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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921686/the-effects-of-dynamical-synapses-on-firing-rate-activity-a-spiking-neural-network-model
#1
Radwa Khalil, Marie Z Moftah, Ahmed A Moustafa
Accumulating evidence relates the fine-tuning of synaptic maturation and regulation of neural network activity to several key factors, including GABAA signaling and a lateral spread length between neighboring neurons (i.e. local connectivity). Furthermore, a number of studies consider Short-Term synaptic Plasticity (STP) as an essential element in the instant modification of synaptic efficacy in the neuronal network and in modulating responses to sustained ranges of external Poisson Input Frequency (IF). Nevertheless, evaluating the firing activity in response to the dynamical interaction between STP (triggered by ranges of IF), and these key parameters in vitro remains elusive...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920933/modular-organization-of-the-brainstem-noradrenaline-system-coordinates-opposing-learning-states
#2
Akira Uematsu, Bao Zhen Tan, Edgar A Ycu, Jessica Sulkes Cuevas, Jenny Koivumaa, Felix Junyent, Eric J Kremer, Ilana B Witten, Karl Deisseroth, Joshua P Johansen
Noradrenaline modulates global brain states and diverse behaviors through what is traditionally believed to be a homogeneous cell population in the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC). However, it is unclear how LC coordinates disparate behavioral functions. We report a modular LC organization in rats, endowed with distinct neural projection patterns and coding properties for flexible specification of opposing behavioral learning states. LC projection mapping revealed functionally distinct cell modules with specific anatomical connectivity...
September 18, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919535/altered-gray-matter-volume-cerebral-blood-flow-and-functional-connectivity-in-chronic-stroke-patients
#3
Peifang Miao, Caihong Wang, Peng Li, Sen Wei, Chunshan Deng, Dandan Zheng, Jingliang Cheng
It is entangled connections and intensive functional interactions between cortex and subcortical structures that enable our brain to perform delicate movement, and poses plasticity to recover from stroke. However, it is still unclear how cortical structures and functions change in well-recovered patients from subcortical infarctions in motor pathway. In order to reveal neuroplasticity underlying well-recovered stroke patients, both structural (gray matter volume, GMV) and functional reorganizations (cerebral blood flow, CBF and resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) were investigated by using multi-modal MRI...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919407/how-to-target-inter-regional-phase-synchronization-with-dual-site-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation
#4
Guilherme Bicalho Saturnino, Kristoffer Hougaard Madsen, Hartwig Roman Siebner, Axel Thielscher
Large-scale synchronization of neural oscillations is a key mechanism for functional information exchange among brain areas. Dual-site Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (ds-TACS) has been recently introduced as non-invasive technique to manipulate the temporal phase relationship of local oscillations in two connected cortical areas. While the frequency of ds-TACS is matched, the phase of stimulation is either identical (in-phase stimulation) or opposite (anti-phase stimulation) in the two cortical target areas...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918935/dense-intra-adipose-sympathetic-arborizations-are-essential-for-cold-induced-beiging-of-mouse-white-adipose-tissue
#5
Haochen Jiang, Xiaofan Ding, Ying Cao, Huanhuan Wang, Wenwen Zeng
Efferent signals from the central nervous system represent a key layer of regulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the mechanism by which efferent neural signals control WAT metabolism remains to be better understood. Here, we exploit the volume fluorescence-imaging technique to visualize the neural arborizations in mouse inguinal WAT at single-fiber resolution. The imaging reveals a dense network of sympathetic arborizations that had been previously undetected by conventional methods, with sympathetic fibers being in close apposition to > 90% of adipocytes...
September 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917697/trajectories-of-brain-system-maturation-from-childhood-to-older-adulthood-implications-for-lifespan-cognitive-functioning
#6
Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917135/failing-to-learn-from-negative-prediction-errors-obesity-is-associated-with-alterations-in-a-fundamental-neural-learning-mechanism
#7
David Mathar, Jane Neumann, Arno Villringer, Annette Horstmann
Prediction errors (PEs) encode the difference between expected and actual action outcomes in the brain via dopaminergic modulation. Integration of these learning signals ensures efficient behavioral adaptation. Obesity has recently been linked to altered dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuits, thus implying impairments in cognitive domains that rely on its integrity. 28 obese and 30 lean human participants performed an implicit stimulus-response learning paradigm inside an fMRI scanner. Computational modeling and psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis was utilized for assessing PE-related learning and associated functional connectivity...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917120/automated-arteriole-and-venule-classification-using-deep-learning-for-retinal-images-from-the-uk-biobank-cohort
#8
R A Welikala, P J Foster, P H Whincup, A R Rudnicka, C G Owen, D P Strachan, S A Barman
The morphometric characteristics of the retinal vasculature are associated with future risk of many systemic and vascular diseases. However, analysis of data from large population based studies is needed to help resolve uncertainties in some of these associations. This requires automated systems that extract quantitative measures of vessel morphology from large numbers of retinal images. Associations between retinal vessel morphology and disease precursors/outcomes may be similar or opposing for arterioles and venules...
September 8, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916500/early-life-stress-modulates-neural-networks-associated-with-habitual-use-of-reappraisal
#9
Elissa El Khawli, Yan Fan, Sabine Aust, Katharina Wirth, Luisa Bönke, Amie Stevense, Ana Herrera, Sophie Metz, Andrea Loayza, Malek Bajbouj, Simone Grimm
Recent evidence shows that early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, as well as with maladaptive emotion regulation strategies and negative mood. However, the relation between ELS and maladaptive emotion regulation is not deterministic. Adaptive emotion regulation strategies such as reappraisal can also ensue from experience and learning in adulthood and can prevent negative mood. The present study aims to investigate the joint influence of ELS, in particular early-life emotional abuse (EA), and habitual use of reappraisal on amygdala-centered RSFC and mood...
September 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913727/sleep-amount-differentially-affects-fear-processing-neural-circuitry-in-pediatric-anxiety-a-preliminary-fmri-investigation
#10
Christina O Carlisi, Kevin Hilbert, Amanda E Guyer, Monique Ernst
Insufficient sleep, as well as the incidence of anxiety disorders, both peak during adolescence. While both conditions present perturbations in fear-processing-related neurocircuitry, it is unknown whether these neurofunctional alterations directly link anxiety and compromised sleep in adolescents. Fourteen anxious adolescents (AAs) and 19 healthy adolescents (HAs) were compared on a measure of sleep amount and neural responses to negatively valenced faces during fMRI. Group differences in neural response to negative faces emerged in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the hippocampus...
September 14, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913718/identify-a-shared-neural-circuit-linking-multiple-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-with-alzheimer-s-pathology
#11
Xixi Wang, Ping Ren, Mark Mapstone, Yeates Conwell, Anton P Porsteinsson, John J Foxe, Rajeev D S Raizada, Feng Lin
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated neurodegeneration. However, NPS lack a consistent relationship with AD pathology. It is unknown whether any common neural circuits can link these clinically disparate while mechanistically similar features with AD pathology. Here, we explored the neural circuits of NPS in AD-associated neurodegeneration using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of resting-state functional MRI data. Data from 98 subjects (70 amnestic mild cognitive impairment and 28 AD subjects) were obtained...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913594/developmental-trajectory-of-the-prefrontal-cortex-a-systematic-review-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-studies
#12
Sónia S Sousa, Edson Amaro, Alberto Crego, Óscar F Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
Fluctuations in gray and white matter volumes in addition to the fibers' reorganization and refinement of synaptic connectivity apparently happen in a particular temporo-spatial sequence during the dynamic and prolonged process of cerebral maturation. These developmental events are associated with regional modifications of brain tissues and neural circuits, contributing to networks' specialization and enhanced cognitive processing. According to several studies, improvements in cognitive processes are possibly myelin-dependent and associated to white matter maturation...
September 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912749/functional-connectivity-of-the-corpus-callosum-in-epilepsy-patients-with-secondarily-generalized-seizures
#13
Syu-Jyun Peng, Yue-Loong Hsin
The corpus callosum (CC) plays an important role in generalization of seizure activity. We used resting-state function magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the regional and interregional functional connectivity of CC in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-negative and secondarily generalized seizures. We measured the multi-regional coherences of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals via rs-fMRI, cortical thickness via high-resolution T1-weighted MRI, and white matter (WM) integrity via diffusion-tensor imaging in 16 epilepsy patients as well as in 16 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912708/remodeling-pearson-s-correlation-for-functional-brain-network-estimation-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-identification
#14
Weikai Li, Zhengxia Wang, Limei Zhang, Lishan Qiao, Dinggang Shen
Functional brain network (FBN) has been becoming an increasingly important way to model the statistical dependence among neural time courses of brain, and provides effective imaging biomarkers for diagnosis of some neurological or psychological disorders. Currently, Pearson's Correlation (PC) is the simplest and most widely-used method in constructing FBNs. Despite its advantages in statistical meaning and calculated performance, the PC tends to result in a FBN with dense connections. Therefore, in practice, the PC-based FBN needs to be sparsified by removing weak (potential noisy) connections...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912706/dynamic-neural-fields-with-intrinsic-plasticity
#15
Claudius Strub, Gregor Schöner, Florentin Wörgötter, Yulia Sandamirskaya
Dynamic neural fields (DNFs) are dynamical systems models that approximate the activity of large, homogeneous, and recurrently connected neural networks based on a mean field approach. Within dynamic field theory, the DNFs have been used as building blocks in architectures to model sensorimotor embedding of cognitive processes. Typically, the parameters of a DNF in an architecture are manually tuned in order to achieve a specific dynamic behavior (e.g., decision making, selection, or working memory) for a given input pattern...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912695/region-and-cell-specific-expression-of-transmembrane-collagens-in-mouse-brain
#16
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Courtney N Knill, Ubadah Sabbagh, Jianmin Su, Michael A Fox
Unconventional collagens are nonfribrillar proteins that not only contribute to the structure of extracellular matrices but exhibit unique bio-activities. Although roles for unconventional collagens have been well-established in the development and function of non-neural tissues, only recently have studies identified roles for these proteins in brain development, and more specifically, in the formation and refinement of synaptic connections between neurons. Still, our understanding of the full cohort of unconventional collagens that are generated in the mammalian brain remains unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912568/intrinsic-neural-network-dysfunction-in-quiescent-crohn-s-disease
#17
Anne K Thomann, Martin Griebe, Philipp A Thomann, Dusan Hirjak, Matthias P Ebert, Kristina Szabo, Wolfgang Reindl, Robert C Wolf
Psychological factors and comorbidities play an important role in inflammatory bowel diseases. Such comorbidity could be associated with a specific neural phenotype. Brain regions associated with emotion regulation and self-referential processing, including areas assigned to the "default mode network" (DMN), could be promising candidates in this regard. We investigated the functional integrity of multiple intrinsic neural networks in remitted patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and sought to establish relationships between neural network connectivity and psychiatric symptoms...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912551/the-antipsychotic-drugs-olanzapine-and-haloperidol-modify-network-connectivity-and-spontaneous-activity-of-neural-networks-in-vitro
#18
Egor Dzyubenko, Georg Juckel, Andreas Faissner
Impaired neural synchronization is a hallmark of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia. It has been proposed that schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits are caused by an unbalance of reciprocal inhibitory and stimulatory signaling. This supposedly leads to decreased power of induced gamma oscillations during the performance of cognitive tasks. In light of this hypothesis an efficient antipsychotic treatment should modify the connectivity and synchronization of local neural circuits. To address this issue, we investigated a model of hippocampal neuronal networks in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912273/neuroligin-4-regulates-synaptic-growth-via-the-bone-morphogenetic-protein-bmp-signaling-pathway-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#19
Xinwang Zhang, Menglong Rui, Guangmin Gan, Cong Huang, Jukang Yi, Huihui Lv, Wei Xie
The neuroligin (Nlg) family of neural cell adhesion molecules is thought to be required for synapse formation and development, and has been linked to the development of autism spectrum disorders in humans. In Drosophila melanogaster, mutations in the neuroligin 1-3 genes have been reported to induce synapse developmental defects at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), but the role of neuroligin 4 (dnlg4) in synapse development has not been determined. Here, we report that the Drosophila neuroligin 4 (DNlg4) is different from DNlg1-3 that it presynaptically regulates NMJ synapse development...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912081/towards-understanding-rtms-mechanism-of-action-stimulation-of-the-dlpfc-causes-network-specific-increase-in-functional-connectivity
#20
Martin Tik, André Hoffmann, Ronald Sladky, Livia Tomova, Allan Hummer, Lucia Navarro de Lara, Henryk Bukowski, Jürgen Pripfl, Bharat Biswal, Claus Lamm, Christian Windischberger
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a powerful non-invasive technique for the modulation of brain activity. While the precise mechanism of action is still unknown, TMS is applied in cognitive neuroscience to establish causal relationships between stimulation and subsequent changes in cerebral function and behavioral outcome. In addition, TMS is an FDA-approved therapeutic agent in psychiatric disorders, especially major depression. Successful repetitive TMS in such disorders is usually applied over the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and treatment response mechanism was therefore supposed to be based on modulations in functional networks, particularly the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuit...
September 11, 2017: NeuroImage
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