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Neural connectivity

Jose M Sanchez Bornot, KongFatt Wong-Lin, Alwani Liyana Ahmad, Girijesh Prasad
The brain's functional connectivity (FC) estimated at sensor level from electromagnetic (EEG/MEG) signals can provide quick and useful information towards understanding cognition and brain disorders. Volume conduction (VC) is a fundamental issue in FC analysis due to the effects of instantaneous correlations. FC methods based on the imaginary part of the coherence (iCOH) of any two signals are readily robust to VC effects, but neglecting the real part of the coherence leads to negligible FC when the processes are truly connected but with zero or π-phase (modulus 2π) interaction...
March 15, 2018: Brain Topography
Luqing Wei, Hong Chen, Guo-Rong Wu
The neurovisceral integration model has shown a key role of the amygdala in neural circuits underlying heart rate variability (HRV) modulation, and suggested that reciprocal connections from amygdala to brain regions centered on the central autonomic network (CAN) are associated with HRV. To provide neuroanatomical evidence for these theoretical perspectives, the current study used covariance analysis of MRI-based gray matter volume (GMV) to map structural covariance network of the amygdala, and then determined whether the interregional structural correlations related to individual differences in HRV...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Zhenyu Zhu, Rubin Wang, Fengyun Zhu
Based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model, the present study established a fully connected structural neural network to simulate the neural activity and energy consumption of the network by neural energy coding theory. The numerical simulation result showed that the periodicity of the network energy distribution was positively correlated to the number of neurons and coupling strength, but negatively correlated to signal transmitting delay. Moreover, a relationship was established between the energy distribution feature and the synchronous oscillation of the neural network, which showed that when the proportion of negative energy in power consumption curve was high, the synchronous oscillation of the neural network was apparent...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Luis R Peraza, Ruth Cromarty, Xenia Kobeleva, Michael J Firbank, Alison Killen, Sara Graziadio, Alan J Thomas, John T O'Brien, John-Paul Taylor
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) require differential management despite presenting with symptomatic overlap. Currently, there is a need of inexpensive DLB biomarkers which can be fulfilled by electroencephalography (EEG). In this regard, an established electrophysiological difference in DLB is a decrease of dominant frequency (DF)-the frequency with the highest signal power between 4 and 15 Hz. Here, we investigated network connectivity in EEG signals acquired from DLB patients, and whether these networks were able to differentiate DLB from healthy controls (HCs) and associated dementias...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
James P Roach, Aleksandra Pidde, Eitan Katz, Jiaxing Wu, Nicolette Ognjanovski, Sara J Aton, Michal R Zochowski
Network oscillations across and within brain areas are critical for learning and performance of memory tasks. While a large amount of work has focused on the generation of neural oscillations, their effect on neuronal populations' spiking activity and information encoding is less known. Here, we use computational modeling to demonstrate that a shift in resonance responses can interact with oscillating input to ensure that networks of neurons properly encode new information represented in external inputs to the weights of recurrent synaptic connections...
March 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qihong Zou, Shuqin Zhou, Jing Xu, Zihui Su, Yuezhen Li, Yundong Ma, Hongqiang Sun, Changwei W Wu, Jia-Hong Gao
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been frequently associated with dreaming. However, mounting evidence obtained from behavioral, pharmacological, and brain imaging studies suggests that REM sleep is not indicative of the dream report and may originate from diverse neural substrates in brain functionality. The aim of the current study was to investigate the functional systems associated with inter-individual differences in dream recall and REM sleep through assessments of the resting-state functional connectivity...
March 12, 2018: NeuroImage
Yoonjin Nah, Na-Young Shin, Sehjung Yi, Seung-Koo Lee, Sanghoon Han
Numerous studies have suggested that postpartum women show a decline in cognitive abilities. However, to date, no study has investigated the presence of qualitative alterations in recognition memory processes in postpartum women that may lead to a decline in cognitive ability. To address this issue, we employed the Remember/Know procedure and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral results demonstrated that compared with the matched control (CTRL) group, the postpartum (PP) group endorsed "Remember" less and "Know" more to old items...
March 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Michela Balconi, Laura Gatti, Maria Elide Vanutelli
Cooperation behavior is a core question of study on social neuroscience. In the present study, inter-brain functional connectivity and cognitive performance were considered during joint which was failing. The cognitive performance and the EEG (brain oscillations from delta to beta) underlying the execution of joint-actions were recorded when dyads of participants executed synchronicity game and received reinforcing negative feedbacks A pre-feedback condition (cooperation) and a control condition (individual task, T0) were provided as well as a check for possible learning effect (time series analysis)...
March 12, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Bin Li, Yaqing Liu, Changjin Wan, Zhiyuan Liu, Ming Wang, Dianpeng Qi, Jiancan Yu, Pingqiang Cai, Meng Xiao, Yi Zeng, Xiaodong Chen
Memristive synapses based on resistive switching are promising electronic devices that emulate the synaptic plasticity in neural systems. Short-term plasticity (STP), reflecting a temporal strengthening of the synaptic connection, allows artificial synapses to perform critical computational functions, such as fast response and information filtering. To mediate this fundamental property in memristive electronic devices, the regulation of the dynamic resistive change is necessary for an artificial synapse. Here, it is demonstrated that the orientation of mesopores in the dielectric silica layer can be used to modulate the STP of an artificial memristive synapse...
March 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
Christopher Ebsch, Robert Rosenbaum
Understanding the relationship between external stimuli and the spiking activity of cortical populations is a central problem in neuroscience. Dense recurrent connectivity in local cortical circuits can lead to counterintuitive response properties, raising the question of whether there are simple arithmetical rules for relating circuits' connectivity structure to their response properties. One such arithmetic is provided by the mean field theory of balanced networks, which is derived in a limit where excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents precisely balance on average...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Alfonso González-Briones, Javier Prieto, Fernando De La Prieta, Enrique Herrera-Viedma, Juan M Corchado
At present, the domotization of homes and public buildings is becoming increasingly popular. Domotization is most commonly applied to the field of energy management, since it gives the possibility of managing the consumption of the devices connected to the electric network, the way in which the users interact with these devices, as well as other external factors that influence consumption. In buildings, Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems have the highest consumption rates. The systems proposed so far have not succeeded in optimizing the energy consumption associated with a HVAC system because they do not monitor all the variables involved in electricity consumption...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Angus P Yu, Bjorn T Tam, Christopher W Lai, Doris S Yu, Jean Woo, Ka-Fai Chung, Stanley S Hui, Justina Y Liu, Gao X Wei, Parco M Siu
Tai Chi Chuan (TCC), a traditional Chinese martial art, is well-documented to result in beneficial consequences in physical and mental health. TCC is regarded as a mind-body exercise that is comprised of physical exercise and meditation. Favorable effects of TCC on body balance, gait, bone mineral density, metabolic parameters, anxiety, depression, cognitive function, and sleep have been previously reported. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining the effects of TCC remain largely unclear. Recently, advances in neuroimaging technology have offered new investigative opportunities to reveal the effects of TCC on anatomical morphologies and neurological activities in different regions of the brain...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Stefan Elmer, Lutz Jäncke
Numerous studies have documented the behavioral advantages conferred on professional musicians and children undergoing music training in processing speech sounds varying in the spectral and temporal dimensions. These beneficial effects have previously often been associated with local functional and structural changes in the auditory cortex (AC). However, this perspective is oversimplified, in that it does not take into account the intrinsic organization of the human brain, namely, neural networks and oscillatory dynamics...
March 15, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Lotte F van Dillen, Henk van Steenbergen
The present research examined whether cognitive load modulates the neural processing of appetitive, high-calorie food stimuli. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants quickly categorized high-calorie and low-calorie food pictures versus object pictures as edible or inedible while they concurrently performed a digit-span task that varied between low and high cognitive load (memorizing six digits vs. one digit). In line with predictions, the digit-span task engaged the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when cognitive load was high compared to low...
March 14, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Mahtab Mojtahed Zadeh, Maryam Haghshomar, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Psychiatric symptoms and motor impairment are major contributions to the poor quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach, diffusion MRI connectometry, to investigate the correlation of quality of life, evaluated by Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ39) with the white matter structural connectivity in 27 non-demented PD patients (disease duration of 5.3 ± 2.9 years, H and Y stage = 1.5 ± 0.6, UPDRS-III = 13.7 ± 6.5, indicating unilateral and mild motor involvement)...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Poornima Kumar, Franziska Goer, Laura Murray, Daniel G Dillon, Miranda L Beltzer, Andrew L Cohen, Nancy H Brooks, Diego A Pizzagalli
Anhedonia (hyposensitivity to rewards) and negative bias (hypersensitivity to punishments) are core features of major depressive disorder (MDD), which could stem from abnormal reinforcement learning. Emerging evidence highlights blunted reward learning and reward prediction error (RPE) signaling in the striatum in MDD, although inconsistencies exist. Preclinical studies have clarified that ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons encode RPE and habenular neurons encode punishment prediction error (PPE), which are then transmitted to the striatum and cortex to guide goal-directed behavior...
February 26, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Vipan K Parihar, Mattia Maroso, Amber Syage, Barrett D Allen, Maria C Angulo, Ivan Soltesz, Charles L Limoli
Of the many perils associated with deep space travel to Mars, neurocognitive complications associated with cosmic radiation exposure are of particular concern. Despite these realizations, whether and how realistic doses of cosmic radiation cause cognitive deficits and neuronal circuitry alterations several months after exposure remains unclear. In addition, even less is known about the temporal progression of cosmic radiation-induced changes transpiring over the duration of a time period commensurate with a flight to Mars...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Sophie H Bennett, Alastair J Kirby, Gerald T Finnerty
Neuronal connections form the physical basis for communication in the brain. Recently, there has been much interest in mapping the "connectome" to understand how brain structure gives rise to brain function, and ultimately, to behaviour. These attempts to map the connectome have largely assumed that connections are stable once formed. Recent studies, however, indicate that connections in mammalian brains may undergo rewiring during learning and experience-dependent plasticity. This suggests that the connectome is more dynamic than previously thought...
March 11, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Ondrej Bezdicek, Tommaso Ballarini, Filip Růžička, Jan Roth, Karsten Mueller, Robert Jech, Matthias L Schroeter
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects approximately one-third of non-demented Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. We aimed at investigating the neural correlates of MCI in PD combining multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with large-scale data from the literature. We analyzed 31 PD patients and 30 matched controls. The standard neuropsychological assessment of PD-MCI covered memory, attention, executive functions, language and visuospatial abilities. Following validated criteria, 16 patients were classified as showing MCI...
March 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jean-Paul Noel, Olaf Blanke, Elisa Magosso, Andrea Serino
Interactions between the body and the environment occur within the Peri-Personal Space (PPS), the space immediately surrounding the body. The PPS is encoded by multisensory (audio-tactile, visual-tactile) neurons that possess receptive fields (RFs) anchored on the body and restricted in depth. The extension in depth of PPS neurons' RFs has been documented to change dynamically as a function of the velocity of incoming stimuli, but the underlying neural mechanisms are still unknown. Here, by integrating a psychophysical approach with neural network modeling, we propose a mechanistic explanation behind this inherent dynamic property of PPS...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
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