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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319835/convergent-and-divergent-effects-of-apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-and-%C3%AE%C2%B52-alleles-on-amygdala-functional-networks-in-nondemented-older-adults
#1
Liang Gong, Hao Shu, Cancan He, Qing Ye, Feng Bai, Chunming Xie, Zhijun Zhang
Traditionally, in the context of Alzheimer's disease, the apolipoprotein E ε2 (APOEε2) allele is a protective factor and the APOEε4 allele is a destructive factor. However, this inverse relationship has recently been challenged, and the neural mechanisms underlying the effects of APOE genotype on Alzheimer's disease remain unclear. A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted to investigate the effects of APOE genotype and age on amygdala functional connectivity (AFC) networks in 84 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 124 cognitively normal order adults...
February 24, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318903/understanding-human-intention-by-connecting-perception-and-action-learning-in-artificial-agents
#2
Sangwook Kim, Zhibin Yu, Minho Lee
To develop an advanced human-robot interaction system, it is important to first understand how human beings learn to perceive, think, and act in an ever-changing world. In this paper, we propose an intention understanding system that uses an Object Augmented-Supervised Multiple Timescale Recurrent Neural Network (OA-SMTRNN) and demonstrate the effects of perception-action connected learning in an artificial agent, which is inspired by psychological and neurological phenomena in humans. We believe that action and perception are not isolated processes in human mental development, and argue that these psychological and neurological interactions can be replicated in a human-machine scenario...
February 11, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318539/a-revival-of-the-homo-loquens-as-a-builder-of-labeled-structures-neurocognitive-considerations
#3
REVIEW
T Goucha, E Zaccarella, A D Friederici
The core capacity of human language is described as the faculty to combine words into hierarchical structures. This review aims to isolate the fundamental computation behind the language faculty together with its neural implementation. First, we present our central hypothesis by confronting recent linguistic theory with evolutionary arguments: linguistic humaniqueness is reflected in the labeling of word combinations forming asymmetric hierarchical structures. Second, we review the neurolinguistic literature, especially focusing on dual-stream connectivity models...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316248/assessing-the-impact-of-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms-on-resting-state-function-networks-in-a-military-chronic-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-sample
#4
Dominic E Nathan, Julie F Bellgowan, Louis M French, Jonathan P Wolf, Terry Oakes, Jeannine B Mielke, Elyssa B Sham, Wei Liu, Gerard Riedy
The relationship between post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic symptoms of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is difficult to discern and poorly understood. An accurate differential diagnosis, assessment and treatment of mTBI and PTSD is challenging due to significant symptom overlap and the absence of clearly established biomarkers. The objective of this work is to examine how post traumatic stress influences task-free brain networks in chronic mTBI subjects. Control subjects (N=44) were compared with chronic mTBI subjects with low (N=58, PCLC total<30), medium (N=124, PCLC total = 31-49) and high (N=105, PCLC total ≥ 60) post traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS)...
March 19, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315366/amygdala-functional-connectivity-is-associated-with-locus-of-control-in-the-context-of-cognitive-aging
#5
Ping Ren, Mia Anthony, Benjamin P Chapman, Kathi Heffner, Feng Lin
Locus of control (LOC) measures the extent to which individuals perceive control over their lives. Those with a more "internal" LOC feel self-sufficient and able to determine important aspects of their own future, while those with a more "external" LOC feel that their lives are governed by events beyond their control. Reduced internal LOC and increased external LOC have been found in cognitive disorders, but the neural substrates of these control perceptions are yet unknown. In the present study, we explored the relationship between amygdala functional connectivity and LOC in 18 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and age-, sex-, and education-matched, 22 cognitively healthy controls (HC)...
March 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314813/tdcs-induced-modulation-of-gaba-levels-and-resting-state-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults
#6
Daria Antonenko, Florian Schubert, Florian Bohm, Bernd Ittermann, Semiha Aydin, Dayana Hayek, Ulrike Grittner, Agnes Flöel
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates human behavior, neuronal patterns and metabolite concentrations, with exciting potential for neurorehabilitation. However, the understanding of tDCS-induced alterations on the neuronal level is incomplete and conclusions from young adults, in whom the majority of studies have been conducted, cannot be easily transferred to older populations. Here, we investigated tDCS-induced effects in older adults (N=48, age range 50-79 years) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels as well as resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess sensorimotor network strength and inter-hemispheric connectivity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304298/exercise-training-and-functional-connectivity-changes-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-healthy-elders
#7
Theresa J Chirles, Katherine Reiter, Lauren R Weiss, Alfonso J Alfini, Kristy A Nielson, J Carson Smith
BACKGROUND: Effective interventions are needed to improve brain function in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus is a hub of the default mode network (DMN) and is preferentially vulnerable to disruption of functional connectivity in MCI and AD. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether 12 weeks of aerobic exercise could enhance functional connectivity of the PCC/precuneus in MCI and healthy elders...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303097/language-learning-enhanced-by-massive-multiple-online-role-playing-games-mmorpgs-and-the-underlying-behavioral-and-neural-mechanisms
#8
REVIEW
Yongjun Zhang, Hongwen Song, Xiaoming Liu, Dinghong Tang, Yue-E Chen, Xiaochu Zhang
Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) have increased in popularity among children, juveniles, and adults since MMORPGs' appearance in this digital age. MMORPGs can be applied to enhancing language learning, which is drawing researchers' attention from different fields and many studies have validated MMORPGs' positive effect on language learning. However, there are few studies on the underlying behavioral or neural mechanism of such effect. This paper reviews the educational application of the MMORPGs based on relevant macroscopic and microscopic studies, showing that gamers' overall language proficiency or some specific language skills can be enhanced by real-time online interaction with peers and game narratives or instructions embedded in the MMORPGs...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300552/monoaminergic-modulation-of-gabaergic-transmission-onto-cerebellar-globular-cells
#9
Moritoshi Hirono, Soichi Nagao, Yuchio Yanagawa, Shiro Konishi
Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) project their axon collaterals to underneath of the PC layer and make GABAergic synaptic contacts with globular cells, a subgroup of Lugaro cells. GABAergic transmission derived from the PC axon collaterals is so powerful that it could inhibit globular cells and regulate their firing patterns. However, the physiological properties and implications of the GABAergic synapses on globular cells remain unknown. Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from globular cells in the mouse cerebellum, we examined the monoaminergic modulation of GABAergic inputs to these cells...
March 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299654/roles-of-runx-genes-in-nervous-system-development
#10
Jae Woong Wang, Stefano Stifani
Runt-related (Runx) transcription factors play essential roles during development and adult tissue homeostasis and are responsible for several human diseases. They regulate a variety of biological mechanisms in numerous cell lineages. Recent years have seen significant progress in our understanding of the functions performed by Runx proteins in the developing and postnatal mammalian nervous system. In both central and peripheral nervous systems, Runx1 and Runx3 display remarkably specific expression in mostly non-overlapping groups of postmitotic neurons...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299208/sensorimotor-cortical-neuroplasticity-in-the-early-stage-of-bell-s-palsy
#11
Wenwen Song, Minhui Dai, Lihua Xuan, Zhijian Cao, Sisi Zhou, Courtney Lang, Kun Lv, Maosheng Xu, Jian Kong
Neuroplasticity is a common phenomenon in the human brain following nerve injury. It is defined as the brain's ability to reorganize by creating new neural pathways in order to adapt to change. Here, we use task-related and resting-state fMRI to investigate neuroplasticity in the primary sensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) in patients with acute Bell's palsy (BP). We found that the period directly following the onset of BP (less than 14 days) is associated with significant decreases in regional homogeneity (ReHo), fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) values in the contralateral S1/M1 and in ReHo and ICC values in the ipsilateral S1/M1, compared to healthy controls...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298044/a-novel-method-of-lengthening-the-accessory-nerve-for-direct-coaptation-during-nerve-repair-and-nerve-transfer-procedures
#12
R Shane Tubbs, Andrés A Maldonado, Yolanda Stoves, Fabian N Fries, Rong Li, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, Robert J Spinner
OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295837/compromised-hippocampus-striatum-pathway-as-a-potential-imaging-biomarker-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#13
D Rangaprakash, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Thomas A Daniel, Adam M Goodman, Jennifer L Robinson, Nouha Salibi, Jeffrey S Katz, Thomas S Denney, Michael N Dretsch
OBJECTIVES: Military service members risk acquiring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and mild-traumatic brain injury (mTBI), with high comorbidity. Owing to overlapping symptomatology in chronic mTBI or postconcussion syndrome (PCS) and PTSD, it is difficult to assess the etiology of a patient's condition without objective measures. Using resting-state functional MRI in a novel framework, we tested the hypothesis that their neural signatures are characterized by functionally hyperconnected brain regions which are less variable over time...
March 15, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294716/cortical-networks-involved-in-memory-for-temporal-order
#14
Anna Manelis, Vencislav Popov, Christopher Paynter, Matthew Walsh, Mark E Wheeler, Keith M Vogt, Lynne M Reder
We examined the neurobiological basis of temporal resetting, an aspect of temporal order memory, using a version of the delayed-match-to-multiple-sample task. While in an fMRI scanner, participants evaluated whether an item was novel or whether it had appeared before or after a reset event that signified the start of a new block of trials. Participants responded "old" to items that were repeated within the current block and "new" to both novel items and items that had last appeared before the reset event (pseudonew items)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294714/where-is-the-beat-the-neural-correlates-of-lexical-stress-and-rhythmical-well-formedness-in-auditory-story-comprehension
#15
Katerina D Kandylaki, Karen Henrich, Arne Nagels, Tilo Kircher, Ulrike Domahs, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Richard Wiese
While processing continuous speech, humans use beat perception to correctly identify word boundaries. The beats of language are stress patterns that are created by combining lexical (word-specific) stress patterns and the rhythm of a specific language. Sometimes, the lexical stress pattern needs to be altered to obey the rhythm of the language. This study investigated this interplay of lexical stress patterns and rhythmical well-formedness in natural speech with fMRI. Previous electrophysiological studies on cases in which a regular lexical stress pattern may be altered to obtain rhythmical well-formedness showed that even subtle rhythmic deviations are detected by the brain if attention is directed toward prosody...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293801/theta-burst-stimulation-of-the-precuneus-modulates-resting-state-connectivity-in-the-left-temporal-pole
#16
Matteo Mancini, Chiara Mastropasqua, Sonia Bonnì, Viviana Ponzo, Mara Cercignani, Silvia Conforto, Giacomo Koch, Marco Bozzali
It has been shown that continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over the precuneus acts on specific memory retrieval abilities. In order to study the neural mechanisms beyond these findings, we combined cTBS and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our experimental protocol involved stimulation and sham conditions on a group of healthy subjects, and each condition included a baseline and two follow-up acquisitions (5 and 15 min after baseline) after cTBS. We analysed brain functional connectivity by means of graph theoretical measures, with a specific focus on the network modular structure...
March 14, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293185/hypoconnectivity-of-resting-state-networks-in-persons-with-aphasia-compared-with-healthy-age-matched-adults
#17
Chaleece W Sandberg
Aphasia is a language disorder affecting more than one million people in the US. While language function has traditionally been the focus of neuroimaging research, other cognitive functions are affected in this population, which has implications not only for those specific processes but also for the interaction of language and other cognitive functions. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a practical and informative way to explore and characterize general cognitive engagement and/or health in this population, but it is currently underutilized...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293180/brief-mental-training-reorganizes-large-scale-brain-networks
#18
Yi-Yuan Tang, Yan Tang, Rongxiang Tang, Jarrod A Lewis-Peacock
Emerging evidences have shown that one form of mental training-mindfulness meditation, can improve attention, emotion regulation and cognitive performance through changing brain activity and structural connectivity. However, whether and how the short-term mindfulness meditation alters large-scale brain networks are not well understood. Here, we applied a novel data-driven technique, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data to identify changes in brain activity patterns and assess the neural mechanisms induced by a brief mindfulness training-integrative body-mind training (IBMT), which was previously reported in our series of randomized studies...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293163/an-fpga-platform-for-real-time-simulation-of-spiking-neuronal-networks
#19
Danilo Pani, Paolo Meloni, Giuseppe Tuveri, Francesca Palumbo, Paolo Massobrio, Luigi Raffo
In the last years, the idea to dynamically interface biological neurons with artificial ones has become more and more urgent. The reason is essentially due to the design of innovative neuroprostheses where biological cell assemblies of the brain can be substituted by artificial ones. For closed-loop experiments with biological neuronal networks interfaced with in silico modeled networks, several technological challenges need to be faced, from the low-level interfacing between the living tissue and the computational model to the implementation of the latter in a suitable form for real-time processing...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291690/social-cognitive-brain-function-and-connectivity-during-visual-perspective-taking-in-autism-and-schizophrenia
#20
Shaun M Eack, Jessica A Wojtalik, Matcheri S Keshavan, Nancy J Minshew
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental conditions that are characterized by significant social impairment. Emerging genomic and neurobiological evidence has increasingly pointed to shared pathophysiologic mechanisms in the two disorders. Overlap in social impairment may reflect similar underlying neural dysfunction in social-cognitive brain networks, yet few studies have directly compared brain function and communication between those with ASD and schizophrenia...
March 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
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