 month after symptom onset. For large lesions (diameter ≥ 1 cm), acute lesion volumes at DWI and DKI were compared with those at follow-up T2-weighted imaging by using Spearman correlation analysis...
March 20, 2018: Radiology
Stefan Schob, Benno Münch, Julia Dieckow, Ulf Quäschling, Karl-Titus Hoffmann, Cindy Richter, Nikita Garnov, Clara Frydrychowicz, Matthias Krause, Hans-Jonas Meyer, Alexey Surov
PURPOSE: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) quantifies motion of hydrogen nuclei in biological tissues and hereby has been used to assess the underlying tissue microarchitecture. Histogram-profiling of DWI provides more detailed information on diffusion characteristics of a lesion than the standardly calculated values of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-minimum, mean and maximum. Hence, the aim of our study was to investigate, which parameters of histogram-profiling of DWI in primary central nervous system lymphoma can be used to specifically predict features like cellular density, chromatin content and proliferative activity...
March 6, 2018: Translational Oncology
Anna K Paschall, S Mojdeh Mirmomen, Rolf Symons, Amir Pourmorteza, Rabindra Gautam, Amil Sahai, Andrew J Dwyer, Maria J Merino, Adam R Metwalli, W Marston Linehan, Ashkan A Malayeri
PURPOSE: To determine whether objective volumetric whole-lesion apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) distribution analysis improves upon the capabilities of conventional subjective small region-of-interest (ROI) ADC measurements for prediction of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtype. METHODS: This IRB-approved study retrospectively enrolled 55 patients (152 tumors). Diffusion-weighted imaging DWI was acquired at b values of 0, 250, and 800 s/mm2 on a 1.5T system (Aera, Siemens Healthcare)...
March 8, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Wei Zhang, Yue Zhou, Xiao-Quan Xu, Ling-Yan Kong, Hai Xu, Tong-Fu Yu, Hai-Bin Shi, Qing Feng
Objective: To assess the performance of a whole-tumor histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in differentiating thymic carcinoma from lymphoma, and compare it with that of a commonly used hot-spot region-of-interest (ROI)-based ADC measurement. Materials and Methods: Diffusion weighted imaging data of 15 patients with thymic carcinoma and 13 patients with lymphoma were retrospectively collected and processed with a mono-exponential model...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Colleen Bailey, David J Collins, Nina Tunariu, Matthew R Orton, Veronica A Morgan, Thorsten Feiweier, David J Hawkes, Martin O Leach, Daniel C Alexander, Eleftheria Panagiotaki
Purpose: To examine the usefulness of rich diffusion protocols with high b -values and varying diffusion time for probing microstructure in bone metastases. Analysis techniques including biophysical and mathematical models were compared with the clinical apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods: Four patients were scanned using 13 b -values up to 3,000 s/mm2 and diffusion times ranging 18-52 ms. Data were fitted to mono-exponential ADC, intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), Kurtosis and Vascular, extracellular, and restricted diffusion for cytometry in tumors (VERDICT) models...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Mami Iima, Masako Kataoka, Shotaro Kanao, Makiko Kawai, Natsuko Onishi, Sho Koyasu, Katsutoshi Murata, Akane Ohashi, Rena Sakaguchi, Kaori Togashi
We prospectively examined the variability of non-Gaussian diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) measurements with different numbers of b-values and excitations in normal breast tissue and breast lesions. Thirteen volunteers and fourteen patients with breast lesions (seven malignant, eight benign; one patient had bilateral lesions) were recruited in this prospective study (approved by the Internal Review Board). Diffusion-weighted MRI was performed with 16 b-values (0-2500 s/mm2 with one number of excitations [NEX]) and five b-values (0-2500 s/mm2, 3 NEX), using a 3T breast MRI...
2018: PloS One
Chunmei Li, Min Chen, Ben Wan, Jingying Yu, Ming Liu, Wei Zhang, Jianye Wang
Background Although several studies have been reported on evaluating the performance of Gaussian and different non-Gaussian diffusion models on prostate cancer, few studies have been reported on the comparison of different models on differential diagnosis for prostate cancer. Purpose To compare the utility of various metrics derived from monoexponential model (MEM), biexponential model (BEM), stretched-exponential model (SEM) based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Ming-Liang Wang, Xiao-Er Wei, Jian-Liang Fu, Wei Li, Meng-Meng Yu, Peng-Yang Li, Wen-Bin Li
Background Previous studies revealed that subcortical nuclei were harmed in the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Purpose To investigate the volumetric and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) parameter changes of subcortical nuclei in AD and their relationship with cognitive function. Materials and Methods A total of 17 mild AD patients, 15 moderate to severe AD patients, and 16 controls underwent neuropsychological tests and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Volume, mean kurtosis (MK), mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, and amygdala...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Dongshuang Lu, Yinghua Jiang, Yang Ji, Iris Yuwen Zhou, Emiri Mandeville, Eng H Lo, Xiaoying Wang, Phillip Zhe Sun
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has emerged as a new acute stroke imaging approach, augmenting routine DWI. Although it has been shown that a diffusion lesion without kurtosis abnormality is more likely to recover after reperfusion, whereas a kurtosis lesion shows poor response, little is known about the underlying pathophysiologic profile of the kurtosis lesion versus the kurtosis lesion-diffusion lesion mismatch. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed multiparametric MRI, including arterial spin labeling, pH-sensitive amide proton transfer, and DKI, in a rodent model of acute stroke caused by embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion...
February 22, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Masanori Nakajo, Yoshihiko Fukukura, Hiroto Hakamada, Tomohide Yoneyama, Kiyohisa Kamimura, Satoshi Nagano, Masayuki Nakajo, Takashi Yoshiura
BACKGROUND: Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analyses have been used to differentiate tumor grades and predict therapeutic responses in various anatomic sites with moderate success. PURPOSE: To determine the ability of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with a whole-tumor ADC histogram analysis to differentiate benign peripheral neurogenic tumors (BPNTs) from soft tissue sarcomas (STSs). STUDY TYPE: Retrospective study, single institution...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Sebastian Bickelhaupt, Paul Ferdinand Jaeger, Frederik Bernd Laun, Wolfgang Lederer, Heidi Daniel, Tristan Anselm Kuder, Lorenz Wuesthof, Daniel Paech, David Bonekamp, Alexander Radbruch, Stefan Delorme, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Franziska Hildegard Steudle, Klaus Hermann Maier-Hein
Purpose To evaluate a radiomics model of Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 and 5 breast lesions extracted from breast-tissue-optimized kurtosis magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for lesion characterization by using a sensitivity threshold similar to that of biopsy. Materials and Methods This institutional study included 222 women at two independent study sites (site 1: training set of 95 patients; mean age ± standard deviation, 58.6 years ± 6.6; 61 malignant and 34 benign lesions; site 2: independent test set of 127 patients; mean age, 58...
February 20, 2018: Radiology
Z F Xu, J S Sun, X H Zhang, Y Y Feng, A Z Pan, M Y Gao, H Zhao
AIM: To evaluate microstructural visual pathway damage in patients with primary glaucoma (PG) by using 3 T diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was approved by the ethics committee, and all participants provided written informed consent. Ten patients with PG were examined. Twenty healthy individuals served as control subjects. DKI was performed with a GE Silent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit. Mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean kurtosis (MK) maps were automatically created...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Radiology
Sohae Chung, Els Fieremans, Nuri E Kucukboyaci, Xiuyuan Wang, Charles J Morton, Dmitry S Novikov, Joseph F Rath, Yvonne W Lui
Working memory is a complex cognitive process at the intersection of sensory processing, learning, and short-term memory and also has a general executive attention component. Impaired working memory is associated with a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, but very little is known about how working memory relates to underlying white matter (WM) microstructure. In this study, we investigate the association between WM microstructure and performance on working memory tasks in healthy adults (right-handed, native English speakers)...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shiyu Tang, Su Xu, Rao P Gullapalli, Alexandre E Medina
BACKGROUND: Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often have deficits associated with multisensory processing. Because ethanol disrupts activity-dependent neuronal plasticity, a process that is essential for refining connections during cortical development, we hypothesize that early alcohol exposure results in alterations in multisensory cortical networks, which could explain the multisensory processing deficits seen in FASD. Here, we use a gyrencephalic animal model to test the prediction that early alcohol exposure alters the functional connectivity and microstructural features of the rostral posterior parietal cortex (PPr), a visual-tactile integrative area...
February 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Hans Jonas Meyer, Alexander Emmer, Malte Kornhuber, Alexey Surov
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has the potential of being able to reflect histopathology architecture. A novel imaging approach, namely histogram analysis, is used to further characterize tissues on MRI. The aim of this study was to correlate histogram parameters derived from apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps with serological parameters in myositis. METHODS: 16 patients with autoimmune myositis were included in this retrospective study. DWI was obtained on a 1...
February 20, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Genwen Hu, Wen Liang, Mingxiang Wu, Queenie Chan, Yufa Li, Jianmin Xu, Liangping Luo, Xianyue Quan
Early diagnosis of liver fibrosis is important. The objective of this study was to explore the characteristics and to assess the accuracy of monoexponential, stretched exponential models (SEM), and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in various stages of liver fibrosis in two standard rat models induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and biliary duct ligation (BDL). Parameters (ADC, Dapp, Kapp, DDC, α) were measured with a 3.0T MRI. Liver fibrosis stages (F0-F4) were defined by METAVIR scoring...
January 5, 2018: Oncotarget
Li Hu, Qunxing Xu, Jizhen Li, Feifei Wang, Xinghua Xu, Zhiyuan Sun, Xiangxing Ma, Yong Liu, Qing Wang, Dawei Wang
KIBRA rs17070145 polymorphism is associated with variations in memory function and the microstructure of related brain areas. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) as an extension of diffusion tensor imaging that can provide more information about changes in microstructure, based on the idea that water diffusion in biological tissues is heterogeneous due to structural hindrance and restriction. We used DKI to explore the relationship between KIBRA gene polymorphism and brain microstructure in young adults. We recruited 100 healthy young volunteers, including 53 TT carriers and 47 C allele carriers...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Quinten Collier, Jelle Veraart, Ben Jeurissen, Floris Vanhevel, Pim Pullens, Paul M Parizel, Arnold J den Dekker, Jan Sijbers
PURPOSE: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging modality that is known to be sensitive to changes in the underlying microstructure of the brain. Image voxels in diffusion weighted images, however, are typically relatively large making them susceptible to partial volume effects, especially when part of the voxel contains cerebrospinal fluid. In this work, we introduce the "Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging with Free Water Elimination" (DKI-FWE) model that separates the signal contributions of free water and tissue, where the latter is modeled using DKI...
February 2, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Li Yang, Shengxiang Rao, Wentao Wang, Caizhong Chen, Ying Ding, Chun Yang, Robert Grimm, Xu Yan, Caixia Fu, Mengsu Zeng
OBJECTIVES: To assess liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) in comparison with conventional diffusion-weighted imaging, with histology as reference standard. METHODS: This prospective study included 81 patients and DKI with b-values of 0, 200, 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000 s/mm2 were performed. Mean diffusivity (MD), mean kurtosis (MK) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated. The diagnostic efficacy of MD, MK and ADC for predicting stage 2 fibrosis or greater, and stage 3 fibrosis or greater were compared...
January 30, 2018: European Radiology
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