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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231875/live-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-does-not-enhance-epithelial-barrier-integrity-in-an-apical-anaerobic-co-culture-model-of-the-large-intestine
#1
Eva Maier, Rachel C Anderson, Nicole C Roy
Appropriate intestinal barrier maturation during infancy largely depends on colonization with commensal bacteria. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is an abundant obligate anaerobe that colonizes during weaning and is thought to maintain colonic health throughout life. We previously showed that F. prausnitzii induced Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation, which is linked to enhanced tight junction formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that F. prausnitzii enhances barrier integrity, an important factor in appropriate intestinal barrier maturation...
December 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217301/-gut-microbiota-what-impact-on-colorectal-carcinogenesis-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Antoine Bruneau, Minh-Tam Baylatry, Anne Christine Joly, Harry Sokol
The gut microbiota, composed of 1014 microorganisms, is now considered as a "hidden organ", regarding to its digestive, metabolic and immune functions, which are helpful to its host. For the last 15 years, advances in molecular biology have highlighted the association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with several diseases, including colorectal cancer. An increased abundance of some bacteria (including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli) is associated with cancer, whereas others seem to be protective (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii)...
December 4, 2017: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215589/impact-of-omega-3-fatty-acids-on-the-gut-microbiota
#3
REVIEW
Lara Costantini, Romina Molinari, Barbara Farinon, Nicolò Merendino
Long-term dietary habits play a crucial role in creating a host-specific gut microbiota community in humans. Despite the many publications about the effects of carbohydrates (prebiotic fibers), the impact of dietary fats, such as omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), on the gut microbiota is less well defined. The few studies completed in adults showed some common changes in the gut microbiota after omega-3 PUFA supplementation. In particular, a decrease in Faecalibacterium, often associated with an increase in the Bacteroidetes and butyrate-producing bacteria belonging to the Lachnospiraceae family, has been observed...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214491/cecal-microbiome-divergence-of-broiler-chickens-by-sex-and-body-weight
#4
Kyu-Chan Lee, Dong Yong Kil, Woo Jun Sul
The divergence of gut bacterial community on broiler chickens has been reported as potentially possible keys to enhancing nutrient absorption, immune systems, and increasing poultry health and performance. Thus, we compared cecal bacterial communities and functional predictions by sex and body weight regarding the association between cecal microbiota and chicken growth performance. In this study, a total of 12 male and 12 female 1-day-old broiler chickens were raised for 35 days in 2 separate cages. Chickens were divided into 3 subgroups depending on body weight (low, medium, and high) by each sex...
December 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209019/correlations-between-gut-microbiota-community-structures-of-tibetans-and-geography
#5
Daoliang Lan, Wenhui Ji, Baoshan Lin, Yabing Chen, Cai Huang, Xianrong Xiong, Mei Fu, Tserang Donko Mipam, Yi Ai, Bo Zeng, Yin Li, Zhixin Cai, Jiangjiang Zhu, Dawei Zhang, Jian Li
Microbial communities of human gut directly influence health and bear adaptive potential to different geography environment and lifestyles. However, knowledge about the influences of altitude and geography on the gut microbiota of Tibetans is currently limited. In this study, fecal microbiota from 208 Tibetans across six different locations were analyzed by MiSeq sequencing; these locations included Gannan, Gangcha, Tianzhu, Hongyuan, Lhasa and Nagqu, with altitudes above sea level ranging from 2800 m to 4500 m across the Tibetan plateau...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202044/faecalibacterium-gut-colonization-is-accelerated-by-presence-of-older-siblings
#6
Martin Frederik Laursen, Rikke Pilmann Laursen, Anni Larnkjær, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen, Hanne Frøkiær, Martin Iain Bahl, Tine Rask Licht
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a highly abundant human gut microbe in healthy individuals, but it is present at reduced levels in individuals with gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases. It has therefore been suggested to constitute a marker of a healthy gut and is associated with anti-inflammatory properties. However, factors affecting the colonization of F. prausnitzii in the human gut during early life are very poorly understood. By analysis of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data from three separate infant study populations, we determined the colonization dynamics of Faecalibacterium and factors affecting its establishment in the gut...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201017/characterization-of-metagenomes-in-urban-aquatic-compartments-reveals-high-prevalence-of-clinically-relevant-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-wastewaters
#7
Charmaine Ng, Martin Tay, Boonfei Tan, Thai-Hoang Le, Laurence Haller, Hongjie Chen, Tse H Koh, Timothy M S Barkham, Karina Y-H Gin
The dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an escalating problem and a threat to public health. Comparative metagenomics was used to investigate the occurrence of antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in wastewater and urban surface water environments in Singapore. Hospital and municipal wastewater (n = 6) were found to have higher diversity and average abundance of ARGs (303 ARG subtypes, 197,816 x/Gb) compared to treated wastewater effluent (n = 2, 58 ARG subtypes, 2,692 x/Gb) and surface water (n = 5, 35 subtypes, 7,985 x/Gb)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200733/amelioration-of-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-by-berberine-in-the-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#8
Donghao Li, Jimin Zheng, Yiting Hu, Hongtao Hou, Shurong Hao, Na Liu, Yuzhen Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of berberine (BBR) on intestinal barrier function in nonalcoholic fat liver disease (NAFLD) in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into three groups: normal diet group (control group [CON group]), high-fat diet feeding group (HFD group), and HFD with BBR group. After 8 weeks of HFD feeding, rats in the BBR group were given BBR intragastrically at a dose of 150 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The same volume of normal saline was given to the CON and HFD groups...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194468/characteristics-of-fecal-microbiota-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease-and-their-dynamic-changes-during-infliximab-therapy
#9
Yizhong Wang, Xuefeng Gao, Amine Ghozlane, Hui Hu, Xiaolu Li, Yongmei Xiao, Dan Li, Guangjun Yu, Ting Zhang
Background: Crohn's disease [CD] is known to be associated with gut microbial dysbiosis. Infliximab [IFX] is increasingly used to treat pediatric CD, however it is not clear how gut microbiota is modified during IFX treatment. The aim of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiota community composition in pediatric CD patients and to assess its dynamic changes during IFX therapy. Methods: 16S rRNA sequencing approach was applied to determine the compositions of microbial communities in fecal samples...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178599/gut-microbiome-induced-shift-of-acetate-to-butyrate-positively-manages-dysbiosis-in-high-fat-diet
#10
Xu Si, Wenting Shang, Zhongkai Zhou, Padraig Strappe, Bing Wang, Anthony Bird, Chris Blanchard
SCOPE: A recent study revealed the accumulation of gut microbiota-produced acetate (GMPA) led to insulin over-secretion and obesity symptom. To further develop this scientific point, effect of resistant starch (RS) or exogenous acetate carried by RS (RSA) in the gut on metabolic syndrome is investigated using diet-induced obese rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: The metabonomics analysis showed that the gut of rats in RSA group generated more significant butyrate both in serum and feces rather than acetate compared to the rats in RS group, indicating the conversion among metabolites, in particular from acetate to butyrate via gut microbiota...
November 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152844/faecal-microbiota-in-dogs-with-multicentric-lymphoma
#11
A Gavazza, G Rossi, G Lubas, M Cerquetella, Y Minamoto, J S Suchodolski
Malignant lymphoma B-cell type is the most common canine haematopoietic malignancy. Changes in intestinal microbiota have been implicated in few types of cancer in humans. The aim of this prospective and case-control study was to determine differences in faecal microbiota between healthy control dogs and dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Twelve dogs affected by multicentric, B-cell, stage III-IV lymphoma, and 21 healthy dogs were enrolled in the study. For each dog, faecal samples were analysed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for selected bacterial groups...
November 20, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152256/consumption-of-kiwifruit-capsules-increases-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-abundance-in-functionally-constipated-individuals-a-randomised-controlled-human-trial
#12
Paul Blatchford, Halina Stoklosinski, Sarah Eady, Alison Wallace, Christine Butts, Richard Gearry, Glenn Gibson, Juliet Ansell
This study investigated the impact of ACTAZIN™ green (2400 and 600 mg) and Livaux™ (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (FC) participants. The participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the FC group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout periods. Modification of faecal microbiota composition and metabolism was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC, and colonic pH was calculated using SmartPill® wireless motility capsules...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146862/complete-genome-sequence-of-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-isolated-from-the-gut-of-a-healthy-indian-adult
#13
Satyabrata Bag, Tarini Shankar Ghosh, Bhabatosh Das
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is the most abundant (~4%) member of the phylum Firmicutes found in the colon of healthy humans. It is a strict anaerobe and plays an important role in intestinal homeostasis. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of F. prausnitzii strain Indica.
November 16, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137150/in-vitro-fermentation-patterns-of-rice-bran-components-by-human-gut-microbiota
#14
Tung Pham, Keat Thomas Teoh, Brett J Savary, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna McClung, Sun-Ok Lee
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133078/enteric-delivery-of-regenerating-family-member-3-alpha-alters-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-controls-inflammation-in-mice-with-colitis
#15
Marion Darnaud, Alexandre Dos Santos, Patrick Gonzalez, Sandrine Augui, Claire Lacoste, Christophe Desterke, Gert De Hertogh, Emma Valentino, Emilie Braun, Jinzi Zheng, Raphael Boisgard, Christel Neut, Laurent Dubuquoy, Franck Chiappini, Didier Samuel, Patricia Lepage, Francesca Guerrieri, Joel Doré, Christian Bréchot, Nicolas Moniaux, Jamila Faivre
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Paneth cell dysfunction causes deficiencies in intestinal C-type lectins and antimicrobial peptides, which leads to dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, alters the mucosal barrier, and promotes development of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated whether transgenic expression of the human regenerating family member 3 alpha gene (REG3A) alters the fecal microbiota and affects development of colitis in mice. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6 mice that express human regenerating family member 3 alpha (hREG3A) in hepatocytes, via the albumin gene promoter...
November 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112296/live-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-induces-greater-tlr2-and-tlr2-6-activation-than-the-dead-bacterium-in-an-apical-anaerobic-co-culture-system
#16
Eva Maier, Rachel C Anderson, Eric Altermann, Nicole C Roy
Inappropriate activation of intestinal innate immune receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), by pathogenic bacteria is linked to chronic inflammation. In contrast, a 'tonic' level of TLR activation by commensal bacteria is required for intestinal homeostasis. A technical challenge when studying this activation in vitro is the co-culturing of oxygen-requiring mammalian cells with obligate anaerobic commensal bacteria. To overcome this, we used a novel apical anaerobic co-culture system to successfully adapt a TLR activation assay to be conducted in conditions optimised for both cell types...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098426/improvement-in-cardiometabolic-risk-markers-following-a-multifunctional-diet-is-associated-with-gut-microbial-taxa-in-healthy-overweight-and-obese-subjects
#17
Nittaya Marungruang, Juscelino Tovar, Inger Björck, Frida Fåk Hållenius
PURPOSE: A multifunctional diet (MFD) targeting subclinical inflammation was developed as a tool to decrease risk factors for cardiometabolic disease in healthy "at-risk" individuals (BMI 25-33 kg/m(2)). MFD contains several components that are degraded in the colon by the microbiota, such as dietary fibers from rye, barley, oats and berries. It also contains soy beans, oily fish and plant stanols. In previous studies, we have observed improved cardiometabolic markers in healthy at-risk individuals after 4-8 week intake of MFD...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094115/lactobacillus-plantarum-hnu082-derived-improvements-in-the-intestinal-microbiome-prevent-the-development-of-hyperlipidaemia
#18
Yuyu Shao, Dongxue Huo, Qiannan Peng, Yuyang Pan, Shuaiming Jiang, Bin Liu, Jiachao Zhang
Restricted by research techniques, the probiotic-derived changes in the microbiome and microbial metabolites correlated with the potential prevention of hyperlipidaemia have remained undiscovered. In the present research, a metagenomic approach was applied to describe Lactobacillus plantarum HNU082 consumption-derived changes in the intestinal microbiome and their correlation with the occurrence and development of hyperlipidaemia. Principal coordinate analysis based on UniFrac distances indicated that the intestinal microbiota was profoundly altered in the hyperlipidaemia group, and probiotic consumption regulated the bias in the intestinal microbial structure in hyperlipidaemia...
November 2, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089436/protease-mediated-suppression-of-drg-neuron-excitability-by-commensal-bacteria
#19
Jessica L Sessenwein, Corey C Baker, Sabindra Pradhananga, Megan E Maitland, Elaine O Petrof, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Curtis Noordhof, David E Reed, Stephen J Vanner, Alan E Lomax
Peripheral pain signaling reflects a balance of pro and anti-nociceptive influences; the contribution by the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to this balance has received little attention. Disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome are associated with exaggerated visceral nociceptive actions that may involve altered microbial signaling, particularly given the evidence for bacterial dysbiosis. Thus, we tested whether a community of commensal GI bacteria derived from a healthy human donor (microbial ecosystem therapeutics; MET-1) can affect the excitability of male mouse dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065707/bifidobacterium-longum-bb536-alleviated-upper-respiratory-illnesses-and-modulated-gut-microbiota-profiles-in-malaysian-pre-school-children
#20
A S-Y Lau, N Yanagisawa, Y-Y Hor, L-C Lew, J-S Ong, L-O Chuah, Y-Y Lee, S-B Choi, F Rashid, N Wahid, H Sugahara, J-Z Xiao, M-T Liong
This 10-months randomised, double-blind, parallel and placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on diarrhoea and/or upper respiratory illnesses in 520 healthy Malaysian pre-school children aged 2-6 years old. The subjects randomly received a one-gram sachet containing either BB536 (5×109 cfu) or placebo daily. Data analysis was performed on 219 subjects who fully complied over 10-months (placebo n=110, BB536 n=109). While BB536 did not exert significant effects against diarrhoea in children, Poisson regression with generalised estimating equations model indicated significant intergroup difference in the mean number of times of respiratory illnesses over 10 months...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
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