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Gas anesthetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679839/xenon-detection-in-human-blood-analytical-validation-by-accuracy-profile-and-identification-of-critical-storage-parameters
#1
Cécile Frampas, Julia Ney, Mark Coburn, Marc Augsburger, Vincent Varlet
Xenon is a rare, mostly inert, noble gas that has applications in a wide range of fields, including medicine. Xenon acts on the human body as a useful organ-protective and anesthetic agent and has also been previously studied for potential applications in fields such as optics, aerospace and medical imaging. Recently, it was discovered that xenon can boost erythropoietin production, and it has been used as a performance-enhancing agent in international sports competitions such as the Sochi Olympic Games. Therefore, screening methods to detect the misuse of xenon by analysis of biological samples and to monitor anesthesia kinetics and efficiency are being investigated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674333/intravenous-and-intratracheal-thyrotropin-releasing-hormone-and-its-analog-taltirelin-reverse-opioid-induced-respiratory-depression-in-isoflurane-anesthetized-rats
#2
James D Boghosian, Anita Luethy, Joseph F Cotten
Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide hormone and a neurotransmitter widely-expressed in the CNS that regulates thyroid function and that maintains physiologic homeostasis. Following injection in rodents, TRH has multiple effects including increased blood pressure and breathing. We tested the hypothesis that TRH and its long-acting analog, taltirelin, will reverse morphine-induced respiratory depression in anesthetized rats following intravenous(IV) or intratracheal(IT) administration. TRH (1 mg/kg plus 5 mg/kg/hour IV) and talitrelin (1 mg/kg IV), when administered to rats pretreated with morphine (5 mg/kg IV), increased ventilation from 50±6 to 131±7% and 45±6 to 168±13% (percent baseline; n=4±SEM), primarily through increased breathing rates (from 76+/-9 to 260±14% and 66±8 to 318±37%)...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668565/the-effects-of-genetic-3-mercaptopyruvate-sulfurtransferase-deficiency-in-murine-traumatic-hemorrhagic-shock
#3
Michael Gröger, Martin Wepler, Ulrich Wachter, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Sandra Kress, Britta Lukaschewski, Sebastian Hafner, Markus Huber-Lang, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Noriyuki Nagahara, Csaba Szabó, Peter Radermacher, Clair Hartmann
INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic shock is a major cause of death after trauma. An additional blunt chest trauma independently contributes to mortality upon the development of an acute lung injury (ALI) by aggravating pathophysiological consequences of hemorrhagic shock. The maintenance of hydrogen sulfide availability is known to play an important role during hemorrhage and ALI. We therefore tested the impact of a genetic 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase mutation (Δ3-MST) in a resuscitated murine model of traumatic-hemorrhagic shock...
April 17, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629058/effect-of-propofol-and-isoflurane-on-gas-exchange-parameters-following-one-lung-ventilation-in-thoracic-surgery-a-double-blinded-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Shima Sheybani, Alireza Sharifian Attar, Sogol Golshan, Shadi Sheibani, Majid Rajabian
Background: The use of anesthetic drugs with minimal inhibitory effects on the hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) could have a decisive role in preventing the hypoxemia during one-lung ventilation (OLV). Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of propofol and isoflurane on the changes in gas exchange parameters following OLV in thoracic surgery. Methods: This double-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on patients who were candidates for elective right thoracotomy referred to the central operating room of Ghaem Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, during February 2016-2017...
February 2018: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616881/the-use-of-ketamine-xylazine-or-butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine-to-immobilize-american-black-bears-ursus-americanus
#5
Ryan H Williamson, Lisa L Muller, Coy Blair
  Wildlife anesthetic protocols must offer rapid inductions and recoveries, be physiologically safe, and be minimally regulated. With this in mind, we evaluated differences in induction and recovery times and physiological parameters in 33 American black bears ( Ursus americanus) anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine (KX) or immobilized with a commercial drug combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM). Dose was based on mass estimated from field observations. Bears were housed at Appalachian Bear Rescue, Townsend, Tennessee, US, or free-ranging within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Tennessee and North Carolina, US) and chemically immobilized for management purposes...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605588/genotoxic-effect-of-lippia-alba-mill-n-e-brown-essential-oil-on-fish-oreochromis-niloticus-and-mammal-mus-musculus
#6
Edgar Hell Kampke, Maria Eduarda de Souza Barroso, Franciane Martins Marques, Marcio Fronza, Rodrigo Scherer, Mayara Fumiere Lemos, Bianca Prandi Campagnaro, Levy Carvalho Gomes
"Erva cidreira" (Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown) is popular for its therapeutic properties, especially its sedative properties. Such properties led to the discovery of the anesthetic action of Lippia alba essential oil in fish culture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of Lippia alba essential oil in fish and mammals. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation with a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), where the compounds linalool, eucalyptol, γ-muurolene, and caryophyllene were identified as the most abundant compounds...
March 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603883/monitoring-of-blood-oxygenation-in-brain-by-resonance-raman-spectroscopy
#7
Nadezda A Brazhe, Kirsten Thomsen, Micael Lønstrup, Alexey R Brazhe, Evelina I Nikelshparg, Georgy V Maksimov, Martin Lauritzen, Olga Sosnovtseva
Blood oxygenation in cerebral vessels is an essential parameter to evaluate brain function and to investigate the coupling between local blood flow and neuronal activity. We apply resonance Raman spectroscopy in vivo to study hemoglobin oxygenation in cortex vessels of anesthetized ventilated mice. We demonstrate that the pairs of Raman peaks at 1355 and1375 cm-1 (symmetric vibrations of pyrrol half-rings in the heme molecule), 1552 and 1585 cm-1 and 1602 and 1638 cm-1 (vibrations of methine bridges in heme molecule) are reliable markers for quantitative estimation of the relative amount of oxyhemoglobin in venules, arterioles, and capillaries...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588456/inhalational-anesthetics-induce-neuronal-protein-aggregation-and-affect-er-trafficking
#8
Matthew Coghlan, Elizabeth Richards, Sadiq Shaik, Pablo Rossi, Ramesh Babu Vanama, Saumel Ahmadi, Christelle Petroz, Mark Crawford, Jason T Maynes
Anesthetic agents have been implicated in the causation of neurological and cognitive deficits after surgery, the exacerbation of chronic neurodegenerative disease, and were recently reported to promote the onset of the neurologic respiratory disease Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS), related to misfolding of the transcription factor Phox2B. To study how anesthetic agents could affect neuronal function through alterations to protein folding, we created neuronal cell models emulating the graded disease severity of CCHS...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588036/physical-accuracy-leads-to-biological-relevance-best-practices-for-simulating-ligand-gated-ion-channels-interacting-with-general-anesthetics
#9
Sruthi Murlidaran, Grace Brannigan
Efforts to detect binding modes of general anesthetics (GAs) for pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) are often complicated by a large number of indicated sites, as well as the challenges of ranking sites by affinity and determining which sites are occupied at clinical concentrations. Physics-based computational methods offer a powerful route for determining affinities of ligands to isolated binding sites, but preserving accuracy is essential. This chapter describes a step-by-step approach to multiple methods for identifying candidate sites and quantifying binding affinities and also discusses limitations and common pitfalls...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588032/xenon-protein-interactions-characterization-by-x-ray-crystallography-and-hyper-cest-nmr
#10
Benjamin W Roose, Serge D Zemerov, Ivan J Dmochowski
The physiological activity of xenon has long been recognized, though the exact nature of its interactions with biomolecules remains poorly understood. Xe is an inert noble gas, but can act as a general anesthetic, most likely by binding internal hydrophobic cavities within proteins. Understanding Xe-protein interactions, therefore, can provide crucial insight regarding the mechanism of Xe anesthesia and potentially other general anesthetic agents. Historically, Xe-protein interactions have been studied primarily through X-ray crystallography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588026/approaches-to-anesthetic-mechanisms-the-c-elegans-model
#11
Louise M Steele, Margaret M Sedensky
Understanding the mechanisms of volatile anesthetics has been a complex problem that has intrigued investigators for decades. Through the use of relatively simple model organisms-including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans-progress has been made. Like any model system, C. elegans has both advantages and disadvantages, which are discussed in this chapter. Methods are provided for exposing worms to volatile anesthetics in airtight glass chambers, and for measuring the concentrations of anesthetic in the chambers by gas chromatography...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532468/tham-administration-reduces-pulmonary-carbon-dioxide-elimination-in-hypercapnia-an-experimental-porcine-study
#12
S Höstman, R Kawati, G Perchiazzi, A Larsson
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we found a rebound of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2 ) after stopping THAM buffer administration. We hypothesized that this was due to reduced pulmonary CO2 elimination during THAM administration. The aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis in an experimental porcine hypercapnic model. METHODS: In seven, initially normoventilated, anesthetized pigs (22-27 kg) minute ventilation was reduced by 66% for 7 h. Two hours after commencing hypoventilation, THAM was infused IV for 3 h in a dose targeting a pH of 7...
March 12, 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526659/capnographic-identification-of-end-expiratory-flow-limitation
#13
Ron Dueck, Eric G Wong, G Kim Prisk, Randolph H Hastings
Patients with end-expiratory flow limitation (eEFL) demonstrate a terminal rise in capnography slope. The high slope could represent phase 5, a phenomenon described for single breath N2 tests but previously unreported during capnography. This study evaluated 6 healthy subjects exhaling from total lung capacity to residual volume at several set constant rates. We measured the volumes of flow limitation (VFL ) and phase 5 (VP5 ) for CO2 and N2 . A distinct phase 5 occurred shortly after eEFL for both gases. Increased expiratory flow rate resulted in parallel increases in VFL and VP5 ...
March 8, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509982/development-of-an-anesthetized-rat-model-of-exercise-hyperpnoea-an-integrative-model-of-respiratory-control-using-an-equilibrium-diagram
#14
Tadayoshi Miyamoto, Kou Manabe, Shinya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The lack of useful small animal models for studying exercise hyperpnoea makes it difficult to investigate the underlying mechanisms of exercise-induced ventilatory abnormalities in various disease states. What is the main finding and its importance? We developed an anesthetized rat model for studying exercise hyperpnoea, using respiratory equilibrium diagram for quantitative characterization of the respiratory chemoreflex feedback system...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497489/the-role-of-nitrous-oxide-in-stroke
#15
REVIEW
Zhu-Wei Zhang, Dong-Ping Zhang, Hai-Ying Li, Zhong Wang, Gang Chen
Stroke that is caused by poor blood flow into the brain results in cell death, including ischemia stroke due to lack of blood into brain tissue, and hemorrhage due to bleeding. Both of them will give rise to the dysfunction of brain. In general, the signs and symptoms of stroke are the inability of feeling or moving on one side of body, sometimes loss of vision to one side. Above symptoms will appear soon after the stroke has happened. If the symptoms and signs happen in 1 or 2 hours, we often call them as transient ischemic attack...
October 2017: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470316/protecting-the-brain-with-xenon-anesthesia-for-neurosurgical-procedures
#16
Anna Rylova, Mervyn Maze
Xenon possesses some, but not all, of the clinical features of an ideal anesthetic agent. Besides well-known advantages of rapid awakening, stable hemodynamics and lack of biotransformation, preclinical data lead to the expectation of xenon's advantageous use for settings of acute ongoing brain injury; a single randomized clinical trial using an imaging biomarker for assessing brain injury corroborated xenon's preclinical efficacy in protecting the brain from further injury. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and hence the putative applications of xenon for brain protection in neurosurgery...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424792/in-depth-characterization-of-the-effects-of-cigarette-smoke-exposure-on-the-acute-trauma-response-and-hemorrhage-in-mice
#17
Clair Hartmann, Michael Gröger, Jan-Philipp Noirhomme, Angelika Scheuerle, Peter Möller, Ulrich Wachter, Markus Huber-Lang, Benedikt Nussbaum, Birgit Jung, Tamara Merz, Oscar McCook, Sandra Kress, Bettina Stahl, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler
INTRODUCTION: Hemorrhagic shock accounts for a large amount of trauma-related mortality. The severity of trauma can be further aggravated by an additional blunt chest trauma (TxT), which independently contributes to mortality upon the development of an acute lung injury (ALI). Besides, cigarette smoke (CS) exposure before TxT enhanced posttraumatic inflammation, thereby aggravating ALI. We therefore aimed to characterize the impact of an acute and/or chronic lung injury on organ dysfunction in a murine model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock (HS)...
February 8, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404778/waste-anesthetic-gas-exposure-and-strategies-for-solution
#18
REVIEW
Hai-Bo Deng, Feng-Xian Li, Ye-Hua Cai, Shi-Yuan Xu
As inhaled anesthetics are widely used, medical staff have inevitably suffered from exposure to anesthetic waste gases (WAGs). Whether chronic exposure to WAGs has an impact on the health of medical staff has long been a common concern, but conclusions are not consistent. Many measures and equipment have been proposed to reduce the concentration of WAGs as far as possible. This review aims to dissect the current exposure to WAGs and its influence on medical staff in the workplace and the environment, and summarize strategies to reduce WAGs...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371097/akt-activation-improves-microregional-oxygen-supply-consumption-balance-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion
#19
Harvey R Weiss, Oak Z Chi, Geza K Kiss, Xia Liu, Stacey Damito, Estela Jacinto
There have been reports that activation of Akt may provide neuroprotection after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We tested the hypothesis that activation of Akt would decrease infarct size and improve microregional O2 supply/consumption balance after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This hypothesis was tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats with middle cerebral artery blockade for 1 hr and reperfusion for 2 hr with or without SC-79 (Akt activator, 0.05 mg/kg, three doses). Regional cerebral blood flow was determined using a C14-iodoantipyrine autoradiographic technique...
January 22, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359969/effects-of-two-fractions-of-inspired-oxygen-during-anesthesia-on-early-postanesthesia-oxygenation-in-healthy-dogs
#20
Manuel Martin-Flores, Chia T Tseng, Steven D Robillard, Brittany E Abrams, Luis Campoy, H Jay Harvey, Robin D Gleed
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of 2 fractions of inspired oxygen (Fio2 s) during anesthesia on postanesthesia Pao2 and other measures of oxygen exchange. ANIMALS 22 healthy adult sexually intact female dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy by ventral midline celiotomy. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either oxygen (Fio2 > 0.9 [100% oxygen]; n = 11; control group) or a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (Fio2 = 0.4; 11; 40% oxygen group) as the carrier gas for isoflurane while anesthetized. All dogs were allowed to breathe spontaneously while anesthetized...
February 2018: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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