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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094590/effects-of-supernatants-from-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-a-rat-model-of-5-fluorouracil-induced-mucositis
#1
Hanru Wang, Yoga D Jatmiko, Susan E P Bastian, Suzanne Mashtoub, Gordon S Howarth
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (Fp) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are probiotics, which have been reported to ameliorate certain gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the effects of supernatants (SN) derived from Fp and EcN on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-treated intestinal cells and in a rat model of mucositis. In vitro: IEC-6, Caco-2, and T-84 cells were analyzed for viability and monolayer permeability. In vivo: Female dark agouti rats were gavaged with Fp or EcN SN and injected intraperitoneally with saline (control) or 5-FU to induce mucositis...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094541/intestinal-proportion-of-blautia-sp-is-associated-with-clinical-stage-and-histoprognostic-grade-in-patients-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#2
Trang H Luu, Catherine Michel, Jean-Marie Bard, François Dravet, Hassan Nazih, Christine Bobin-Dubigeon
Improving knowledge about breast cancer etiology is crucial in order to propose prevention strategies for this pathology. Gut microbiota is involved in numerous physiopathological situations including cancers. Although its potential involvement in breast cancer through the alteration of the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens and/or the metabolism of phytoestrogens has been discussed for some time, it remains to be demonstrated. The present study seeks to strengthen this hypothesis by identifying possible links between the fecal microbiota composition and clinical characteristics in breast cancer patients...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064384/gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-alterations-in-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-psychosocial-outcomes-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#3
Jesseca A Paulsen, Travis S Ptacek, Stephen J Carter, Nianjun Liu, Ranjit Kumar, LaKeshia Hyndman, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey D Morrow, Laura Q Rogers
PURPOSE: In this proof-of-concept pilot study, our purpose was to determine correlations between gut microbiota composition and alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Composition of the gut microbiota in BCS (n = 12) was assessed at baseline (M0) and at the end of 3 months (M3) using Illumina MiSeq DNA Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics software and represented through diversity metrics and taxa analyses...
January 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049818/impact-of-short-chain-galactooligosaccharides-on-the-gut-microbiome-of-lactose-intolerant-individuals
#4
M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Andrew J Ritter, Dennis Savaiano, Andrea Monteagudo-Mera, Carlton Anderson, Scott T Magness, Todd R Klaenhammer
Directed modulation of the colonic bacteria to metabolize lactose effectively is a potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. A randomized, double-blind, multisite placebo-controlled trial conducted in human subjects demonstrated that administration of a highly purified (>95%) short-chain galactooligosaccharide (GOS), designated "RP-G28," significantly improved clinical outcomes for lactose digestion and tolerance. In these individuals, stool samples were collected pretreatment (day 0), after GOS treatment (day 36), and 30 d after GOS feeding stopped and consumption of dairy products was encouraged (day 66)...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045459/faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-from-microbiology-to-diagnostics-and-prognostics
#5
Mireia Lopez-Siles, Sylvia H Duncan, L Jesús Garcia-Gil, Margarita Martinez-Medina
There is an increasing interest in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, one of the most abundant bacterial species found in the gut, given its potentially important role in promoting gut health. Although some studies have phenotypically characterized strains of this species, it remains a challenge to determine which factors have a key role in maintaining the abundance of this bacterium in the gut. Besides, phylogenetic analysis has shown that at least two different F. prausnitzii phylogroups can be found within this species and their distribution is different between healthy subjects and patients with gut disorders...
January 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#6
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034303/disruption-of-the-microbiota-across-multiple-body-sites-in-critically-ill-children
#7
Matthew B Rogers, Brian Firek, Min Shi, Andrew Yeh, Rachel Brower-Sinning, Victoria Aveson, Brittany L Kohl, Anthony Fabio, Joseph A Carcillo, Michael J Morowitz
BACKGROUND: Despite intense interest in the links between the microbiome and human health, little has been written about dysbiosis among ICU patients. We characterized microbial diversity in samples from 37 children in a pediatric ICU (PICU). Standard measures of alpha and beta diversity were calculated, and results were compared with data from adult and pediatric reference datasets. RESULTS: Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed from 71 total tongue swabs, 50 skin swabs, and 77 stool samples or rectal swabs...
December 29, 2016: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029051/adherence-to-a-mediterranean-diet-influences-the-fecal-metabolic-profile-of-microbial-derived-phenolics-in-a-spanish-cohort-of-middle-age-and-older-people
#8
Isabel Gutiérrez-Díaz, Tania Fernández-Navarro, Nuria Salazar, Begoña Bartolome, Maria Victoria Moreno-Arribas, Enrique Juan de Andres-Galiana, Juan Luis Fernández-Martínez, Clara G de Los Reyes-Gavilan, Miguel Gueimonde, Sonia Gonzalez-Solares
Despite the evidence regarding the influence of certain polyphenol food sources on the metabolic profile in feces, the association between the different phenolics provided by the diet and the fecal phenolic profile has not been elucidated. In this study, the composition of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions was analyzed by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS in 74 volunteers. This fecal phenolic profile showed a high interindividual variation of the different compounds analyzed, phenylacetic and phenylpropionic acids being the major classes of phenolic metabolites excreted in feces...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000678/the-effects-of-prebiotics-on-microbial-dysbiosis-butyrate-production-and-immunity-in-hiv-infected-subjects
#9
S Serrano-Villar, J F Vázquez-Castellanos, A Vallejo, A Latorre, T Sainz, S Ferrando-Martínez, D Rojo, J Martínez-Botas, J Del Romero, N Madrid, M Leal, J I Mosele, M J Motilva, C Barbas, M Ferrer, A Moya, S Moreno, M J Gosalbes, V Estrada
Altered interactions between the gut mucosa and bacteria during HIV infection seem to contribute to chronic immune dysfunction. A deeper understanding of how nutritional interventions could ameliorate gut dysbiosis is needed. Forty-four subjects, including 12 HIV(+) viremic untreated (VU) patients, 23 antiretroviral therapy-treated (ART(+)) virally suppressed patients (15 immunological responders and 8 non-responders) and 9 HIV(-) controls (HIV(-)), were blindly randomized to receive either prebiotics (scGOS/lcFOS/glutamine) or placebo (34/10) over 6 weeks in this pilot study...
December 21, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994578/comparative-in-silico-analysis-of-butyrate-production-pathways-in-gut-commensals-and-pathogens
#10
Swadha Anand, Harrisham Kaur, Sharmila S Mande
Biosynthesis of butyrate by commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintenance of human gut health while dysbiosis in gut microbiome has been linked to several enteric disorders. Contrastingly, butyrate shows cytotoxic effects in patients with oral diseases like periodontal infections and oral cancer. In addition to these host associations, few syntrophic bacteria couple butyrate degradation with sulfate reduction and methane production. Thus, it becomes imperative to understand the distribution of butyrate metabolism pathways and delineate differences in substrate utilization between pathogens and commensals...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988330/the-gut-microbiome-composition-associates-with-bipolar-disorder-and-illness-severity
#11
Simon J Evans, Christine M Bassis, Robert Hein, Shervin Assari, Stephanie A Flowers, Marisa B Kelly, Vince B Young, Vicky E Ellingrod, Melvin G McInnis
The gut microbiome is emerging as an important factor in regulating mental health yet it remains unclear what the target should be for psychiatric treatment. We aimed to elucidate the complement of the gut-microbiome community for individuals with bipolar disorder relative to controls; and test for relationships with burden of disease measures. We compared the stool microbiome from individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 115) and control subjects (n = 64) using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequence analysis...
December 10, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883264/mucosa-associated-biohydrogenating-microbes-protect-the-simulated-colon-microbiome-from-stress-associated-with-high-concentrations-of-poly-unsaturated-fat
#12
Rosemarie De Weirdt, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Veerle Fievez, Eva Mees, Annelies Geirnaert, Florence Van Herreweghen, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Ruy Jauregui, Dietmar H Pieper, Bruno Vlaeminck, Tom Van de Wiele
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may affect colon microbiome homeostasis by exerting (specific) antimicrobial effects and/or interfering with mucosal biofilm formation at the gut mucosal interface. We used standardized batch incubations and the Mucosal-Simulator of the Human Microbial Intestinal Ecosystem (M-SHIME) to show the in vitro luminal and mucosal effects of the main PUFA in the Western diet, linoleic acid (LA). High concentrations of LA were found to decrease butyrate production and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii numbers dependent on LA biohydrogenation to vaccenic acid (VA) and stearic acid (SA)...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846140/disturbances-of-the-perioperative-microbiome-across-multiple-body-sites-in-patients-undergoing-pancreaticoduodenectomy
#13
Matthew B Rogers, Victoria Aveson, Brian Firek, Andrew Yeh, Brandon Brooks, Rachel Brower-Sinning, Jennifer Steve, Jillian F Banfield, Amer Zureikat, Melissa Hogg, Brian A Boone, Herbert J Zeh, Michael J Morowitz
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to characterize bacterial communities within fecal samples, pancreatic fluid, bile, and jejunal contents from patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to identify associations between microbiome profiles and clinical variables. METHODS: Fluid was collected from the pancreas, common bile duct, and proximal jejunum from 50 PD patients. Postoperative fecal samples were also collected. The microbial burden within samples was quantified with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction...
February 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833598/alteration-of-fecal-microbiota-profiles-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-associations-with-hla-b27-allele-and-disease-status
#14
Monica Di Paola, Duccio Cavalieri, Davide Albanese, Maddalena Sordo, Massimo Pindo, Claudio Donati, Ilaria Pagnini, Teresa Giani, Gabriele Simonini, Alessia Paladini, Paolo Lionetti, Carlotta De Filippo, Rolando Cimaz
Alteration of gut microbiota is involved in several chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, and gut microbial "pro-arthritogenic" profiles have been hypothesized. Intestinal inflammation may be involved in spondyloarthropathies and in a subset of patients affected by Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), the most common chronic rheumatic disease of childhood. We compared the fecal microbiota composition of JIA patients with healthy subjects (HS), evaluating differences in microbial profiles between sub-categories of JIA, such as enthesitis-related arthritis (JIA-ERA), in which inflammation of entheses occurs, and polyarticular JIA, non-enthesitis related arthritis (JIA-nERA)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833384/fecal-microbiota-in-pouchitis-and-ulcerative-colitis
#15
Kai-Yu Li, Jian-Lin Wang, Jiang-Peng Wei, Sen-Yang Gao, Ying-Ying Zhang, Li-Tian Wang, Gang Liu
AIM: To investigate the changes in microbiota in feces of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and pouchitis using genomic technology. METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from UC patients with or without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure, as well as healthy controls. The touchdown polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify the whole V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which was transcribed from DNA extracted from fecal samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to separate the amplicons...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812352/impact-of-different-fecal-processing-methods-on-assessments-of-bacterial-diversity-in-the-human-intestine
#16
Yu-Hsin Hsieh, Courtney M Peterson, Anne Raggio, Michael J Keenan, Roy J Martin, Eric Ravussin, Maria L Marco
The intestinal microbiota are integral to understanding the relationships between nutrition and health. Therefore, fecal sampling and processing protocols for metagenomic surveys should be sufficiently robust, accurate, and reliable to identify the microorganisms present. We investigated the use of different fecal preparation methods on the bacterial community structures identified in human stools. Complete stools were collected from six healthy individuals and processed according to the following methods: (i) randomly sampled fresh stool, (ii) fresh stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, (iii) randomly sampled frozen stool, and (iv) frozen stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, or (v) homogenized in a pneumatic mixer for either 10, 20, or 30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812181/altered-gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-eczema-in-infants
#17
Huajun Zheng, Hong Liang, Yuezhu Wang, Maohua Miao, Tao Shi, Fen Yang, Enuo Liu, Wei Yuan, Zai-Si Ji, De-Kun Li
Eczema is frequently the first manifestation of an atopic diathesis and alteration in the diversity of gut microbiota has been reported in infants with eczema. To identify specific bacterial communities associated with eczema, we conducted a case-control study of 50 infants with eczema (cases) and 51 healthy infants (controls). We performed high-throughput sequencing for V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut fecal material. A total of 12,386 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at a 97% similarity level were obtained from the two groups, and we observed a difference in taxa abundance, but not the taxonomic composition, of gut microbiota between the two groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811997/effects-of-chronic-noise-on-glucose-metabolism-and-gut-microbiota-host-inflammatory-homeostasis-in-rats
#18
Bo Cui, Zhihui Gai, Xiaojun She, Rui Wang, Zhuge Xi
Chronic noise exposure has been implicated in increased risk of diabetes. However, there is limited experimental evidence of the mechanisms linking chronic noise stress and glucose metabolism. We addressed this in the present study by examining glucose metabolism, immune response, and changes in gut microbiota/host inflammatory homeostasis in rats exposed to noise for 30 consecutive days. Chronic noise exposure increased blood glucose and corticosterone levels for at least 14 days after cessation of noise. Stressed rats also exhibited elevated levels of glycogen and triglyceride in the liver and impaired hepatic insulin production via insulin-induced insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate 1/glycogen synthase kinase 3β signalling, which persisted for 3-14 days after cessation of noise exposure...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808338/sialoglycoprotein-isolated-from-the-eggs-of-carassius-auratus-prevents-bone-loss-an-effect-associated-with-the-regulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-ovariectomized-rats
#19
Fei Wang, Peng Yu, Xiong Gui, Yiming Wang, Changhu Xue, Jingfeng Wang
The anti-osteoporotic effect of sialoglycoprotein isolated from the eggs of Carassius auratus (Ca-SGP) has previously been demonstrated in vivo. However, the mechanism by which this macromolecular substance regulates bone metabolism remains unclear. Given the correlation between gut microbiota and the homeostasis of bone metabolism, the current study applied real-time PCR and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing to investigate the influence of Ca-SGP on gut microbiota in ovariectomized rats. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Ca-SGP treatment significantly reversed the increase of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis, and the decrease of Clostridium leptum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Lactobacillus induced by ovariectomy...
December 7, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776263/association-of-brain-amyloidosis-with-pro-inflammatory-gut-bacterial-taxa-and-peripheral-inflammation-markers-in-cognitively-impaired-elderly
#20
Annamaria Cattaneo, Nadia Cattane, Samantha Galluzzi, Stefania Provasi, Nicola Lopizzo, Cristina Festari, Clarissa Ferrari, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Barbara Paghera, Cristina Muscio, Angelo Bianchetti, Giorgio Dalla Volta, Marinella Turla, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Michele Gennuso, Alessandro Prelle, Orazio Zanetti, Giulia Lussignoli, Dario Mirabile, Daniele Bellandi, Simona Gentile, Gloria Belotti, Daniele Villani, Taoufiq Harach, Tristan Bolmont, Alessandro Padovani, Marina Boccardi, Giovanni B Frisoni
The pathway leading from amyloid-β deposition to cognitive impairment is believed to be a cornerstone of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, what drives amyloid buildup in sporadic nongenetic cases of AD is still unknown. AD brains feature an inflammatory reaction around amyloid plaques, and a specific subset of the gut microbiota (GMB) may promote brain inflammation. We investigated the possible role of the GMB in AD pathogenesis by studying the association of brain amyloidosis with (1) GMB taxa with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity; and (2) peripheral inflammation in cognitively impaired patients...
January 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
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