Read by QxMD icon Read


Atoosa Kourosh, Ruth Ann Luna, Miriam Balderas, Christina Nance, Aikaterini Anagnostou, Sridevi Devaraj, Carla M Davis
BACKGROUND: Intestinal microbes have been shown to influence predisposition to atopic disease, including food allergy. The intestinal microbiome of food allergic children may differ in significant ways from genetically similar non-allergic children and age matched controls. The aim was to characterize fecal microbiomes to identify taxa that may influence the expression of food allergy. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from children with IgE mediated food allergies, siblings without food allergy, and non-allergic controls...
April 6, 2018: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Ryan M Pace, Amanda L Prince, Jun Ma, Benjamin D W Belfort, Alexia S Harvey, Min Hu, Karalee Baquero, Peter Blundell, Diana Takahashi, Tyler Dean, Paul Kievit, Elinor L Sullivan, Jacob E Friedman, Kevin Grove, Kjersti M Aagaard
BACKGROUND: We and others have previously shown that alterations in the mammalian gut microbiome are associated with diet, notably early life exposure to a maternal high fat diet (HFD). Here, we aimed to further these studies by examining alterations in the gut microbiome of juvenile Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) that were exposed to a maternal HFD, weaned onto a control diet, and later supplemented with a synbiotic comprised of psyllium seed and Enterococcus and Lactobacillus species...
April 5, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Jeffrey K Cornuault, Marie-Agnès Petit, Mahendra Mariadassou, Leandro Benevides, Elisabeth Moncaut, Philippe Langella, Harry Sokol, Marianne De Paepe
BACKGROUND: Viral metagenomic studies have suggested a role for bacteriophages in intestinal dysbiosis associated with several human diseases. However, interpretation of viral metagenomic studies is limited by the lack of knowledge of phages infecting major human gut commensal bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a bacterial symbiont repeatedly found depleted in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. In particular, no complete genomes of phages infecting F. prausnitzii are present in viral databases...
April 3, 2018: Microbiome
Promi Das, Boyang Ji, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Fredrik Bäckhed, Jens Nielsen
Network analysis of large metagenomic datasets generated by current sequencing technologies can reveal significant co-occurrence patterns between microbial species of a biological community. These patterns can be analyzed in terms of pairwise combinations between all species comprising a community. Here, we construct a co-occurrence network for abundant microbial species encompassing the three dominant phyla found in human gut. This was followed by an in vitro evaluation of the predicted microbe-microbe co-occurrences, where we chose species pairs Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, as well as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia inulinivorans as model organisms for our study...
2018: PloS One
Hai-Yin Jiang, Yuan-Yue Zhou, Guo-Ling Zhou, Yu-Chuan Li, Jing Yuan, Xiao-He Li, Bing Ruan
BACKGROUNDS: Although increasing evidence suggests a role for the gut microbiota in neurodevelopment, the actual structure and composition of microbiota in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remain unclear. METHODS: Thus, the present study aimed to define the characteristics of gut microbiota in treatment-naive children with ADHD and to assess their relationship with the severity of ADHD symptoms. High-throughput pyrosequencing was used to investigate the microbiota composition in fecal matter from 51 children with ADHD and 32 healthy controls (HC)...
March 23, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Marina Panek, Hana Čipčić Paljetak, Anja Barešić, Mihaela Perić, Mario Matijašić, Ivana Lojkić, Darija Vranešić Bender, Željko Krznarić, Donatella Verbanac
The information on microbiota composition in the human gastrointestinal tract predominantly originates from the analyses of human faeces by application of next generation sequencing (NGS). However, the detected composition of the faecal bacterial community can be affected by various factors including experimental design and procedures. This study evaluated the performance of different protocols for collection and storage of faecal samples (native and OMNIgene.GUT system) and bacterial DNA extraction (MP Biomedicals, QIAGEN and MO BIO kits), using two NGS platforms for 16S rRNA gene sequencing (Ilumina MiSeq and Ion Torrent PGM)...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Carmen Veríssima Ferreira-Halder, Alessandra Valéria de Sousa Faria, Sheila Siqueira Andrade
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, anaerobic bacteria, is one of the main components of gut microbiota and the most important butyrate-producing bacteria in the human colon. So far, this commensal bacterium has been considered as a bioindicator of human health, once when its population is altered (decreased), inflammatory processes are favored. Several reports in the literature highlighted that the amount of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii negatively correlates to the activity of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer...
December 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
Giorgio Gargari, Valeria Deon, Valentina Taverniti, Claudio Gardana, Marco Denina, Patrizia Riso, Ornella Guardamagna, Simone Guglielmetti
Hyperlipidemia starts at a pediatric age and represents an unquestionable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Modulation of the intestinal microbial ecosystem (IME), in principle, can ameliorate lipid profiles. In this study, we characterized the IME of children and adolescents with primary hyperlipidemia by analyzing fecal samples through 16S rRNA gene profiling (n = 15) and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) quantification (n = 32). The same analyses were also carried out on age-matched normolipidemic controls (n = 15)...
March 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
X J Wang, J H Feng, M H Zhang, X M Li, D D Ma, S S Chang
The intestinal microbiome has been shown to influence animal nutrient metabolism and immune homeostasis. The present study aimed to examine the effect of heat stress on the intestinal microbiome of broilers using pyrosequencing technologies. Ninety-six Arbor Acres broiler chicks were allocated to thermoneutral control (TC; 21 ± 1°C) and high ambient temperature (HT; 31 ± 1°C) groups (6 cages of 8 birds per group), respectively, and raised in 2 controlled climate chambers from 28 to 42 d old. Genomic DNA was extracted from ileal contents isolated from 6 male broiler chicks of each group at 42 d old, and then amplified based on the V3-4 hyper-variable region of 16S rRNA...
March 16, 2018: Poultry Science
Rebeca Martín, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán, Philippe Langella
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii represents approximately 5% of the total fecal microbiota in healthy adults being one of the most abundant bacterium in the human intestinal microbiota of healthy adults. Furthermore, this bacterium has been proposed to be a sensor and a major actor of the human intestinal health because of its importance in the gut ecosystem. In this context, F. prausnitzii population levels have been found to be reduced in patients suffering from several syndromes and diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jialiang Xu, Huijun Wu, Zhiwei Wang, Fuping Zheng, Xin Lu, Zhenpeng Li, Qing Ren
Chinese rice wine (CRW) is the oldest kind of wine in China and is mainly fermented by wheat Qu and yeast with rice, millet, etc. This gives CRW a unique quality, but the flavor components are complex. Its formation is related to microorganisms, but the link between CRW and microorganisms is poorly understood. Here, we used two kinds of sorghum (JZ22 and JB3, of which JZ22 has a higher tannin content) as the raw materials to brew and determined the structural and functional dynamics of the microbiota by metagenomics and flavor analyses...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew K Doherty, Tao Ding, Charlie Koumpouras, Shannon E Telesco, Calixte Monast, Anuk Das, Carrie Brodmerkel, Patrick D Schloss
The fecal microbiota is a rich source of biomarkers that have previously been shown to be predictive of numerous disease states. Less well studied is the effect of immunomodulatory therapy on the microbiota and its role in response to therapy. This study explored associations between the fecal microbiota and therapeutic response of Crohn's disease (CD) patients treated with ustekinumab (UST; Stelara) in the phase 2 CERTIFI study. Using stool samples collected over the course of 22 weeks, the composition of these subjects' fecal bacterial communities was characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Rajesh Dabur, Amey Shirolkar, Vijender Mishra, Baljeet Singh Yadav
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol consumption damages the intestine and liver cells directly as well as through unbalancing the gut microbiota. OBJECTIVE: The current study was undertaken to correlate the alcohol consumption and change in urinary metabolites profile linked with gut microbiota. METHOD: Non-alcoholic (control) healthy (n=22) and moderate alcoholic (n=26) males with an average age of 39.3±1.83 years subjected to alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) were considered for study...
March 7, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Renyuan Gao, Xiaohui Zhang, Linsheng Huang, Rongrong Shen, Huanlong Qin
Gut microbiota has been proven to be of crucial importance in maintaining human health. However, the microbiota profile changes with aging, while the loss of microbiota diversity and the alterations in the optimal composition and quantity of beneficial microbes are believed to increase the risk of many diseases. Although the short-term modulatory impact of probiotics on gut microbiota has been revealed in various studies, no studies focused on longer time consumption of probiotics have been demonstrated. In this study, we found that microbial diversity in the probiotic group was similar to that in the control...
March 8, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
E Verduci, F Moretti, G Bassanini, G Banderali, V Rovelli, M C Casiraghi, G Morace, F Borgo, E Borghi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Phenylalanine (Phe) restricted diet, combined with Phe-free l-amino acid supplementation, is the mainstay of treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU). Being the diet a key factor modulating gut microbiota composition, the aim of the present paper was to compare dietary intakes, gut microbiota biodiversity and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in children with PKU, on low-Phe diet, and in children with mild hyperphenylalaninemia (MHP), on unrestricted diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 21 PKU and 21 MHP children matched for gender, age and body mass index z-score...
January 31, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Francesca Borgo, Stefania Garbossa, Alessandra Riva, Marco Severgnini, Carmelo Luigiano, Albero Benetti, Antonio E Pontiroli, Giulia Morace, Elisa Borghi
Gut microbiota is considered a separate organ with endocrine capabilities, actively contributing to tissue homeostasis. It consists of at least two separate microbial populations, the lumen-associated (LAM) and the mucosa-associated microbiota (MAM). In the present study, we compared LAM and MAM, by collecting stools and sigmoid brush samples of forty adults without large-bowel symptoms, and through a 16S rRNA gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. MAM sample analysis revealed enrichment in aerotolerant Proteobacteria , probably selected by a gradient of oxygen that decreases from tissue to lumen, and in Streptococcus and Clostridium spp...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
S M B Duarte, J T Stefano, L Miele, F R Ponziani, M Souza-Basqueira, L S R R Okada, F G de Barros Costa, K Toda, D F C Mazo, E C Sabino, F J Carrilho, A Gasbarrini, C P Oliveira
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the gut microbiomes from obese and lean patients with or without NASH to outline phenotypic differences. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a cross-sectional pilot study comprising biopsy-proven NASH patients grouped according to BMI. Microbiome DNA was extracted from stool samples, and PCR amplification was performed using primers for the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using the Ion PGM Torrent platform, and data were analyzed using QIIME software...
October 26, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Juliana Dias, Marcos Inácio Marcondes, Shirley Motta de Souza, Barbara Cardoso da Mata, Melline Fontes Noronha, Rafael Tassinari Resende, Fernanda Samarini Machado, Hilário Cuquetto Mantovani, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Garret Suen
Microbial communities play critical roles in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pre-ruminant calves by influencing performance and health. However, little is known about the establishment of microbial communities in the calf GIT or their dynamics during development. Here, next-generation sequencing was used to assess changes in the bacterial communities of the rumen, jejunum, cecum and colon of 26 crossbred calves at four developmental stages (7, 28, 49 and 63 days old). Alpha diversity differed among GIT regions with the lowest diversity and evenness in the jejunum, whereas no changes in alpha diversity were observed across developmental stage...
February 23, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Leon J Broom
The gut barrier, comprising the microbiota and their products, mucus layers, host-derived antimicrobial compounds [e.g., host defense peptides (HDP), IgA], epithelium, and underlying immune tissues, performs the essential function of preventing the passage of harmful microorganisms and substances into the body, while enabling the acquisition of dietary nutrients. Antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) are widely accepted as the "gold standard" of performance-enhancing feed additives, which had become integral and valuable components of modern, efficient animal production, but are now being phased out in many parts of the world...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Xi Shen, Junjie Miao, Qun Wan, Shuyue Wang, Ming Li, Fangfang Pu, Guoqing Wang, Wei Qian, Qian Yu, Francesco Marotta, Fang He
Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the possible association between gut microbes and immunity among healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals in southwest China. A total of 148 healthy adults aged ≥ 50 years were divided into two age groups: middle-aged group (50-59 years; n = 67, 54.13 ± 3.32) and elderly group (≥ 60 years; n = 81, 64.70 ± 3.93). Blood samples were collected to measure serum immune and biochemical indices. Gut microbiota compositions of the groups were characterized on the basis of faecal DNA using 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"