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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231568/fiber-connections-of-the-caudal-corpus-cerebelli-with-special-reference-to-the-intrinsic-circuitry-in-a-teleost-oreochromis-niloticus
#1
Kosuke Imura, Naoyuki Yamamoto, Masami Yoshimoto, Masato Endo, Kengo Funakoshi, Hironobu Ito
The caudal part of the corpus cerebelli of Nile tilapia can be divided into dorsal and ventral regions. The granule cell layer of the dorsal (dGL) and ventral (vGL) regions of the caudal corpus cerebelli is known to receive indirect inputs from the telencephalon relayed by the nucleus paracommissuralis. The descending pathways are topographically organized, and the dGL and vGL receive inputs from different dorsal telencephalic parts. The caudal corpus cerebelli, in turn, projects extracerebellar efferents. However, it remains unknown how the descending telencephalic inputs are processed within the cerebellum...
February 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#2
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230841/magnetoencephalography-for-brain-electrophysiology-and-imaging
#3
REVIEW
Sylvain Baillet
We review the aspects that uniquely characterize magnetoencephalography (MEG) among the techniques available to explore and resolve brain function and dysfunction. While emphasizing its specific strengths in terms of millisecond source imaging, we also identify and discuss current practical challenges, in particular in signal extraction and interpretation. We also take issue with some perceived disadvantages of MEG, including the misconception that the technique is redundant with electroencephalography. Overall, MEG contributes uniquely to our deeper comprehension of both regional and large-scale brain dynamics: from the functions of neural oscillations and the nature of event-related brain activation, to the mechanisms of functional connectivity between regions and the emergence of modes of network communication in brain systems...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230155/perceived-moral-traits-of-others-differentiate-the-neural-activation-that-underlies-inequity-aversion
#4
Hironori Nakatani, Akitoshi Ogawa, Chisato Suzuki, Takeshi Asamizuya, Kenichi Ueno, Kang Cheng, Kazuo Okanoya
We have a social preference to reduce inequity in the outcomes between oneself and others. Such a preference varies according to others. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging during an economic game to investigate how the perceived moral traits of others modulate the neural activities that underlie inequity-aversion. The participants unilaterally allocated money to three partners (good, neutral, and bad). During presentation of the good and neutral partners, the anterior region of the rostral medial frontal cortex (arMFC) showed increased functional connectivity with the caudate head and the anterior insula, respectively...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229308/eeg-signatures-of-dynamic-functional-network-connectivity-states
#5
E A Allen, E Damaraju, T Eichele, L Wu, V D Calhoun
The human brain operates by dynamically modulating different neural populations to enable goal directed behavior. The synchrony or lack thereof between different brain regions is thought to correspond to observed functional connectivity dynamics in resting state brain imaging data. In a large sample of healthy human adult subjects and utilizing a sliding windowed correlation method on functional imaging data, earlier we demonstrated the presence of seven distinct functional connectivity states/patterns between different brain networks that reliably occur across time and subjects...
February 22, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228081/the-neurobiology-and-psychiatric-perspective-of-vaginismus-linking-the-pharmacological-and-psycho-social-interventions
#6
Zuri Shahidii Kadir, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Najwa Baharuddin
Vaginismus is an involuntary muscle contraction of the outer third of vaginal barrel causing sexual penetration almost impossible. It is generally classified under sexual pain disorder (SPD). In Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th edition, it is classified under the new rubric of Genito-Pelvic Pain/Sexual Penetration Disorder. This fear-avoidance condition poses an ongoing significant challenge to the medical and health professionals due to the very demanding needs in health care despite its unpredictable prognosis...
February 22, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227909/neuromorphic-circuit-modeling-directional-selectivity-in-the-visual-cortex
#7
Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali
We have designed a neuromorphic circuit that models directional selectivity in the visual cortex, where selected neurons fire depending on the direction of object motion, along with the size and orientation of the object. The neuromorphic circuit is biomimetic. It consists of neurons and synapses, and models biological mechanisms. Neurons (including the Axon Hillock and the Dendritic Arbor) are designed with CMOS technology and synapses (both excitatory and inhibitory) are designed with Carbon Nanotube Transistors...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227769/identifying-the-effects-of-visceral-interoception-on-human-brain-connectome-a-multivariate-analysis-of-covariance-of-fmri-data
#8
Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini, Behnaz Jarrahi, Dante Mantini
Sources of variations in the neural circuitry of the human brain and interrelationship between intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are still a matter of debate and ongoing research. Here, we applied a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) based on high-dimensional independent component analysis (ICA) to identify the effects of interoception and related variables on human brain connectome. Fifteen healthy right-handed subjects (all females, age range 21 - 48 years; mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.7 years) underwent a blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) that included continuous intravesical saline infusion and drainage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227768/measures-of-the-brain-functional-network-that-correlate-with-alzheimer-s-neuropsychological-test-scores-an-fmri-and-graph-analysis-study
#9
Soroosh Golbabaei, Amin Dadashi, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Soroosh Golbabaei, Amin Dadashi, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh, Soroosh Golbabaei, Amin Dadashi, Hamid Soltanian-Zadeh
Neural degeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to structural topology deformation that in turn changes brain functionality. The main aim of the present study is to find the brain's functional connectivity network (FCN) correlates of Alzheimer's psychological test scores. To this end, the brain's FCN is extracted from the resting state functional magnetic resonance images (rs-fMRI) of healthy controls and patients with AD and represented as a graph. Then, network measures are calculated from the graphs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227759/mining-cross-frequency-coupling-microstates-cfc%C3%AE-states-from-eeg-recordings-during-resting-state-and-mental-arithmetic-tasks
#10
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Yu Sun, Nitish Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos, Stavros I Dimitriadis, Yu Sun, Nitish Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos, Stavros I Dimitriadis, Yu Sun, Nitish Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos
The functional brain connectivity has been studied by analyzing synchronization between dynamic oscillations of identical frequency or between different frequencies of distinct brain areas. It has been hypothesized that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between different frequency bands is the carrier mechanism for the coordination of global and local neural processes and hence supports the distributed information processing in the brain. In the present study, we attempt to study the dynamic evolution of CFC at resting-state and during a mental task...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227753/statistically-significant-time-varying-neural-connectivity-estimation-using-generalized-partial-directed-coherence
#11
Pedro L C Rodrigues, Luiz A Baccala, Pedro L C Rodrigues, Luiz A Baccala, Pedro L C Rodrigues, Luiz A Baccala
This paper illustrates the effectiveness of generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC) in characterizing time-varying neural connectivity by properly extrapolating its single trial asymptotic statistical results to a multi trial setting. Time-varying estimation is performed with a sliding-window procedure based on the proposal in [1], whereby a time-frequency map of the connectivity between channels is built. The technique is validated on a non-linear toy model generating simulated EEG and then applied to a publicly available real EEG dataset for benchmarking purposes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227506/a-pdms-based-optical-waveguide-for-transcutaneous-powering-of-microelectrode-arrays
#12
Ali Ersen, Mesut Sahin, Ali Ersen, Mesut Sahin, Ali Ersen, Mesut Sahin
Implantable microelectrode arrays (MEAs) usually have on-site electronics that need to be powered, both in neural recording and stimulation applications. Interconnecting wires between implanted electrodes and the outside world constitute a major source of complications. Our solution to this tethering problem is to design a light waveguide that can collect the optical power transcutaneously and transmit it to the microelectrode array where it is to be converted to an electric current. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based waveguide was fabricated and its attenuation was measured in vitro and found to be 0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227059/implementation-of-a-smartphone-as-a-wireless-gyroscope-platform-for-quantifying-reduced-arm-swing-in-hemiplegie-gait-with-machine-learning-classification-by-multilayer-perceptron-neural-network
#13
Robert LeMoyne, Timothy Mastroianni, Robert LeMoyne, Timothy Mastroianni, Robert LeMoyne, Timothy Mastroianni
Natural gait consists of synchronous and rhythmic patterns for both the lower and upper limb. People with hemiplegia can experience reduced arm swing, which can negatively impact the quality of gait. Wearable and wireless sensors, such as through a smartphone, have demonstrated the ability to quantify various features of gait. With a software application the smartphone (iPhone) can function as a wireless gyroscope platform capable of conveying a gyroscope signal recording as an email attachment by wireless connectivity to the Internet...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226859/effects-of-prefrontal-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory-and-reaction-time
#14
Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Pedro C Miranda, Ines S Verissimo, Tiago T Santos, Isabel M Barradas, Hugo A Ferreira
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has proven to be a useful tool in the scientific research community, particularly for clinical investigation purposes. Neuroimaging studies indicate that there is a connection between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and working memory (WM), as well as between the primary motor cortex and reaction time (RT). Thus, our goal was to evaluate the effect of anodal stimulation of the PFC, with respect to WM and RT. We tested 20 healthy subjects randomized into two groups - half received active stimulation and the other half sham stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226841/mentor-s-brain-functional-connectivity-network-during-robotic-assisted-surgery-mentorship
#15
Somayeh B Shafiei, Scott T Doyle, Khurshid A Guru, Somayeh B Shafiei, Scott T Doyle, Khurshid A Guru, Somayeh B Shafiei, Khurshid A Guru, Scott T Doyle
In many complicated cognitive-motor tasks mentoring is inevitable during the learning process. Although mentors are expert in doing the task, trainee's operation might be new for a mentor. This makes mentoring a very difficult task which demands not only the knowledge and experience of a mentor, but also his/her ability to follow trainee's movements and patiently advise him/her during the operation. We hypothesize that information binding throughout the mentor's brain areas, contributed to the task, changes as the expertise level of the trainee improves from novice to intermediate and expert...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226817/effective-connectivity-matrix-for-neural-ensembles
#16
Qi She, Winnie K Y So, Rosa H M Chan, Qi She, Winnie K Y So, Rosa H M Chan, Rosa H M Chan, Qi She, Winnie K Y So
In this paper, we present an efficient framework to study the directional interactions within the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) biological neural network from spiketrain data. We used an efficient generalized linear model (GLM) with Laguerre basis functions to model a MIMO neural system, and developed an Effective Connectivity Matrix (ECM) to visualize excitatory and inhibitory connections within the neural network. A new causality representation was developed based on system dynamics. Statistical test was applied to identify the significance of the measured causality...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226766/a-neuromorphic-circuit-mimicking-biological-short-term-memory
#17
Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali
Research shows that the way we remember things for a few seconds is a different mechanism from the way we remember things for a longer time. Short-term memory is based on persistently firing neurons, whereas storing information for a longer time is based on strengthening the synapses or even forming new neural connections. Information about location and appearance of an object is segregated and processed by separate neurons. Furthermore neurons can continue firing using different mechanisms. Here, we have designed a biomimetic neuromorphic circuit that mimics short-term memory by firing neurons, using biological mechanisms to remember location and shape of an object...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226691/structural-changes-of-cingulate-cortex-in-post-stroke-depression
#18
Chenfei Ye, Jun Wu, Xuhui Chen, Changle Zhang, Hengtong Li, Shuai Mao, Heather T Ma, Chenfei Ye, Jun Wu, Xuhui Chen, Changle Zhang, Hengtong Li, Shuai Mao, Heather T Ma, Shuai Mao, Heather T Ma, Jun Wu, Hengtong Li, Changle Zhang, Chenfei Ye, Xuhui Chen
Disruption of neural connections among regions regulating mood and cognition rather than cerebrovascular lesions may contribute to post-stroke depression (PSD). In this paper, we hypothesized that structural abnormalities in white matter structure like cingulate cortex induced by focal infarcts would play a role in mood regulation or depression after stroke onset. Various DTI coefficients including FA, RD and ADC with multiple signal distribution measurements were collected and statistically analyzed. The results identify significant differences in volume and multiple diffusion indices of DTI intensity distribution in cingulate cortex between PSD patients and the normal control...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226598/estimation-of-resting-state-effective-connectivity-in-epilepsy-using-direct-directed-transfer-function
#19
Biswajit Maharathi, Jeffrey A Loeb, James Patton, Biswajit Maharathi, Jeffrey A Loeb, James Patton, Biswajit Maharathi, James Patton, Jeffrey A Loeb
There has been an increasing demand among neuroscientists to understand the complex network of functionally connected neural assemblies in the human brain. For this purpose, computational EEG research is widely used by researchers due to its remarkable advantage in providing high temporal resolution, and ease of analysis across different frequency bands. Here we analyzed Electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals of electrodes placed on frontal-parietal neocortex brain region of 8 pediatric epileptic patients. In order to evaluate the directed causal relationship among different brain regions, we employed a Granger causality based multivariate connectivity estimator named direct Directed Transfer Function (dDTF) to identify signal propagations among the selected set of electrode in the frequency range 1-50Hz...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226596/quantification-of-neural-functional-connectivity-during-an-active-avoidance-task
#20
Catia S Silva, Mehrnaz K Hazrati, Andreas Keil, Jose C Principe, Catia S Silva, Mehrnaz K Hazrati, Andreas Keil, Jose C Principe, Andreas Keil, Jose C Principe, Mehrnaz K Hazrati, Catia S Silva
Many behavioral and cognitive processes are associated with spatiotemporal dynamic communication between brain areas. Thus, the quantification of functional connectivity with high temporal resolution is highly desirable for capturing in vivo brain function. However, brain functional network quantification from EEG recordings has been commonly used in a qualitative manner. In this paper, we consider pairwise dependence measures as random variables and estimate the pdf for each electrode of the arrangement. A metric imposed by the quadratic Cauchy-Schwartz Mutual Information quantifies these pdfs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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