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2015 monoclonal antibodies

Jean-David Fumet, Aurélie Bertaut, Leila Bengrine, Patricia Lapierre, Julie Vincent, François Ghiringhelli, Nicolas Falvo
Background: Bevacizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 antibody targeting VEGF-A. It is currently used with chemotherapy as the first- or second-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer. Previous studies have showed that anti-angiogenic agents decrease capillary density. We evaluated the link between decreased capillary density and the response to bevacizumab-based chemotherapy. Results: Overall, 43 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line bevacizumab-based chemotherapy were enrolled...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Hope S Rugo, Jean-Pierre Delord, Seock-Ah Im, Patrick A Ott, Sarina A Piha-Paul, Phillipe L Bedard, Jasgit Sachev, Christophe Le Tourneau, Emilie M J van Brummelen, Andreea Varga, Roberto Salgado, Sherene Loi, Sanatan Saraf, Dina Pietrangelo, Vassiliki Karantza, Antoinette R Tan
PURPOSE: We investigated the safety and antitumor activity of the anti-programmed death 1 monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab in patients with estrogen receptor‒positive (ER+)/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2- ) advanced breast cancer with programmed death ligand 1‒positive (PD-L1‒positive) tumors in the phase Ib open-label, multicohort KEYNOTE-028 (NCT02054806) study. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with ER+/HER2- advanced breast cancer with PD-L1‒positive tumors (combined positive score ≥1) received pembrolizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks) up to 2 years or until confirmed progression/intolerable toxicity...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Marc Humbert, Camille Taillé, Laurence Mala, Vincent Le Gros, Jocelyne Just, Mathieu Molimard
Omalizumab is a monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody used to treat severe allergic asthma (SAA). The aim of the STELLAIR study was to determine the importance of pre-treatment blood eosinophil count (EOS) as a predictive measure for response to omalizumab. This retrospective real-life study was conducted in France between December 2015 and September 2016 using medical records of SAA omalizumab-treated patients. Response to omalizumab was assessed by three criteria: physician evaluation, reduction of ≥40% in annual exacerbation rate, and combination of both...
March 15, 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Qingkai Dai, Xiaojuan Liu, Hui Yang, Siqi Guo, Yuefang Wang, Luyun Peng, Lei Ye, Lan Chen, Chunqi Lai, Qi Chen, Ge Zhang, Yongmei Jiang
Detection of aberrant antigen expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by flow cytometric is proposed for the quantification of minimal residual disease (MRD). There are few studies that investigate the stability of the antigen expression in children with B lineage ALL at the end of remission induction therapy and determine its prognostic impact. Between 2010 and 2015, 691 bone marrow specimens of childhood ALL were sent at diagnosis for immunophenotypic characterization, and follow-up samples for MRD were analyzed on day 33...
March 2, 2018: Leukemia Research
Fabiola Fuchs, Martin Robausch
BACKGROUND: The topic of "medical oversupply at the end-of-life" is being discussed intensively internationally. The aim of this paper is to present the data of end-of-life care in one region in Austria (Lower Austria). METHODS: The data basis for the end-of-life indicators was the routine data (secondary data analysis) of the Lower Austrian District Health Insurance Fund (NÖGKK) from 2015. The basic population consisted of persons with inpatient hospitalization with a cancer diagnosis...
March 13, 2018: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Toni K Choueiri, James Larkin, Mototsugu Oya, Fiona Thistlethwaite, Marcella Martignoni, Paul Nathan, Thomas Powles, David McDermott, Paul B Robbins, David D Chism, Daniel Cho, Michael B Atkins, Michael S Gordon, Sumati Gupta, Hirotsugu Uemura, Yoshihiko Tomita, Anna Compagnoni, Camilla Fowst, Alessandra di Pietro, Brian I Rini
BACKGROUND: The combination of an immune checkpoint inhibitor and a VEGF pathway inhibitor to treat patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma might increase the clinical benefit of these drugs compared with their use alone. Here, we report preliminary results for the combination of avelumab, an IgG1 monoclonal antibody against the programmed cell death protein ligand PD-L1, and axitinib, a VEGF receptor inhibitor approved for second-line treatment of advanced renal-cell carcinoma, in treatment-naive patients with advanced renal-cell carcinoma...
March 9, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Carmine Pinto, Maurizio Di Bisceglie, Francesca Di Fabio, Annamaria Bochicchio, Tiziana Latiano, Stefano Cordio, Gerardo Rosati, Carlo Aschele, Antonella Marino, Francesca Bergamo, Sara Bustreo, Luca Frassineti, Fortunato Ciardiello, Angela Damato, Stefania Giaquinta, Daniela Baldari, Luca Boni
BACKGROUND: Treatment with fluoropyrimidines and concomitant long-course external radiotherapy (RTE) is the standard of care in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) preoperative chemoradiation. A randomized phase II study (RaP/STAR-03) was conducted that aimed to evaluate the activity and safety of the monoclonal antibody anti-epidermal growth factor receptor panitumumab as a single agent in combination with radiotherapy in low-risk LARC preoperative treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients had adenocarcinoma of the mid-low rectum, cT3N- or cT2-T3N+, KRAS wild-type status, and negative circumferential radial margin...
March 9, 2018: Oncologist
Shakirat A Adetunji, Rosina C Krecek, Nicolize O'Dell, Leon Prozesky, Johan Steyl, Angela M Arenas-Gamboa
Pigmentation of the skin is a crucial component in the pathogenesis of melanocytic neoplasms and other skin-related tumors, as melanin is known to function in both the absorbance of ultraviolet radiation and as an antioxidant. Very limited information exists regarding the incidence and metastatic potential of neoplastic conditions of the skin in game animals, especially wildebeests, relative to domestic animals. Four cases of cutaneous melanoma in color-variant golden and king wildebeests ( Connochaetes taurinus) (from 2014 to 2015) in South Africa were investigated...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Rubén Queiro, Anahy Brandy, Mª Carmen Rosado, Andrés Lorenzo, Pablo Coto, Carmen Carriles, Mercedes Alperi, Javier Ballina
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ustekinumab (UST) is a fully human immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody approved for treating moderate to severe psoriasis and, more recently, psoriatic arthritis (PsA) as well. However, information regarding its clinical usefulness in a real-world setting is scarce. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of UST in a real-world clinical setting. METHODS: This single-center observational study included PsA outpatients (n = 50) treated with UST from March 2015 to March 2017...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Joseph R Berger, Vineeta Malik, Stuart Lacey, Paul Brunetta, Patricia B Lehane
This report assesses the observed risk of PML in patients treated with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab in the regulatory authority-approved autoimmune indications rheumatoid arthritis (RA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). This was a cumulative analysis of confirmed PML cases in patients receiving rituximab for RA or GPA/MPA from both spontaneous reports and clinical trial sources, as captured in the manufacturer global company safety and clinical databases...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
Rebecca K Sheean, Fiona C McKay, Erika Cretney, Christopher R Bye, Nirma D Perera, Doris Tomas, Richard A Weston, Karlene J Scheller, Elvan Djouma, Parvathi Menon, Stephen D Schibeci, Najwa Marmash, Justin J Yerbury, Stephen L Nutt, David R Booth, Graeme J Stewart, Mathew C Kiernan, Steve Vucic, Bradley J Turner
Importance: Neuroinflammation appears to be a key modulator of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and thereby a promising therapeutic target. The CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) infiltrating into the central nervous system suppress neuroinflammation and promote the activation of neuroprotective microglia in mouse models of ALS. To our knowledge, the therapeutic association of host Treg expansion with ALS progression has not been studied in vivo. Objective: To assess the role of Tregs in regulating the pathophysiology of ALS in humans and the therapeutic outcome of increasing Treg activity in a mouse model of the disease...
March 5, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Hassan Tariq, Saba Anjum, Hafeez Ud Din, Farhan Akhtar
Background & Objective: To evaluate usefulness of immunohistochemical marker C-kit (CD117) in differentiating Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) from Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) in patients of salivary gland carcinomas. AdCC is a malignant salivary gland neoplasm with poor prognosis. PLGA is a salivary gland malignancy with indolent growth pattern. Differentiating between the two entities is a diagnostic challenge. We evaluated the role of C-kit in differentiating the two...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Ryan Kronen, Kevin Hsueh, Charlotte Lin, William G Powderly, Andrej Spec
Background: Candida krusei bloodstream infection (CK BSI) is associated with high mortality, but whether this is due to underlying comorbidities in affected patients or the organism itself is unknown. Identifying patient characteristics that are associated with CK BSI is crucial for clinical decision-making and prognosis. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of hospitalized patients with Candida BSI at our institution between 2002 and 2015. Data were collected on demographics, comorbidities, medications, procedures, central lines, vital signs, and laboratory values...
February 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Lei Chen, Jacqueline Brown, Dale Quentin Marmaduke, Carlos Mayo, Gerrit Grau, Yiu-Keung Lau, Coleman K Obasaju
PURPOSE: Rash toxicity is a common, expected class effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. Although rash management is practiced, it is not well characterized in the real-world setting. We describe the management of rash that developed while receiving EGFR-inhibitor therapy and how rash affects treatment duration, using Truven MarketScan® Research Database, a US medical claims database. METHODS: Adult patients who received EGFR-inhibitor treatment between 2004 and 2015 after a diagnosis of colon, head and neck, lung, breast, or thyroid cancer were identified...
February 8, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Clara Montagut, Guillem Argilés, Fortunato Ciardiello, Thomas T Poulsen, Rodrigo Dienstmann, Michael Kragh, Scott Kopetz, Trine Lindsted, Cliff Ding, Joana Vidal, Jenifer Clausell-Tormos, Giulia Siravegna, Francisco J Sánchez-Martín, Klaus Koefoed, Mikkel W Pedersen, Michael M Grandal, Mikhail Dvorkin, Lucjan Wyrwicz, Ana Rovira, Antonio Cubillo, Ramon Salazar, Françoise Desseigne, Cristina Nadal, Joan Albanell, Vittorina Zagonel, Salvatore Siena, Guglielmo Fumi, Giuseppe Rospo, Paul Nadler, Ivan D Horak, Alberto Bardelli, Josep Tabernero
Importance: Acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy (epidermal growth factor receptor) is frequently due to RAS and EGFR extracellular domain (ECD) mutations in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Some anti-EGFR-refractory patients retain tumor EGFR dependency potentially targetable by agents such as Sym004, which is a mixture of 2 nonoverlapping monoclonal antibodies targeting EGFR. Objective: To determine if continuous blockade of EGFR by Sym004 has survival benefit...
February 8, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Sabrina Alessio Camacho, Regivaldo Gomes Sobral Filho, Pedro Henrique Benites Aoki, Carlos Jose Leopoldo Constantino, Alexandre G Brolo
Zika virus (ZIKV) was considered a public health emergency of international concern after the 2015 outbreak. Serological tests based on immunoassay platforms is one of the methods applied on the diagnosis of ZIKV and dengue virus (DENV). However, the high limits of detection (LOD) and the cross-reactivity between ZIKV and DENV are still limitations in immunological tests. In order to tackle these issues, we have designed an immune-specific assay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoprobes. Gold shell-isolated nanoparticles (Au-SHINs) were synthesized with 100 nm Au nanoparticles and 4 nm silica shell thickness coated with Nile Blue (Raman reporter)...
February 7, 2018: ACS Sensors
Masaki Takahashi, Koo Nagasawa, Koichi Saito, Shun-Ichi Maisawa, Kiyotaka Fujita, Koichi Murakami, Makoto Kuroda, Akihide Ryo, Hirokazu Kimura
We performed detailed genetic analyses of the partial hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene in 34 human respirovirus 3 (HRV3) strains from children with acute respiratory illness during 2013-2015 in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. In addition, we performed analyses of the evolutionary timescale of the gene using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. Furthermore, we analyzed pairwise distances and performed selective pressure analyses followed by linear B-cell epitope mapping and N-glycosylation and phylodynamic analyses...
February 2, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Giuseppe Giaccone, Chul Kim, Jillian Thompson, Colleen McGuire, Bhaskar Kallakury, Joeffrey J Chahine, Maria Manning, Robin Mogg, Wendy M Blumenschein, Ming T Tan, Deepa S Subramaniam, Stephen V Liu, Ian M Kaplan, Justine N McCutcheon
BACKGROUND: Treatment options are limited for patients with thymic carcinoma. These aggressive tumours are not typically associated with paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders, and strong PD-L1 expression has been reported in thymic epithelial tumours. We aimed to assess the activity of pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets PD-1, in patients with advanced thymic carcinoma. METHODS: We completed a single-arm phase 2 study of pembrolizumab in patients with recurrent thymic carcinoma who had progressed after at least one line of chemotherapy...
January 25, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Juliette Sheridan, Carol Ann Coe, Peter Doran, Laurence Egan, Garret Cullen, David Kevans, Jan Leyden, Marie Galligan, Aoibhlinn O'Toole, Jane McCarthy, Glen Doherty
Introduction: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), often leading to an impaired quality of life in affected patients. Current treatment modalities include antitumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) monoclonal antibodies (mABs) including infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab (GLM). Several recent retrospective and prospective studies have demonstrated that fixed dosing schedules of anti-TNF agents often fails to consistently achieve adequate circulating therapeutic drug levels (DL) with consequent risk of immunogenicity treatment failure and potential risk of hospitalisation and colectomy in patients with UC...
2018: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Sandra P D'Angelo, Michelle R Mahoney, Brian A Van Tine, James Atkins, Mohammed M Milhem, Balkrishna N Jahagirdar, Cristina R Antonescu, Elise Horvath, William D Tap, Gary K Schwartz, Howard Streicher
BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic sarcoma have limited treatment options. Nivolumab and ipilimumab are monoclonal antibodies targeting PD-1 and CTLA-4, respectively. We investigated the activity and safety of nivolumab alone or in combination with ipilimumab in patients with locally advanced, unresectable, or metastatic sarcoma. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, non-comparative, randomised, phase 2 study that enrolled patients aged 18 years or older and had central pathology confirmation of sarcoma with at least one measurable lesion by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1...
March 2018: Lancet Oncology
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