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Tiffany L Carson, Fuchenchu Wang, Xiangqin Cui, Bradford E Jackson, William J Van Der Pol, Elliot J Lefkowitz, Casey Morrow, Monica L Baskin
OBJECTIVE: Racial health disparities persist among black and white women for colorectal cancer. Understanding racial differences in the gut microbiota and related covariates (e.g., stress) may yield new insight into unexplained colorectal cancer disparities. METHODS: Healthy non-Hispanic black or white females (age ≥19 years) provided survey data, anthropometrics, and stool samples. Fecal DNA was collected and isolated from a wipe. PCR was used to amplify the V4 region of the 16SrRNA gene and 250 bases were sequenced using the MiSeq platform...
June 12, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Olena Prykhodko, Jonna Sandberg, Stephen Burleigh, Inger Björck, Anne Nilsson, Frida Fåk Hållenius
Rye kernel bread (RKB) evening meals improve glucose tolerance, enhance appetite regulation and increase satiety in healthy volunteers. These beneficial effects on metabolic responses have been shown to be associated with increased gut fermentation. The present study aimed to elucidate if RKB evening meals may cause rapid alterations in microbiota composition that might be linked to metabolic-, immune-, and appetite- parameters. Gut-brain axis interaction was also studied by relating microbiota composition to amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in blood plasma...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Ivan Mateos, Sylvie Combes, Géraldine Pascal, Laurent Cauquil, Céline Barilly, Anne-Marie Cossalter, Joëlle Laffitte, Sara Botti, Philippe Pinton, Isabelle P Oswald
Pigs are highly affected by dietary mycotoxin contamination and particularly by fumonisin. The effects of fumonisin on pig intestinal health are well documented, but little is known regarding its impact on gut microbiota. We investigate the effects of the fumonisin (FB1, 12 mg/kg feed) on the fecal microbiota of piglets ( n = 6) after 0, 8, 15, 22, and 29 days of exposure. A control group of six piglets received a diet free of FB1. Bacterial community diversity, structure and taxonomic composition were carried out by V3⁻V4 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
June 5, 2018: Toxins
Sara Gerhardt, M Hasan Mohajeri
In recent years evidence has emerged that neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are strongly associated with the microbiome composition in the gut. Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most intensively studied neurodegenerative disease in this context. In this review, we performed a systematic evaluation of the published literature comparing changes in colonic microbiome in PD to the ones observed in other NDs including Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple system atrophy (MSA), multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)...
June 1, 2018: Nutrients
Xiao-Lin Meng, Shuai Li, Chao-Bin Qin, Zhen-Xiang Zhu, Wen-Pan Hu, Li-Ping Yang, Rong-Hua Lu, Wen-Jun Li, Guo-Xing Nie
The present study was conducted to determine the effects of waterborne copper exposure on the lipid metabolism and intestinal microbiota of juvenile common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Common carp were exposed to four waterborne copper (Cu) concentrations (0 (control), 0.07 (low), 0.14 (medium), and 0.28 (high) mg Cu/L) for 8 weeks. Exposure to a high concentration of Cu had a negative effect on growth indices (weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR)). The biochemical indices measured in serum (low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TGs)) were significantly affected by exposure to medium concentration levels of Cu...
May 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Kristin Marie Valand Herstad, Aina Elisabeth Fossum Moen, John Christian Gaby, Lars Moe, Ellen Skancke
Colorectal epithelial tumors occur spontaneously in dogs, and the pathogenesis seems to parallel that of humans. The development of human colorectal tumorigenesis has been linked to alterations in the composition of the intestinal microbiota. This study characterized the fecal- and mucosa-associated microbiota in dogs with colorectal epithelial tumors (n = 10). The fecal microbiota was characterized by 16S rDNA analysis and compared with that of control dogs (n = 13). We also determined the mucosa-associated microbiota composition in colonic tumor tissue (n = 8) and in adjacent non-tumor tissue (n = 5) by 16S rDNA- and rRNA profiling...
2018: PloS One
Josie Libertucci, Usha Dutta, Sandeep Kaur, Jennifer Jury, Laura Rossi, Michelle E Fontes, M Sharif Shajib, Waliul I Khan, Michael G Surette, Elena F Verdu, David Armstrong
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Crohn's disease (CD), characterized by discontinuous intestinal injury and inflammation, has been associated with changes in luminal microbial composition and impaired barrier function. The relationships between visual features of intestinal injury, permeability and the mucosa-associated microbiota are unclear. METHODS: Individuals undergoing routine colonoscopy (controls) and patients with CD were evaluated by clinical parameters and confocal laser scanning endomicroscopic colonoscopy (CLE)...
May 31, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Qian Yang, Shi Lin Lin, Man Ki Kwok, Gabriel M Leung, C Mary Schooling
Manipulation of the gut microbiota presents a new opportunity to combat chronic diseases. Randomized controlled trials of probiotics suggest some associations with adiposity, lipids and insulin resistance, but no trials with hard outcomes have been conducted. We used separate-sample Mendelian randomization to obtain estimates of the associations of 27 gut microbiota genera with ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adiposity, lipids and insulin resistance, based on summary data from CARDIoGRAAMplusC4D and other consortiums...
May 25, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Lixing Zhou, Mingming Zhang, Yuming Wang, Robert Gregory Dorfman, Hang Liu, Ting Yu, Xiaotian Chen, Dehua Tang, Lei Xu, Yuyao Yin, Yida Pan, Qian Zhou, Yihua Zhou, Chenggong Yu
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated dysbiosis is characterized by a loss of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whose supernatant exerts an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the anti-inflammatory substances in F. prausnitzii supernatant and the mechanism in ameliorating colitis in IBD have not yet been fully investigated. Methods: Experimental colitis models were induced and evaluated by clinical examination and histopathology. Levels of cytokines and ratio of T cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively...
May 23, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Lauren Girard, Kenzie Birse, Johanna B Holm, Pawel Gajer, Mike S Humphrys, David Garber, Patricia Guenthner, Laura Noël-Romas, Max Abou, Stuart McCorrister, Garrett Westmacott, Lin Wang, Lisa C Rohan, Nobuyuki Matoba, Janet McNicholl, Kenneth E Palmer, Jacques Ravel, Adam D Burgener
Topical microbicides are being explored as an HIV prevention method for individuals who practice receptive anal intercourse. In vivo studies of these microbicides are critical to confirm safety. Here, we evaluated the impact of a rectal microbicide containing the antiviral lectin, Griffithsin (GRFT), on the rectal mucosal proteome and microbiome. Using a randomized, crossover placebo-controlled design, six rhesus macaques received applications of hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)- or carbopol-formulated 0.1% GRFT gels...
May 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiaolin Tong, Jia Xu, Fengmei Lian, Xiaotong Yu, Yufeng Zhao, Lipeng Xu, Menghui Zhang, Xiyan Zhao, Jian Shen, Shengping Wu, Xiaoyan Pang, Jiaxing Tian, Chenhong Zhang, Qiang Zhou, Linhua Wang, Bing Pang, Feng Chen, Zhiping Peng, Jing Wang, Zhong Zhen, Chao Fang, Min Li, Limei Chen, Liping Zhao
Accumulating evidence implicates gut microbiota as promising targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). With a randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that alteration of gut microbiota may be involved in the alleviation of T2DM with hyperlipidemia by metformin and a specifically designed herbal formula (AMC). Four hundred fifty patients with T2DM and hyperlipidemia were randomly assigned to either the metformin- or AMC-treated group. After 12 weeks of treatment, 100 patients were randomly selected from each group and assessed for clinical improvement...
May 22, 2018: MBio
Kotryna Simonyté Sjödin, Marie-Louise Hammarström, Patrik Rydén, Andreas Sjödin, Olle Hernell, Lars Engstrand, Christina E West
BACKGROUND: Compositional changes of the early life gut microbiota have been implicated in IgE-associated allergic disease but there is lack of longitudinal studies. We examined gut microbiota development from infancy to school age in relation to onset of IgE-associated allergic diseases. At 8 years of age, we also examined the relationship between gut microbiota and T-cell regulation, estimated as responses to polyclonal T-cell activation. METHODS: Stool samples were collected from 93 children at 4, 6 and 13 months, and 8 years of age...
May 22, 2018: Allergy
Nitsan Maharshak, Yehuda Ringel, David Katibian, Ashley Lundqvist, R Balfour Sartor, Ian M Carroll, Tamar Ringel-Kulka
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been associated with changes in the intestinal microbiota. Only a few studies have explored differences in the mucosa-associated microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls (HC). AIMS: To characterize and compare the microbiota in mucosal and fecal samples from carefully selected patients with IBS-D and HC. METHODS: The cohort was composed of 23 diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) patients and 24 HC...
May 17, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Xiaochen Yin, Dustin D Heeney, Yanin Tab Srisengfa, Shin-Yu Chen, Carolyn M Slupsky, Maria L Marco
We investigated whether sucrose metabolism by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum influences the intestinal survival and microbial responses to this organism when administered to mice fed a sucrose-rich, Western diet. A L. plantarum mutant unable to metabolize sucrose was constructed by deleting scrB, coding for beta-fructofuranosidase, in a rifampicin-resistant strain of L. plantarum NCIMB8826. The ScrB deficient mutant survived in 8-fold higher numbers compared to the wild-type strain when measured 24 h after administration on two consecutive days...
May 16, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Fei Han, Yong Wang, Yangyang Han, Jianxin Zhao, Fenli Han, Ge Song, Ping Jiang, Haijiang Miao
Diets rich in whole grain (WG) cereals bring lower disease risks compared with refined grain-based diets. We investigated the effects of polished rice (PR), refined wheat (RW), unpolished rice (UPR), and whole wheat (WW) on short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiota in ileal, cecal, and colonic digesta of normal rats. Animals fed with UPR and WW diets exhibited higher total SCFA in cecal and colonic digesta compared with those fed with PR and RW diets. Wheat diets contributed higher total SCFA than rice diets...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mie Korslund Wiinblad Crusell, Tue Haldor Hansen, Trine Nielsen, Kristine Højgaard Allin, Malte C Rühlemann, Peter Damm, Henrik Vestergaard, Christina Rørbye, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Ole Bjarne Christiansen, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Torben Hansen, Jeannet Lauenborg, Oluf Pedersen
BACKGROUND: Imbalances of gut microbiota composition are linked to a range of metabolic perturbations. In the present study, we examined the gut microbiota of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normoglycaemic pregnant women in late pregnancy and about 8 months postpartum. METHODS: Gut microbiota profiles of women with GDM (n = 50) and healthy (n = 157) pregnant women in the third trimester and 8 months postpartum were assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of the V1-V2 region...
May 15, 2018: Microbiome
Yun Huang, Si-Cheng Li, Ji Hu, Hai-Bin Ruan, He-Ming Guo, Hong-Hong Zhang, Xin Wang, Yu-Fang Pei, Yang Pan, Chen Fang
AIMS: To investigate whether microbial dysbiosis is associated with T1D in Chinese population and to explore relationships between the composition of gut microbiome and clinical data. METHODS: In this study, we recruited 10 healthy and 12 T1D Han Chinese subjects between the ages of 12 to 33. Fecal samples were collected for DNA extraction and 16S rRNA sequencing, followed by analyses of the gut microbiota composition. RESULTS: Bacterial communities differed between healthy and T1D subjects...
May 4, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Hannah D Holscher, Heather M Guetterman, Kelly S Swanson, Ruopeng An, Nirupa R Matthan, Alice H Lichtenstein, Janet A Novotny, David J Baer
Background: Epidemiologic data suggest that diets rich in nuts have beneficial health effects, including reducing total and cause-specific mortality from cancer and heart disease. Although there is accumulating preclinical evidence that walnuts beneficially affect the gastrointestinal microbiota and gut and metabolic health, these relations have not been investigated in humans. Objective: We aimed to assess the impact of walnut consumption on the human gastrointestinal microbiota and metabolic markers of health...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
J De Andrés, S Manzano, C García, J M Rodríguez, I Espinosa-Martos, E Jiménez
The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal health. Current use of probiotics is aimed at modulating the bacterial gut composition to alleviate specific diseases. The safety and tolerance of three probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071) has recently been described. The objective of the present study was to analyse the microbiological composition and immunological parameters of faecal samples obtained from healthy infants from 3 to 12 months of age after receiving either one of the three probiotic strains or placebo for 8 weeks...
May 4, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Danfeng Dong, Qi Ni, Chen Wang, Lihua Zhang, Zhen Li, Cen Jiang, EnqiangMao, Yibing Peng
BACKGROUND: Intestinal colonization by pathogenic bacteria is a risk factor for infection, and contributes to environmental contamination and disease dissemination. Alteration of gut microbiota also plays a pivotal role in the development of disease. Although Clostridium difficile and Staphylococcus aureus are well-recognized pathogens causing nosocomial and community infections, the intestinal colonization was not fully investigated. Herein, we explored their overall carriage rates in healthy adults from the community, and characterized the gut microbiomes of C...
May 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
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