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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213609/gut-microbial-profile-is-altered-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-partially-restored-after-udca-therapy
#1
Ruqi Tang, Yiran Wei, Yanmei Li, Weihua Chen, Haoyan Chen, Qixia Wang, Fan Yang, Qi Miao, Xiao Xiao, Haiyan Zhang, Min Lian, Xiang Jiang, Jun Zhang, Qin Cao, Zhuping Fan, Maoying Wu, Dekai Qiu, Jing-Yuan Fang, Aftab Ansari, M Eric Gershwin, Xiong Ma
OBJECTIVE: A close relationship between gut microbiota and some chronic liver disorders has recently been described. Herein, we systematically performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiome in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and healthy controls. DESIGN: We first conducted a cross-sectional study of 60 ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment-naïve patients with PBC and 80 matched healthy controls. Second, an independent cohort composed of 19 treatment-naïve patients and 34 controls was used to validate the results...
February 17, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203226/microbial-anti-inflammatory-molecule-mam-from-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-shows-a-protective-effect-on-dnbs-and-dss-induced-colitis-model-in-mice-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#2
Natalia M Breyner, Cristophe Michon, Cassiana S de Sousa, Priscilla B Vilas Boas, Florian Chain, Vasco A Azevedo, Philippe Langella, Jean M Chatel
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its supernatant showed protective effects in different chemically-induced colitis models in mice. Recently, we described 7 peptides found in the F. prausnitzii supernatant, all belonging to a protein called Microbial Anti-inflammatory Molecule (MAM). These peptides were able to inhibit NF-κB pathway in vitro and showed anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in a DiNitroBenzene Sulfate (DNBS)-induced colitis model. In this current proof we tested MAM effect on NF-κB pathway in vivo, using a transgenic model of mice producing luciferase under the control of NF-κB promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191503/differences-in-gut-metabolites-and-microbial-composition-and-functions-between-egyptian-and-u-s-children-are-consistent-with-their-diets
#3
V Shankar, M Gouda, J Moncivaiz, A Gordon, N V Reo, L Hussein, O Paliy
Previous studies indicated that populations consuming a Mediterranean diet rich in fiber, vegetables, and fruits have a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases than populations of industrialized societies consuming diets enriched in processed carbohydrates, animal proteins, and fats. To explore the potential contributions of gut microbiota to the observed diet-related metabolic effects, we conducted an integrative analysis of distal gut microbiota composition and functions and intestinal metabolites in Egyptian and U...
January 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187199/differences-in-gut-microbiota-profile-between-women-with-active-lifestyle-and-sedentary-women
#4
Carlo Bressa, María Bailén-Andrino, Jennifer Pérez-Santiago, Rocío González-Soltero, Margarita Pérez, Maria Gregoria Montalvo-Lominchar, Jose Luis Maté-Muñoz, Raúl Domínguez, Diego Moreno, Mar Larrosa
Physical exercise is a tool to prevent and treat some of the chronic diseases affecting the world's population. A mechanism through which exercise could exert beneficial effects in the body is by provoking alterations to the gut microbiota, an environmental factor that in recent years has been associated with numerous chronic diseases. Here we show that physical exercise performed by women to at least the degree recommended by the World Health Organization can modify the composition of gut microbiota. Using high-throughput sequencing of the 16s rRNA gene, eleven genera were found to be significantly different between active and sedentary women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179092/altered-molecular-signature-of-intestinal-microbiota-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-compared-with-healthy-controls-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Hai-Ning Liu, Hao Wu, Yu-Zhuo Chen, Yan-Jie Chen, Xi-Zhong Shen, Tao-Tao Liu
BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported significant changes in intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients based on quantitative real-time PCR analysis. AIMS: We aimed to review the alterations in intestinal microbiota. METHODS: An online search up to June 9, 2016, was conducted. This systematic review and meta-analysis included differential expression of intestinal microbiota in patients with IBS versus healthy controls (HCs) and subgroup analysis...
January 21, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175005/p143-from-biopsies-to-fecal-samples-challenging-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-and-related-phylogroups-as-potential-biomarkers-for-ibd
#6
J Amoedo, M Serra-Pagès, M Serrano, A Bahí, M Malagόn, P Gilabert, J Guardiola, D Busquets, X Aldeguer, J Garcia-Gil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167665/microbial-strain-level-population-structure-and-genetic-diversity-from-metagenomes
#7
Duy Tin Truong, Adrian Tett, Edoardo Pasolli, Curtis Huttenhower, Nicola Segata
Among the human health conditions linked to microbial communities, phenotypes are often associated with only a subset of strains within causal microbial groups. While it has been critical for decades in microbial physiology to characterize individual strains, this has been challenging when using culture-independent high-throughput metagenomics. We introduce StrainPhlAn, a novel metagenomic strain identification approach, and apply it to characterize the genetic structure of thousands of strains from >125 species in >1,500 gut metagenomes drawn from populations spanning North/South American, European, Asian, and African countries...
February 6, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130771/effects-of-acarbose-on-the-gut-microbiota-of-prediabetic-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-crossover-trial
#8
Xiuying Zhang, Zhiwei Fang, Chunfang Zhang, Huihua Xia, Zhuye Jie, Xueyao Han, Yingli Chen, Linong Ji
INTRODUCTION: The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose is an efficacious medicine for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the response of gut microbiota to acarbose is important, as the microbiota may have a critical role in the development of metabolic diseases, and acarbose is metabolized exclusively within the gastrointestinal tract. We explored the changes in the proportion and diversity of gut microbiota before and after treatment with acarbose in patients with prediabetes...
January 27, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125667/profiling-living-bacteria-informs-preparation-of-fecal-microbiota-transplantations
#9
Nathaniel D Chu, Mark B Smith, Allison R Perrotta, Zain Kassam, Eric J Alm
Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125651/the-association-of-specific-constituents-of-the-fecal-microbiota-with-immune-mediated-brain-disease-in-dogs
#10
Nick D Jeffery, Andrew K Barker, Cody J Alcott, Jon M Levine, Ilyssa Meren, Jane Wengert, Albert E Jergens, Jan S Suchodolski
Meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) is a common, naturally-occurring, clinical disease of pet dogs. It is an immune-mediated condition that has many similarities with experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in rodents and so investigation of its pathogenesis may aid in understanding factors that contribute to development of multiple sclerosis in people. Gut microbiota are known to modulate immune responses that influence susceptibility to immune-mediated brain disease. In this study we aimed to compare abundance of specific constituents of the fecal microbiota, namely Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Prevotellaceae, between dogs diagnosed with MUO and matched controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118611/the-influence-of-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-on-gastric-cancer-patients-postoperative-infectious-complications-what-is-the-negative-role-played-by-the-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction
#11
Zhiliang Wei, Bin Tan, Shougen Cao, Shanglong Liu, Xiaojie Tan, Zengwu Yao, Na Yin, Jiante Li, Dongfeng Zhang, Yanbing Zhou
Evidence has shown that neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is correlated with patients' overall postoperative complications. But investigations on relationship between NACT and postoperative infectious complications, which is closely linked to intestinal barrier damage, were scanty. Accordingly, 90 patients with advanced gastric cancer were included in this study. The differences in postoperative infectious complications were determined between NACT group in which patients received NACT before surgery and SURG group in which received surgical treatment immediately after diagnosis...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112583/the-gut-microbiota-of-siblings-offers-insights-into-microbial-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
Charlotte R Hedin, Christopher J van der Gast, Andrew J Stagg, James O Lindsay, Kevin Whelan
Siblings of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have elevated risk of developing CD and display aspects of disease phenotype, including faecal dysbiosis. In our recent article we have used 16S rRNA gene targeted high-throughput sequencing to comprehensively characterize the mucosal microbiota in healthy siblings of CD patients, and determine the influence of genotypic and phenotypic factors on the gut microbiota (dysbiosis). We have demonstrated that the core microbiota of both patients with CD and healthy siblings is significantly less diverse than controls...
January 23, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100298/description-of-two-novel-members-of-the-family-erysipelotrichaceae-ileibacterium-valens-gen-nov-sp-nov-and-dubosiella-newyorkensis-gen-nov-sp-nov-from-the-murine-intestine-and-emendation-to-the-description-of-faecalibacterium-rodentium
#13
Laura M Cox, Jiho Sohn, Kerin L Tyrrell, Diane M Citron, Paul A Lawson, Nisha B Patel, Tadasu Iizumi, Guillermo I Perez-Perez, Ellie J C Goldstein, Martin J Blaser
To better characterize murine intestinal microbiota, a large number (187) of Gram-positive staining, rod- and coccoid-shaped facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria were isolated from small and large intestinal contents from mice. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a total 115 isolates formed three phylogenetically distinct clusters located within the family Erysipelotrichaceae. Group 1, as represented by strain NYU-BL-A3T, was most closely related to Allobaculum stercoricanis, with 16S rRNA gene similarity values of 87...
January 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099495/intestinal-bacteria-composition-and-translocation-of-bacteria-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
Spyros Vrakas, Konstantinos C Mountzouris, George Michalopoulos, George Karamanolis, George Papatheodoridis, Charalampos Tzathas, Maria Gazouli
BACKGROUND: Live commensal intestinal bacteria are present in the peripheral blood where they can induce inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intestinal bacteria composition and translocation of bacteria in IBD. METHODS: Both blood and tissue biopsy samples were collected from adult patients with active/inactive Crohn's disease (CD), active/inactive ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy individuals. Most of the patients were newly diagnosed and none of them received antibiotics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094590/effects-of-supernatants-from-escherichia-coli-nissle-1917-and-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-on-intestinal-epithelial-cells-and-a-rat-model-of-5-fluorouracil-induced-mucositis
#15
Hanru Wang, Yoga D Jatmiko, Susan E P Bastian, Suzanne Mashtoub, Gordon S Howarth
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (Fp) and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are probiotics, which have been reported to ameliorate certain gastrointestinal disorders. We evaluated the effects of supernatants (SN) derived from Fp and EcN on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-treated intestinal cells and in a rat model of mucositis. In vitro: IEC-6, Caco-2, and T-84 cells were analyzed for viability and monolayer permeability. In vivo: Female dark agouti rats were gavaged with Fp or EcN SN and injected intraperitoneally with saline (control) or 5-FU to induce mucositis...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094541/intestinal-proportion-of-blautia-sp-is-associated-with-clinical-stage-and-histoprognostic-grade-in-patients-with-early-stage-breast-cancer
#16
Trang H Luu, Catherine Michel, Jean-Marie Bard, François Dravet, Hassan Nazih, Christine Bobin-Dubigeon
Improving knowledge about breast cancer etiology is crucial in order to propose prevention strategies for this pathology. Gut microbiota is involved in numerous physiopathological situations including cancers. Although its potential involvement in breast cancer through the alteration of the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens and/or the metabolism of phytoestrogens has been discussed for some time, it remains to be demonstrated. The present study seeks to strengthen this hypothesis by identifying possible links between the fecal microbiota composition and clinical characteristics in breast cancer patients...
January 17, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064384/gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-alterations-in-cardiorespiratory-fitness-and-psychosocial-outcomes-among-breast-cancer-survivors
#17
Jesseca A Paulsen, Travis S Ptacek, Stephen J Carter, Nianjun Liu, Ranjit Kumar, LaKeshia Hyndman, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey D Morrow, Laura Q Rogers
PURPOSE: In this proof-of-concept pilot study, our purpose was to determine correlations between gut microbiota composition and alterations in cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial outcomes among post-primary treatment breast cancer survivors (BCS). METHODS: Composition of the gut microbiota in BCS (n = 12) was assessed at baseline (M0) and at the end of 3 months (M3) using Illumina MiSeq DNA Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Gut microbiota composition was analyzed using the QIIME bioinformatics software and represented through diversity metrics and taxa analyses...
January 7, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049818/impact-of-short-chain-galactooligosaccharides-on-the-gut-microbiome-of-lactose-intolerant-individuals
#18
M Andrea Azcarate-Peril, Andrew J Ritter, Dennis Savaiano, Andrea Monteagudo-Mera, Carlton Anderson, Scott T Magness, Todd R Klaenhammer
Directed modulation of the colonic bacteria to metabolize lactose effectively is a potentially useful approach to improve lactose digestion and tolerance. A randomized, double-blind, multisite placebo-controlled trial conducted in human subjects demonstrated that administration of a highly purified (>95%) short-chain galactooligosaccharide (GOS), designated "RP-G28," significantly improved clinical outcomes for lactose digestion and tolerance. In these individuals, stool samples were collected pretreatment (day 0), after GOS treatment (day 36), and 30 d after GOS feeding stopped and consumption of dairy products was encouraged (day 66)...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045459/faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-from-microbiology-to-diagnostics-and-prognostics
#19
Mireia Lopez-Siles, Sylvia H Duncan, L Jesús Garcia-Gil, Margarita Martinez-Medina
There is an increasing interest in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, one of the most abundant bacterial species found in the gut, given its potentially important role in promoting gut health. Although some studies have phenotypically characterized strains of this species, it remains a challenge to determine which factors have a key role in maintaining the abundance of this bacterium in the gut. Besides, phylogenetic analysis has shown that at least two different F. prausnitzii phylogroups can be found within this species and their distribution is different between healthy subjects and patients with gut disorders...
January 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039159/gut-microbiota-differs-between-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-healthy-siblings-in-taxonomic-and-functional-composition-a-metagenomic-analysis
#20
Rebecca Luise Knoll, Kristoffer Forslund, Jens Roat Kultima, Claudius U Meyer, Ulrike Kullmer, Shinichi Sunagawa, Peer Bork, Stephan Gehring
Current treatment for pediatric IBD patients is often ineffective, with serious side effects. Manipulating the gut microbiota via fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment approach but remains controversial. We aimed to assess the composition of the fecal microbiome through a comparison of pediatric IBD patients to their healthy siblings, evaluating risks and prospects for FMT in this setting. A Case-Control (Sibling) Study was conducted analyzing fecal samples of six children with Crohn's Disease (CD), six children with Ulcerative Colitis (UC) and 12 healthy siblings by metagenomic sequencing...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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