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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883264/mucosa-associated-biohydrogenating-microbes-protect-the-simulated-colon-microbiome-from-stress-associated-with-high-concentrations-of-poly-unsaturated-fat
#1
Rosemarie De Weirdt, Emma Hernandez-Sanabria, Veerle Fievez, Eva Mees, Annelies Geirnaert, Florence Van Herreweghen, Ramiro Vilchez-Vargas, Pieter Van den Abbeele, Ruy Jauregui, Dietmar H Pieper, Bruno Vlaeminck, Tom Van de Wiele
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may affect colon microbiome homeostasis by exerting (specific) antimicrobial effects and/or interfering with mucosal biofilm formation at the gut mucosal interface. We used standardized batch incubations and the Mucosal-Simulator of the Human Microbial Intestinal Ecosystem (M-SHIME) to show the in vitro luminal and mucosal effects of the main PUFA in the Western diet, linoleic acid (LA). High concentrations of LA were found to decrease butyrate production and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii numbers dependent on LA biohydrogenation to vaccenic acid (VA) and stearic acid (SA)...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846140/disturbances-of-the-perioperative-microbiome-across-multiple-body-sites-in-patients-undergoing-pancreaticoduodenectomy
#2
Matthew B Rogers, Victoria Aveson, Brian Firek, Andrew Yeh, Brandon Brooks, Rachel Brower-Sinning, Jennifer Steve, Jillian F Banfield, Amer Zureikat, Melissa Hogg, Brian A Boone, Herbert J Zeh, Michael J Morowitz
OBJECTIVE: The goals of this study were to characterize bacterial communities within fecal samples, pancreatic fluid, bile, and jejunal contents from patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to identify associations between microbiome profiles and clinical variables. METHODS: Fluid was collected from the pancreas, common bile duct, and proximal jejunum from 50 PD patients. Postoperative fecal samples were also collected. The microbial burden within samples was quantified with droplet digital polymerase chain reaction...
November 11, 2016: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833598/alteration-of-fecal-microbiota-profiles-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-associations-with-hla-b27-allele-and-disease-status
#3
Monica Di Paola, Duccio Cavalieri, Davide Albanese, Maddalena Sordo, Massimo Pindo, Claudio Donati, Ilaria Pagnini, Teresa Giani, Gabriele Simonini, Alessia Paladini, Paolo Lionetti, Carlotta De Filippo, Rolando Cimaz
Alteration of gut microbiota is involved in several chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, and gut microbial "pro-arthritogenic" profiles have been hypothesized. Intestinal inflammation may be involved in spondyloarthropathies and in a subset of patients affected by Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA), the most common chronic rheumatic disease of childhood. We compared the fecal microbiota composition of JIA patients with healthy subjects (HS), evaluating differences in microbial profiles between sub-categories of JIA, such as enthesitis-related arthritis (JIA-ERA), in which inflammation of entheses occurs, and polyarticular JIA, non-enthesitis related arthritis (JIA-nERA)...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833384/fecal-microbiota-in-pouchitis-and-ulcerative-colitis
#4
Kai-Yu Li, Jian-Lin Wang, Jiang-Peng Wei, Sen-Yang Gao, Ying-Ying Zhang, Li-Tian Wang, Gang Liu
AIM: To investigate the changes in microbiota in feces of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and pouchitis using genomic technology. METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from UC patients with or without an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) procedure, as well as healthy controls. The touchdown polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify the whole V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, which was transcribed from DNA extracted from fecal samples. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to separate the amplicons...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812352/impact-of-different-fecal-processing-methods-on-assessments-of-bacterial-diversity-in-the-human-intestine
#5
Yu-Hsin Hsieh, Courtney M Peterson, Anne Raggio, Michael J Keenan, Roy J Martin, Eric Ravussin, Maria L Marco
The intestinal microbiota are integral to understanding the relationships between nutrition and health. Therefore, fecal sampling and processing protocols for metagenomic surveys should be sufficiently robust, accurate, and reliable to identify the microorganisms present. We investigated the use of different fecal preparation methods on the bacterial community structures identified in human stools. Complete stools were collected from six healthy individuals and processed according to the following methods: (i) randomly sampled fresh stool, (ii) fresh stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, (iii) randomly sampled frozen stool, and (iv) frozen stool homogenized in a blender for 2 min, or (v) homogenized in a pneumatic mixer for either 10, 20, or 30 min...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812181/altered-gut-microbiota-composition-associated-with-eczema-in-infants
#6
Huajun Zheng, Hong Liang, Yuezhu Wang, Maohua Miao, Tao Shi, Fen Yang, Enuo Liu, Wei Yuan, Zai-Si Ji, De-Kun Li
Eczema is frequently the first manifestation of an atopic diathesis and alteration in the diversity of gut microbiota has been reported in infants with eczema. To identify specific bacterial communities associated with eczema, we conducted a case-control study of 50 infants with eczema (cases) and 51 healthy infants (controls). We performed high-throughput sequencing for V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from the gut fecal material. A total of 12,386 OTUs (operational taxonomic units) at a 97% similarity level were obtained from the two groups, and we observed a difference in taxa abundance, but not the taxonomic composition, of gut microbiota between the two groups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811997/effects-of-chronic-noise-on-glucose-metabolism-and-gut-microbiota-host-inflammatory-homeostasis-in-rats
#7
Bo Cui, Zhihui Gai, Xiaojun She, Rui Wang, Zhuge Xi
Chronic noise exposure has been implicated in increased risk of diabetes. However, there is limited experimental evidence of the mechanisms linking chronic noise stress and glucose metabolism. We addressed this in the present study by examining glucose metabolism, immune response, and changes in gut microbiota/host inflammatory homeostasis in rats exposed to noise for 30 consecutive days. Chronic noise exposure increased blood glucose and corticosterone levels for at least 14 days after cessation of noise. Stressed rats also exhibited elevated levels of glycogen and triglyceride in the liver and impaired hepatic insulin production via insulin-induced insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate 1/glycogen synthase kinase 3β signalling, which persisted for 3-14 days after cessation of noise exposure...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808338/sialoglycoprotein-isolated-from-the-eggs-of-carassius-auratus-prevents-bone-loss-an-effect-associated-with-the-regulation-of-gut-microbiota-in-ovariectomized-rats
#8
Fei Wang, Peng Yu, Xiong Gui, Yiming Wang, Changhu Xue, Jingfeng Wang
The anti-osteoporotic effect of sialoglycoprotein isolated from the eggs of Carassius auratus (Ca-SGP) has previously been demonstrated in vivo. However, the mechanism by which this macromolecular substance regulates bone metabolism remains unclear. Given the correlation between gut microbiota and the homeostasis of bone metabolism, the current study applied real-time PCR and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing to investigate the influence of Ca-SGP on gut microbiota in ovariectomized rats. Real-time PCR analysis showed that Ca-SGP treatment significantly reversed the increase of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis, and the decrease of Clostridium leptum, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Lactobacillus induced by ovariectomy...
November 3, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776263/association-of-brain-amyloidosis-with-pro-inflammatory-gut-bacterial-taxa-and-peripheral-inflammation-markers-in-cognitively-impaired-elderly
#9
Annamaria Cattaneo, Nadia Cattane, Samantha Galluzzi, Stefania Provasi, Nicola Lopizzo, Cristina Festari, Clarissa Ferrari, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Barbara Paghera, Cristina Muscio, Angelo Bianchetti, Giorgio Dalla Volta, Marinella Turla, Maria Sofia Cotelli, Michele Gennuso, Alessandro Prelle, Orazio Zanetti, Giulia Lussignoli, Dario Mirabile, Daniele Bellandi, Simona Gentile, Gloria Belotti, Daniele Villani, Taoufiq Harach, Tristan Bolmont, Alessandro Padovani, Marina Boccardi, Giovanni B Frisoni
The pathway leading from amyloid-β deposition to cognitive impairment is believed to be a cornerstone of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, what drives amyloid buildup in sporadic nongenetic cases of AD is still unknown. AD brains feature an inflammatory reaction around amyloid plaques, and a specific subset of the gut microbiota (GMB) may promote brain inflammation. We investigated the possible role of the GMB in AD pathogenesis by studying the association of brain amyloidosis with (1) GMB taxa with pro- and anti-inflammatory activity; and (2) peripheral inflammation in cognitively impaired patients...
August 31, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769168/comparative-genomics-of-clostridium-bolteae-and-clostridium-clostridioforme-reveals-species-specific-genomic-properties-and-numerous-putative-antibiotic-resistance-determinants
#10
Pierre Dehoux, Jean Christophe Marvaud, Amr Abouelleil, Ashlee M Earl, Thierry Lambert, Catherine Dauga
BACKGROUND: Clostridium bolteae and Clostridium clostridioforme, previously included in the complex C. clostridioforme in the group Clostridium XIVa, remain difficult to distinguish by phenotypic methods. These bacteria, prevailing in the human intestinal microbiota, are opportunistic pathogens with various drug susceptibility patterns. In order to better characterize the two species and to obtain information on their antibiotic resistance genes, we analyzed the genomes of six strains of C...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747984/effects-of-varying-dietary-content-of-fermentable-short-chain-carbohydrates-on-symptoms-fecal-microenvironment-and-cytokine-profiles-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#11
T N Hustoft, T Hausken, S O Ystad, J Valeur, K Brokstad, J G Hatlebakk, G A Lied
BACKGROUND: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs) is increasingly recommended for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to investigate the effects of a blinded low-FODMAP vs high-fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) diet on symptoms, immune activation, gut microbiota composition, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). METHODS: Twenty patients with diarrhea-predominant or mixed IBS were instructed to follow a low-FODMAP diet (LFD) throughout a 9-week study period...
October 16, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721367/a-pair-of-identical-twins-discordant-for-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-differ-in-physiological-parameters-and-gut-microbiome-composition
#12
Ludovic Giloteaux, Maureen R Hanson, Betsy A Keller
BACKGROUND Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) present with profound fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain, cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, and post-exertional malaise (PEM), and exacerbation of some or all of the baseline symptoms. CASE REPORT We report on a pair of 34-year-old monozygotic twins discordant for ME/CFS, with WELL, the non-affected twin, and ILL, the affected twin. Both twins performed a two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), pre- and post-exercise blood samples were drawn, and both provided stool samples for biochemical and molecular analysis...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713989/assessment-of-the-prebiotic-effect-of-quinoa-and-amaranth-in-the-human-intestinal-ecosystem
#13
Beatriz Gullón, Patricia Gullón, Freni K Tavaria, Remedios Yáñez
Quinoa and amaranth belong to the group of the so called "superfoods" and have a nutritional composition that confers multiple benefits. In this work, we explored the possibility of these foods exhibiting a prebiotic effect. These pseudocereals were subjected to an in vitro digestion and used as carbon sources in batch cultures with faecal human inocula. The effects on the microbiota composition and their metabolic products were determined by assessment of variations in pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
September 14, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708392/unique-features-of-ethnic-mongolian-gut-microbiome-revealed-by-metagenomic-analysis
#14
Wenjun Liu, Jiachao Zhang, Chunyan Wu, Shunfeng Cai, Weiqiang Huang, Jing Chen, Xiaoxia Xi, Zebin Liang, Qiangchuan Hou, Bing Zhou, Nan Qin, Heping Zhang
The human gut microbiota varies considerably among world populations due to a variety of factors including genetic background, diet, cultural habits and socioeconomic status. Here we characterized 110 healthy Mongolian adults gut microbiota by shotgun metagenomic sequencing and compared the intestinal microbiome among Mongolians, the Hans and European cohorts. The results showed that the taxonomic profile of intestinal microbiome among cohorts revealed the Actinobaceria and Bifidobacterium were the key microbes contributing to the differences among Mongolians, the Hans and Europeans at the phylum level and genus level, respectively...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703453/evaluation-of-the-microbial-diversity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-using-high-throughput-sequencing
#15
Xin Fang, Xin Wang, Shaoguo Yang, Fanjing Meng, Xiaolei Wang, Hua Wei, Tingtao Chen
More and more evidences indicate that diseases of the central nervous system have been seriously affected by fecal microbes. However, little work is done to explore interaction between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fecal microbes. In the present study, high-throughput sequencing method was used to compare the intestinal microbial diversity of healthy people and ALS patients. The principal coordinate analysis, Venn and unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) showed an obvious microbial changes between healthy people (group H) and ALS patients (group A), and the average ratios of Bacteroides, Faecalibacterium, Anaerostipes, Prevotella, Escherichia, and Lachnospira at genus level between ALS patients and healthy people were 0...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694960/association-of-host-genome-with-intestinal-microbial-composition-in-a-large-healthy-cohort
#16
Williams Turpin, Osvaldo Espin-Garcia, Wei Xu, Mark S Silverberg, David Kevans, Michelle I Smith, David S Guttman, Anne Griffiths, Remo Panaccione, Anthony Otley, Lizhen Xu, Konstantin Shestopaloff, Gabriel Moreno-Hagelsieb, Andrew D Paterson, Kenneth Croitoru
Intestinal microbiota is known to be important in health and disease. Its composition is influenced by both environmental and host factors. Few large-scale studies have evaluated the association between host genetic variation and the composition of microbiota. We recruited a cohort of 1,561 healthy individuals, of whom 270 belong in 123 families, and found that almost one-third of fecal bacterial taxa were heritable. In addition, we identified 58 SNPs associated with the relative abundance of 33 taxa in 1,098 discovery subjects...
October 3, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694739/gut-microbiota-related-to-giardia-duodenalis-entamoeba-spp-and-blastocystis-hominis-infections-in-humans-from-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#17
Valerio Iebba, Floriana Santangelo, Valentina Totino, Fabrizio Pantanella, Anatole Monsia, Veronica Di Cristanziano, David Di Cave, Serena Schippa, Federica Berrilli, Rossella D'Alfonso
INTRODUCTION: Literature data provide little information about protozoa infections and gut microbiota compositional shifts in humans. This preliminary study aimed to describe the fecal bacterial community composition of people from Côte d'Ivoire harboring Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Blastocystis hominis, in trying to discover possible alterations in their fecal microbiota structure related to the presence of such parasites. METHODOLOGY: Twenty fecal samples were collected from people inhabiting three different localities of Côte d'Ivoire for copromicroscopic analysis and molecular identification of G...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27687331/the-association-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-the-inflammatory-bowel-disease-activity-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Michelle Prosberg, Flemming Bendtsen, Ida Vind, Andreas M Petersen, Lise L Gluud
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) involves complex interactions between the microbiome and the immune system. We evaluated the association between the gut microbiota and disease activity in IBD patients. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical studies based on a published protocol. Included patients had ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) classified as active or in remission. We selected bacteria assessed in at least three studies identified through electronic and manual searches (November 2015)...
December 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676396/healthy-subjects-differentially-respond-to-dietary-capsaicin-correlating-with-the-specific-gut-enterotypes
#19
Chao Kang, Yong Zhang, Xiaohui Zhu, Kai Liu, Xiaolan Wang, Mengting Chen, Jian Wang, Hua Chen, Suocheng Hui, Li Huang, Qianyong Zhang, Jundong Zhu, Bin Wang, Mantian Mi
CONTEXT: Previous population studies in evaluating the beneficial effects of capsaicin (CAP) have yielded inconclusive results, and the mechanisms responsible for possible benefit remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the impact of dietary CAP on metabolic and immune profiles and its potential associations with gut microbial patterns in healthy adults. DESIGN: In a 6-week controlled feeding trial, subjects were given the weight maintenance diet sequentially contained with 0, 5, 0 and 10 mg/d CAP from chili powder...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625705/gut-microbiome-alterations-in-patients-with-stage-4-hepatitis-c
#20
AbdelRahman Mahmoud Aly, AbdelReheem Adel, Ahmed Osama El-Gendy, Tamer M Essam, Ramy K Aziz
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes debilitating liver diseases, which may progress to cirrhosis and cancer, and claims 500,000 annual lives worldwide. While HCV epidemiology, pathophysiology, and therapy are being deeply studied, rare attention is given to reciprocal interactions between HCV infection , HCV-induced chronic liver diseases, and the human gut microbiome. As Egypt has the world's highest prevalence of HCV infections, we launched this study to monitor differences in the gut microbial community composition of Egyptian HCV patients that may affect, or result from, the patients' liver state...
2016: Gut Pathogens
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