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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147147/collective-behavior-of-large-scale-neural-networks-with-gpu-acceleration
#1
Jingyi Qu, Rubin Wang
In this paper, the collective behaviors of a small-world neuronal network motivated by the anatomy of a mammalian cortex based on both Izhikevich model and Rulkov model are studied. The Izhikevich model can not only reproduce the rich behaviors of biological neurons but also has only two equations and one nonlinear term. Rulkov model is in the form of difference equations that generate a sequence of membrane potential samples in discrete moments of time to improve computational efficiency. These two models are suitable for the construction of large scale neural networks...
December 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146465/more-than-blindsight-case-report-of-a-child-with-extraordinary-visual-capacity-following-perinatal-bilateral-occipital-lobe-injury
#2
Inaki-Carril Mundinano, Juan Chen, Mitchell de Souza, Marc G Sarossy, Marc F Joanisse, Melvyn A Goodale, James A Bourne
Injury to the primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex) and the geniculostriate pathway in adults results in cortical blindness, abolishing conscious visual perception. Early studies by Larry Weiskrantz and colleagues demonstrated that some patients with an occipital-lobe injury exhibited a degree of unconscious vision and visually-guided behaviour within the blind field. A more recent focus has been the observed phenomenon whereby early-life injury to V1 often results in the preservation of visual perception in both monkeys and humans...
November 13, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145416/two-is-better-than-one-the-effects-of-strategic-cooperation-on-intra-and-inter-brain-connectivity-by-fnirs
#3
Michela Balconi, Laurent Pezard, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Inter-brain synchronization during joint actions is a core question in social neuroscience, and the differential contribution of intra- and inter-brain functional connectivity has yet to be clarified along with the role of psychological variables such as perceived self-efficacy. The cognitive performance and the neural activation underlying the execution of joint actions were recorded by functional Near-Infrared imaging during a synchronicity game. An 8-channel array of optodes was positioned over the frontal and prefrontal regions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145413/diffusion-based-neuromodulation-can-eliminate-catastrophic-forgetting-in-simple-neural-networks
#4
Roby Velez, Jeff Clune
A long-term goal of AI is to produce agents that can learn a diversity of skills throughout their lifetimes and continuously improve those skills via experience. A longstanding obstacle towards that goal is catastrophic forgetting, which is when learning new information erases previously learned information. Catastrophic forgetting occurs in artificial neural networks (ANNs), which have fueled most recent advances in AI. A recent paper proposed that catastrophic forgetting in ANNs can be reduced by promoting modularity, which can limit forgetting by isolating task information to specific clusters of nodes and connections (functional modules)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145187/diogenes-syndrome
#5
Frédéric Assal
Diogenes syndrome (DS) is not a specific disease but a real neurobehavioral syndrome, characterized by severe domestic squalor, pathological hoarding, lack of insight into the condition, and no need for help. DS can be secondary when associated to psychosis or bipolar disorder, or primary when it occurs as a single entity, usually in the elderly. DS is a clinically complex transnosographic syndrome for which multidimensional approaches need to be considered: medical, psychiatric, neurological, social, scientific, and ethical...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143946/multi-scale-account-of-the-network-structure-of-macaque-visual-cortex
#6
Maximilian Schmidt, Rembrandt Bakker, Claus C Hilgetag, Markus Diesmann, Sacha J van Albada
Cortical network structure has been extensively characterized at the level of local circuits and in terms of long-range connectivity, but seldom in a manner that integrates both of these scales. Furthermore, while the connectivity of cortex is known to be related to its architecture, this knowledge has not been used to derive a comprehensive cortical connectivity map. In this study, we integrate data on cortical architecture and axonal tracing data into a consistent multi-scale framework of the structure of one hemisphere of macaque vision-related cortex...
November 16, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142739/classification-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-disease-based-on-convolutional-neural-network-and-reinforcement-sample-learning-algorithm
#7
Abdulkadir Sengur, Yaman Akbulut, Yanhui Guo, Varun Bajaj
Electromyogram (EMG) signals contain useful information of the neuromuscular diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a well-known brain disease, which can progressively degenerate the motor neurons. In this paper, we propose a deep learning based method for efficient classification of ALS and normal EMG signals. Spectrogram, continuous wavelet transform (CWT), and smoothed pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution (SPWVD) have been employed for time-frequency (T-F) representation of EMG signals. A convolutional neural network is employed to classify these features...
December 2017: Health Information Science and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142321/design-of-cultured-neuron-networks-in-vitro-with-predefined-connectivity-using-asymmetric-microfluidic-channels
#8
Arseniy Gladkov, Yana Pigareva, Daria Kutyina, Vladimir Kolpakov, Anton Bukatin, Irina Mukhina, Victor Kazantsev, Alexey Pimashkin
The architecture of neuron connectivity in brain networks is one of the basic mechanisms by which to organize and sustain a particular function of the brain circuitry. There are areas of the brain composed of well-organized layers of neurons connected by unidirectional synaptic connections (e.g., cortex, hippocampus). Re-engineering of the neural circuits with such a heterogeneous network structure in culture may uncover basic mechanisms of emergent information functions of these circuits. In this study, we present such a model designed with two subpopulations of primary hippocampal neurons (E18) with directed connectivity grown in a microfluidic device with asymmetric channels...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142293/neural-pathways-for-colorectal-control-relevance-to-spinal-cord-injury-and-treatment-a-narrative-review
#9
REVIEW
Brid Callaghan, John B Furness, Ruslan V Pustovit
STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review. OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to review the organisation of the nerve pathways that control defecation and to relate this knowledge to the deficits in colorectal function after SCI. METHODS: A literature review was conducted to identify salient features of defecation control pathways and the functional consequences of damage to these pathways in SCI. RESULTS: The control pathways for defecation have separate pontine centres under cortical control that influence defecation...
November 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139049/feedforward-architectures-driven-by-inhibitory-interactions
#10
Yazan N Billeh, Michael T Schaub
Directed information transmission is paramount for many social, physical, and biological systems. For neural systems, scientists have studied this problem under the paradigm of feedforward networks for decades. In most models of feedforward networks, activity is exclusively driven by excitatory neurons and the wiring patterns between them, while inhibitory neurons play only a stabilizing role for the network dynamics. Motivated by recent experimental discoveries of hippocampal circuitry, cortical circuitry, and the diversity of inhibitory neurons throughout the brain, here we illustrate that one can construct such networks even if the connectivity between the excitatory units in the system remains random...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138923/hippocampal-caudate-nucleus-interactions-support-exceptional-memory-performance
#11
Nils C J Müller, Boris N Konrad, Nils Kohn, Monica Muñoz-López, Michael Czisch, Guillén Fernández, Martin Dresler
Participants of the annual World Memory Championships regularly demonstrate extraordinary memory feats, such as memorising the order of 52 playing cards in 20 s or 1000 binary digits in 5 min. On a cognitive level, memory athletes use well-known mnemonic strategies, such as the method of loci. However, whether these feats are enabled solely through the use of mnemonic strategies or whether they benefit additionally from optimised neural circuits is still not fully clarified. Investigating 23 leading memory athletes, we found volumes of their right hippocampus and caudate nucleus were stronger correlated with each other compared to matched controls; both these volumes positively correlated with their position in the memory sports world ranking...
November 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137828/differentiating-between-clinical-and-behavioral-phenotypes-in-first-episode-psychosis-during-maintenance-of-visuospatial-working-memory
#12
Maria Jalbrzikowski, Vishnu P Murty, Patricia L Stan, Jusmita Saifullan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Beatriz Luna
INTRODUCTION: We probed the neural basis of working memory in individuals with first episode of psychosis (FEP) and assessed how these neural abnormalities are associated with behavioral performance and/or core to psychosis pathophysiology. METHODS: FEP (N=35) and matched controls (N=25) performed a visuospatial working memory task during fMRI acquisition. We isolated neural activity during the maintenance period and examined neural activity within regions typically engaged during a working memory task...
November 11, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137413/abnormal-neural-activities-of-directional-brain-networks-in-patients-with-long-term-bilateral-hearing-loss
#13
Long-Chun Xu, Gang Zhang, Yue Zou, Min-Feng Zhang, Dong-Sheng Zhang, Hua Ma, Wen-Bo Zhao, Guang-Yu Zhang
The objective of the study is to provide some implications for rehabilitation of hearing impairment by investigating changes of neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss. Firstly, we implemented neuropsychological tests of 21 subjects (11 patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss, and 10 subjects with normal hearing), and these tests revealed significant differences between the deaf group and the controls. Then we constructed the individual specific virtual brain based on functional magnetic resonance data of participants by utilizing effective connectivity and multivariate regression methods...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137029/neural-reorganization-between-injured-cingula-and-the-brainstem-cholinergic-nuclei-in-a-patient-with-cerebral-concussion-a-case-report
#14
Sung Ho Jang, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: We report on a patient who showed neural reorganization between injured cingula and the brainstem cholinergic nuclei following cerebral concussion. PATIENT CONCERNS: The main concern of the patient is memory impairment. DIAGNOSES: Cerebral concussion. OUTCOMES: When she visited our hospital at 2 years after onset, cognitive function was evaluated using 2 scales; the Wechsler Intelligence Scale, and the Seoul neuropsychological screening battery: total IQ 97, verbal immediate recall 5...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#15
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136131/characteristic-increases-in-eeg-connectivity-correlate-with-changes-of-structural-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#16
Bahman Nasseroleslami, Stefan Dukic, Michael Broderick, Kieran Mohr, Christina Schuster, Brighid Gavin, Russell McLaughlin, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Parameswaran M Iyer, Niall Pender, Peter Bede, Edmund C Lalor, Orla Hardiman
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal progressive adult-onset neurodegeneration of the motor system. Although originally considered a pure motor degeneration, there is increasing evidence of disease heterogeneity with varying degrees of extra-motor involvement. How the combined motor and nonmotor degeneration occurs in the context of broader disruption in neural communication across brain networks has not been well characterized. Here, we have performed high-density crossectional and longitudinal resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recordings on 100 ALS patients and 34 matched controls, and have identified characteristic patterns of altered EEG connectivity that have persisted in longitudinal analyses...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134457/thinking-about-others-and-the-future-neural-correlates-of-perspective-taking-relate-to-preferences-for-delayed-rewards
#17
Garret O'Connell, Chun-Ting Hsu, Anastasia Christakou, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
We infer the thoughts and feelings of others by taking their perspectives. Similar processes could be used to understand how we will be affected by future events, by allowing us to take the perspective of our future self. In this paper, we test this idea using a previously presented framework for guiding predictions. The framework proposes that a shared neural mechanism is involved in controlling egocentric bias, both while shifting our perspective away from self and towards others, and while shifting our perspective from immediate to future perspectives...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133952/engaging-homeostatic-plasticity-to-treat-depression
#18
E R Workman, F Niere, K F Raab-Graham
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex and heterogeneous mood disorder, making it difficult to develop a generalized, pharmacological therapy that is effective for all who suffer from MDD. Through the fortuitous discovery of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as effective antidepressants, we have gained key insights into how antidepressant effects can be produced at the circuit and molecular levels. NMDAR antagonists act as rapid-acting antidepressants such that relief from depressive symptoms occurs within hours of a single injection...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133431/restoration-of-dendritic-complexity-functional-connectivity-and-diversity-of-regenerated-retinal-bipolar-neurons-in-adult-zebrafish
#19
Timothy E McGinn, Diana M Mitchell, Peter C Meighan, Natalie Partington, Dylan C Leoni, Christina E Jenkins, Michael D Varnum, Deborah L Stenkamp
Adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) are capable of regenerating retinal neurons that have been lost due to mechanical, chemical, or light damage. In the case of chemical damage, there is evidence that visually-mediated behaviors are restored following regeneration, consistent with recovery of retinal function. However, the extent to which regenerated retinal neurons attain appropriate morphologies and circuitry after such tissue-disrupting lesions has not been investigated. Adult zebrafish of both sexes were subjected to intravitreal injections of ouabain, which destroys the inner retina...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131818/electrical-stimulus-artifact-cancellation-and-neural-spike-detection-on-large-multi-electrode-arrays
#20
Gonzalo E Mena, Lauren E Grosberg, Sasidhar Madugula, Paweł Hottowy, Alan Litke, John Cunningham, E J Chichilnisky, Liam Paninski
Simultaneous electrical stimulation and recording using multi-electrode arrays can provide a valuable technique for studying circuit connectivity and engineering neural interfaces. However, interpreting these measurements is challenging because the spike sorting process (identifying and segregating action potentials arising from different neurons) is greatly complicated by electrical stimulation artifacts across the array, which can exhibit complex and nonlinear waveforms, and overlap temporarily with evoked spikes...
November 13, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
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