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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635523/long-term-paired-associative-stimulation-enhances-motor-output-of-the-tetraplegic-hand
#1
Aleksandra Tolmacheva, Sarianna Savolainen, Erika Kirveskari, Pantelis Lioumis, Linda Kuusela, Nina Maria Brandstack, Aarne Ylinen, Jyrki Mäkelä, Anastasia Shulga
A large proportion of spinal cord injuries are incomplete. Even in clinically complete injuries, silent nonfunctional connections can be present. Therapeutic approaches that can strengthen transmission in weak neural connections to improve motor performance are needed. Our aim was to determine whether long-term delivery of paired associative stimulation (PAS, a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS)) can enhance motor output in the hands of patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, and to compare this technique with long-term PNS...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634514/cystic-lesions-of-peripheral-nerves-are-we-missing-the-diagnosis-of-the-intraneural-ganglion-cyst
#2
Jyoti Panwar, Anil Mathew, Binu P Thomas
AIM: To highlight the salient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the intraneural ganglion cyst (INGC) of various peripheral nerves for their precise diagnosis and to differentiate them from other intra and extra-neural cystic lesions. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the magnetic resonance (MR) images of a cohort of 245 patients presenting with nerve palsy involving different peripheral nerves was done. MR images were analyzed for the presence of a nerve lesion, and if found, it was further characterized as solid or cystic...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633970/unified-neural-field-theory-of-brain-dynamics-underlying-oscillations-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-generalized-epilepsies
#3
E J Müller, S J van Albada, J W Kim, P A Robinson
The mechanisms underlying pathologically synchronized neural oscillations in Parkinson's disease (PD) and generalized epilepsies are explored in parallel via a physiologically-based neural field model of the corticothalamic-basal ganglia (CTBG) system. The basal ganglia (BG) are approximated as a single effective population and their roles in the modulation of oscillatory dynamics of the corticothalamic (CT) system and vice versa are analyzed. In addition to normal EEG rhythms, enhanced activity around 4 Hz and 20 Hz exists in the model, consistent with the characteristic frequencies observed in PD...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633299/structural-covariance-networks-in-children-with-autism-or-adhd
#4
R A I Bethlehem, R Romero-Garcia, E Mak, E T Bullmore, S Baron-Cohen
Background: While autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are considered distinct conditions from a diagnostic perspective, clinically they share some phenotypic features and have high comorbidity. Regardless, most studies have focused on only one condition, with considerable heterogeneity in their results. Taking a dual-condition approach might help elucidate shared and distinct neural characteristics. Method: Graph theory was used to analyse topological properties of structural covariance networks across both conditions and relative to a neurotypical (NT; n = 87) group using data from the ABIDE (autism; n = 62) and ADHD-200 datasets (ADHD; n = 69)...
June 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633048/affective-traits-and-history-of-depression-are-related-to-ventral-striatum-connectivity
#5
Sophie R DelDonno, Lisanne M Jenkins, Natania A Crane, Robin Nusslock, Kelly A Ryan, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan, Scott A Langenecker
INTRODUCTION: Studying remitted Major Depressive Disorder (rMDD) facilitates a better understanding of neural mechanisms for risk, given that confounding effects of active symptoms are removed. Disrupted functional connectivity has been reported in multiple networks in MDD. However, no study to date of rMDD has specifically examined connectivity of the ventral striatum (VS), a region highly implicated in reward and motivation. We investigated functional connectivity of the VS in individuals with and without a history of MDD, and in relation to affective personality traits...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632905/the-malleable-brain-plasticity-of-neural-circuits-and-behavior-a-review-from-students-to-students
#6
REVIEW
Natascha Schaefer, Carola Rotermund, Eva-Maria Blumrich, Mychael V Lourenco, Pooja Joshi, Regina U Hegemann, Sumit Jamwal, Nilufar Ali, Ezra Michelet García Romero, Sorabh Sharma, Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra K Sinha, Hannah Loke, Vishal Jain, Katarzyna Lepeta, Ahmad Salamian, Mahima Sharma, Mojtaba Golpich, Katarzyna Nawrotek, Ramesh K Paidi, Sheila M Shahidzadeh, Tetsade Piermartiri, Elham Amini, Veronica Pastor, Yvette Wilson, Philip A Adeniyi, Ashok K Datusalia, Benham Vafadari, Vedangana Saini, Edna Suárez-Pozos, Neetu Kushwah, Paula Fontanet, Anthony J Turner
One of the most intriguing features of the brain is its ability to be malleable, allowing it to adapt continually to changes in the environment. Specific neuronal activity patterns drive long-lasting increases or decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) respectively. Such phenomena have been described in a variety of model organisms, which are used to study molecular, structural, and functional aspects of synaptic plasticity...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631404/structural-connectivity-differences-in-motor-network-between-tremor-dominant-and-nontremor-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Gaetano Barbagallo, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Gennarina Arabia, Andrea Cherubini, Angela Lupo, Rita Nisticò, Maria Salsone, Fabiana Novellino, Maurizio Morelli, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Domenico Galea, Aldo Quattrone
Motor phenotypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) are recognized to have different prognosis and therapeutic response, but the neural basis for this clinical heterogeneity remains largely unknown. The main aim of this study was to compare differences in structural connectivity metrics of the main motor network between tremor-dominant and nontremor PD phenotypes (TD-PD and NT-PD, respectively) using probabilistic tractography-based network analysis. A total of 63 PD patients (35 TD-PD patients and 28 NT-PD patients) and 30 healthy controls underwent a 3 T MRI...
June 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631147/the-motor-cortical-representation-of-a-muscle-is-not-homogeneous-in-brain-connectivity
#8
Jo Armour Smith, Alaa Albishi, Sarine Babikian, Skulpan Asavasopon, Beth E Fisher, Jason J Kutch
Functional connectivity patterns of the motor cortical representational area of single muscles have not been extensively mapped in humans, particularly for the axial musculature. Functional connectivity may provide a neural substrate for adaptation of muscle activity in axial muscles that have both voluntary and postural functions. The purpose of this study was to combine brain stimulation and neuroimaging to both map the cortical representation of the external oblique (EO) in primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA), and to establish the resting-state functional connectivity associated with this representation...
June 19, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630880/prominent-lateral-spread-of-imaged-evoked-activity-beyond-cortical-columns-in-barrel-cortex-provides-foundation-for-coding-whisker-identity
#9
Nathan S Jacobs, Ron D Frostig
The posterior medial barrel subfield (PMBSF) of a rat primary somatosensory cortex exquisitely demonstrates topography and columnar organization, defining features of sensory cortices in the mammalian brain. Optical imaging and neuronal recordings in rat PMBSF demonstrate how evoked cortical activity following single whisker stimulation also rapidly spreads laterally into surrounding cortices, disregarding columnar and modality boundaries. The current study quantifies the spatial prominence of such lateral activity spreads by demonstrating that functional connectivity between laterally spaced cortical locations is actually stronger than between vertically spaced cortical locations...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630661/intrainsular-connectivity-and-somatosensory-responsiveness-in-young-children-with-asd
#10
Michelle D Failla, Brittany R Peters, Haleh Karbasforoushan, Jennifer H Foss-Feig, Kimberly B Schauder, Brynna H Heflin, Carissa J Cascio
BACKGROUND: The human somatosensory system comprises dissociable paths for discriminative and affective touch, reflected in separate peripheral afferent populations and distinct cortical targets. Differences in behavioral and neural responses to affective touch may have an important developmental role in early social experiences, which are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Using probabilistic tractography, we compared the structural integrity of white matter pathways for discriminative and affective touch in young children with ASD and their typically developing (TD) peers...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629874/neural-activity-during-attentional-conflict-predicts-reduction-in-tinnitus-perception-following-rtms
#11
G A James, J D Thostenson, G Brown, G Carter, H Hayes, S P Tripathi, D J Dobry, R B Govindan, J L Dornhoffer, D K Williams, C D Kilts, M S Mennemeier
BACKGROUND: Subjective idiopathic tinnitus is an intrusive, distracting, and potentially disabling disorder characterized by phantom perception of sounds. Although tinnitus has no approved pharmacologic treatment, recent evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to alleviate tinnitus symptoms. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: Repetitive TMS delivered over the middle superior temporal gyrus (STG) may alter ratings of tinnitus awareness and annoyance more than loudness due to change in attentional processing...
June 2, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629809/theoretical-modeling-of-the-subject-western-and-eastern-types-of-human-reflexion
#12
REVIEW
Vladimir A Lefebvre
The author put forth the hypothesis that mental phenomena are connected with thermodynamic properties of large neural network. A model of the subject with reflexion and capable for meditation is constructed. The processes of reflexion and meditation are presented as the sequence of heat engines. Each subsequent engine compensates for the imperfectness of the preceding engine by performing work equal to the lost available work of the preceding one. The sequence of heat engines is regarded as a chain of the subject's mental images of the self...
June 16, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628541/apathy-due-to-injury-of-the-prefrontocaudate-tract-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
In this study, we report on a patient who developed apathy resulting from injury to the prefrontocaudate tract following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), which was observed on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 46-year-old female patient was involved in a bus accident. Her history included intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left putamen 4 years ago before the head trauma, and her family reported that she had fully recovered. She developed apathy after the TBI, worsening over time. Decreased neural connectivity of the left caudate nucleus (CN) to the left upper medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) resulting from the ICH was observed on the pre-TBI-DTT, whereas on the post-TBI-DTT (28 months after TBI), the neural connectivity of the left CN to the left upper medial PFC was increased, whereas that to the left lower medial PFC and orbitofrontal cortex was decreased...
July 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627281/mirroring-meaningful-actions-sensorimotor-learning-modulates-imitation-of-goal-directed-actions
#14
Caroline Catmur, Cecilia Heyes
Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions...
June 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626785/blunted-amygdala-functional-connectivity-during-a-stress-task-in-alcohol-dependent-individuals-a-pilot-study
#15
Natasha E Wade, Claudia B Padula, Robert M Anthenelli, Erik Nelson, James Eliassen, Krista M Lisdahl
BACKGROUND: Scant research has been conducted on neural mechanisms underlying stress processing in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). We examined neural substrates of stress in AD individuals compared with controls using an fMRI task previously shown to induce stress, assessing amygdala functional connectivity to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this novel pilot study, 10 abstinent AD individuals and 11 controls completed a modified Trier stress task while undergoing fMRI acquisition...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626019/neural-mechanisms-of-updating-under-reducible-and-irreducible-uncertainty
#16
Kenji Kobayashi, Ming Hsu
Adaptive decision-making depends on agents' ability to make use of environmental signals to reduce uncertainty. However, because there exist multiple types of uncertainty, agents should take into account not only the extent to which signals violate prior expectancy but also whether uncertainty can be reduced in the first place. Here we studied how the human brain of both sexes responds to signals under conditions of reducible and irreducible uncertainty. We show behaviorally that subjects' value updating was sensitivity to the reducibility of uncertainty, and could be quantitative characterized by a Bayesian model where agents ignore expectancy violations that do not update beliefs or values...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625660/task-related-and-resting-state-fmri-identify-distinct-networks-which-preferentially-support-remembering-the-past-and-imagining-the-future
#17
Adrian W Gilmore, Steven M Nelson, Hung-Yu Chen, Kathleen B McDermott
The relation between episodic memory and episodic future thought (EFT) remains an active target of research. A growing literature suggests that similar cognitive processes and neural substrates tend to support these acts. However, direct comparisons of whole-brain activity reveal clear differences, with numerous regions more active when engaging in EFT than when remembering, and a smaller collection of regions displaying the opposite pattern of activity. Although various network labels have been applied to prior neuroimaging results, to date no formal resting-state functional connectivity analysis has been conducted...
June 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625487/distinct-feedforward-and-feedback-effects-of-microstimulation-in-visual-cortex-reveal-neural-mechanisms-of-texture-segregation
#18
P Christiaan Klink, Bruno Dagnino, Marie-Alice Gariel-Mathis, Pieter R Roelfsema
The visual cortex is hierarchically organized, with low-level areas coding for simple features and higher areas for complex ones. Feedforward and feedback connections propagate information between areas in opposite directions, but their functional roles are only partially understood. We used electrical microstimulation to perturb the propagation of neuronal activity between areas V1 and V4 in monkeys performing a texture-segregation task. In both areas, microstimulation locally caused a brief phase of excitation, followed by inhibition...
June 9, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624571/age-related-changes-of-cortical-excitability-and-connectivityin-healthy-humans-non-invasive-evaluation-of-sensorimotor-network-by-means-of-tms-eeg
#19
Florinda Ferreri, Andrea Guerra, Luca Vollero, David Ponzo, Sara Maatta, Esa Mervaala, Giulio Iannello, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
The sensorimotor cortical system undergoes structural and functional changes across its lifespan. Some of these changes are physiological and parallel the normal aging process, while others might represent pathophysiological mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years, the study of possible age-related modifications in brain sensorimotor functional characteristics has been the focus of several research projects. Here we have used the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-EEG navigated co-registration to investigate the influence of physiological aging on the excitability and connectivity of the human sensorimotor cortical system...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624521/semanticized-autobiographical-memory-and-the-default-executive-coupling-hypothesis-of-aging
#20
R Nathan Spreng, Amber W Lockrow, Elizabeth DuPre, Roni Setton, Karen A P Spreng, Gary R Turner
As we age, the architecture of cognition undergoes a fundamental transition. Fluid intellectual abilities decline while crystalized abilities remain stable or increase. This shift has a profound impact across myriad cognitive and functional domains, yet the neural mechanisms remain under-specified. We have proposed that greater connectivity between the default network and executive control regions in lateral prefrontal cortex may underlie this shift, as older adults increasingly rely upon accumulated knowledge to support goal-directed behavior...
June 14, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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