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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097611/assessing-nitrous-oxide-effect-using-electroencephalographically-based-depth-of-anesthesia-measures-cortical-state-and-cortical-input
#1
Levin Kuhlmann, David T J Liley
Existing electroencephalography (EEG) based depth of anesthesia monitors cannot reliably track sedative or anesthetic states during n-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist based anesthesia with ketamine or nitrous oxide (N2O). Here, a physiologically-motivated depth of anesthesia monitoring algorithm based on autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) modeling and derivative measures of interest, Cortical State (CS) and Cortical Input (CI), is retrospectively applied in an exploratory manner to the NMDA receptor antagonist N2O, an adjuvant anesthetic gas used in clinical practice...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096575/the-effect-of-epidural-dexmedetomidine-on-oxygenation-and-shunt-fraction-in-patients-undergoing-thoracotomy-and-one-lung-ventilation-a-randomized-controlled-study
#2
Prachi Kar, Padmaja Durga, Ramachandran Gopinath
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Role of epidural dexmedetomidine in providing analgesia is well documented, but its effect on oxygenation and shunt fraction is not well established. We studied the hypothesis that epidural dexmedetomidine may improve oxygenation and shunt fraction during one-lung ventilation (OLV). MATERIAL AND METHODS: After taking Institutional Ethics Committee approval, sixty patients undergoing thoracotomy and OLV were randomized to receive epidural ropivacaine with saline (RS group) or epidural ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine (RD group)...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092273/in-vivo-testing-of-extracorporeal-membrane-ventilators-ila-activve%C3%A2-vs-prototype-i-lung%C3%A2
#3
Sabine Kischkel, Stefan Bergt, Beate Brock, Johan von Grönheim, Anne Herbst, Marc-Jonas Epping, Georg Matheis, Esther Novosel, Joerg Schneider, Philipp Warnke, Andreas Podbielski, Jan P Roesner, Peter I Lelkes, Brigitte Vollmar
A side-by-side comparison of the decarboxylation efficacy of two pump-driven veno-venous extracorporeal lung assist devices, i.e. a first prototype of the new miniaturized ambulatory extracorporeal membrane ventilator, I-lung® versus the commercial system iLA-activve® over a period of 72 hours in a large animal model.Fifteen German Landrace pigs were anesthetized and underwent mechanical hypoventilation to induce severe hypercapnia. Decarboxylation was accomplished by either the I-lung® or the iLA-activve® via a double lumen catheter in the jugular vein...
January 4, 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065636/neuroprotection-and-neurotoxicity-in-the-developing-brain-an-update-on-the-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-xenon
#4
Azeem Alam, Ka Chun Suen, Zac Hana, Robert D Sanders, Mervyn Maze, Daqing Ma
Growing and consistent preclinical evidence, combined with early clinical epidemiological observations, suggest potentially neurotoxic effects of commonly used anesthetic agents in the developing brain. This has prompted the FDA to issue a safety warning for all sedatives and anesthetics approved for use in children under three years of age. Recent studies have identified dexmedetomidine, the potent α2-adrenoceptor agonist, and xenon, the noble gas, as effective anesthetic adjuvants that are both less neurotoxic to the developing brain, and also possess neuroprotective properties in neonatal and other settings of acute ongoing neurologic injury...
January 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057819/a-new-method-to-evaluate-macaque-health-using-exhaled-breath-a-case-study-of-m-tuberculosis-in-a-bsl-3-setting
#5
Theodore R Mellors, Lionel Blanchet, JoAnne L Flynn, Jaime Tomko, Melanie O'Malley, Charles A Scanga, Philana L Lin, Jane E Hill
Breath is hypothesized to contain clinically relevant information, useful for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease, as well as understanding underlying pathogenesis. Non-human primates, such as the cynomolgus macaque, serve as an important model for the study of human disease, including over 70 different human infections. In this feasibility study, exhaled breath was successfully collected in less than five minutes under Biosafety Level 3 conditions from five anesthetized, intubated cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, before and after lung infection with M...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049865/adherence-of-volatile-propofol-to-various-types-of-plastic-tubing
#6
Felix Maurer, Dominik Lorenz, Gianluca Pielsticker, Thomas Volk, Daniel Sessler, Joerg Baumbach, Sascha Kreuer
Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic. Currently, it is not possible to routinely measure blood concentration of the drug in real time. However, multi-capillary column ion-mobility spectrometry (MCC-IMS) of exhaled gas can estimate blood propofol concentration. Unfortunately, adhesion of volatile propofol on plastic materials complicates measurements. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the extent to which volatile propofol adheres to various plastics used in sampling tubing. Perfluoralkoxy (PFA), polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE), polyurethane (PUR), silicone, and Tygon tubing were investigated in an experimental setting using a calibration gas generator (HovaCAL)...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033203/outcomes-of-extracorporeal-life-support-during-surgery-for-the-critical-airway-stenosis
#7
Seon Hee Kim, Seunghwan Song, Yeong Dae Kim, Hoseok I, Jeong Su Cho, Hyo Yeong Ahn, Jonggeun Lee, Do Hyung Kim, Bong Soo Son
Anesthetic management of critical airway stenosis is often very challenging. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may provide adequate respiratory support when conventional approaches fail. We report our experience of ECMO support for critical airway surgery. Between April 2012 and March 2015, nine patients underwent ECMO-supported airway operation. The reason for surgery was tracheal stenosis in nine patients, and tracheomalacia, tracheal tumor, and external tracheal compression by mediastinal mass in one patient each...
January 2017: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032570/hypokalemia-during-acute-metabolic-acidosis-on-hemodilution-with-succinylated-gelatin-in-rats
#8
Johanna K Teloh, Ricarda Rohrig, Indra N Waack, Herbert de Groot
BACKGROUND: Extracellular metabolic acidosis of mineral origin is commonly associated with plasma hyperkalemia. Nevertheless, in previous experiments, animals subjected to acute metabolic acidosis induced by normovolemic hemodilution using a colloidal volume replacement solution containing succinylated gelatin (gelafundin), developed a hypokalemic state with concomitant marked increases in diuresis and renal potassium excretion. In the present study, the succinylated gelatin's impact on diuresis and consequently potassium excretion was studied...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998860/-anesthetic-effect-and-safety-of-ultrasound-guided-thoracic-paravertebral-blockade-in-sympathectomy-for-palmar-hyperhidrosis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Jin-Dong Xu, Li-Na Yu, Da-Qiang Zhao, Liang Xie, Hai-Yu Zhou, Sheng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the anesthetic effect and safety of ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral blockade in video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy for treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis. METHODS: A total of 120 patients undergoing video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy for moderate or severe hyperhidrosis were randomized to receive ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral blockade (group A, n=60) or general anesthesia with tracheal intubation (group B, n=60)...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966330/therapeutic-effects-of-intralipid-and-medialipid-emulsionsin-a-rat-model-of-verapamil-toxicity
#10
Fatma Akgün Şahin, Sıdıka Hülya Çelebi, İrfan Güngör, Demet Coşkun, Elif Ergüven Kaya
BACKGROUND/AIM: Lipid emulsions are promising as a potential new therapy for severe verapamil overdose. Our purpose is to draw attention to the choice of solution by investigating the efficacy of intralipid 20% or medialipid 20% in verapamil overdose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen adult Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (saline; Group C), intralipid 20% (Group I), and medialipid 20% (Group M). Rats were anesthetized with ketamine...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916716/effects-of-a-non-competitive-n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-antagonist-tiletamine-in-adult-zebrafish
#11
Tatiana O Kolesnikova, Sergey L Khatsko, Vadim A Shevyrin, Yuri Yu Morzherin, Allan V Kalueff
Tiletamine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist chemically related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A common veterinary anesthetic drug, tiletamine is currently a Schedule III controlled substance in USA. This compound exerts sedative effects in humans and animals, also having an abuse potential, toxicity and dissociative hallucinogenic properties clinically. However, the neurotropic profile of tiletamine remains poorly understood, necessitating novel models and in-vivo screens, including non-mammalian species...
December 2, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908275/does-standing-or-sitting-position-of-the-anesthesiologist-in-the-operating-theatre-influence-sevoflurane-exposure-during-craniotomies
#12
Péter Sárkány, Béla Tankó, Éva Simon, Judit Gál, Béla Fülesdi, Csilla Molnár
BACKGROUND: Exposure of the OR staff to inhalational anesthetics has been proven by numerous investigators, but its potential adverse effect under the present technical circumstances is a debated issue. The aim of the present work was to test whether using a laminar flow air conditioning system exposure of the team to anesthetic gases is different if the anesthetist works in the sitting as compared to the standing position. METHODS: Sample collectors were placed at the side of the patient and were fixed at two different heights: at 100 cm (modelling sitting position) and 175 cm (modelling standing position), whereas the third collector was placed at the independent corner of the OR...
December 1, 2016: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899896/respiratory-function-in-voluntary-participating-patagonia-sea-lions-otaria-flavescens-in-sternal-recumbency
#13
Andreas Fahlman, Johnny Madigan
We measured esophageal pressures (n = 4), respiratory flow rates (n = 5), and expired O2 and CO2 (n = 4) in five adult Patagonia sea lions (Otaria flavescens, body mass range 94.3-286.0 kg) during voluntary breaths while laying down out of water. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL), the O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]O2) and CO2 production rates ([Formula: see text]CO2) during rest. Our results indicate that the resting tidal volume in Patagonia sea lions is approximately 47-73% of the estimated total lung capacity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877068/comparative-study-of-minimal-fresh-gas-flow-used-in-lack-plus-and-lack-s-circuit-in-spontaneously-breathing-anesthetized-adults
#14
Sunchai Theerapongpakdee, Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee, Sirirat Tribuddharat, Siwalai Sucher, Maneerat Thananun, Duangthida Nonlhaopol
BACKGROUND: The Lack's circuit is a co-axial Mapleson A breathing system commonly used in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults but still requires high fresh gas flow (FGF). The Lack-Plus circuit was invented with the advantage of lower FGF requirement. The authors compared the Lack-Plus and Lack's circuit for the minimal FGF requirement with no rebreathing in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults. METHODS: This was a randomized crossover study. We enrolled 24 adult patients undergoing supine elective surgery, with a body mass index ≤30 kg/m(2) and an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867960/is-a-short-anesthetic-exposure-in-children-safe-time-will-tell-a-focused-commentary-of-the-gas-and-panda-trials
#15
COMMENT
Gregory A Chinn, Jennifer M Sasaki Russell, Jeffrey W Sall
Early life exposure to general anesthesia in preclinical studies has consistently led to permanent cognitive deficits later in life. However, the extent to which this finding is translatable to humans is the subject of much debate as the results from clinical studies have been mixed. Recently two well-designed clinical trials have attempted to add clarity to our murky understanding. The General Anesthesia compared to Spinal anesthesia (GAS) trial, was an international, prospective, randomized, multicenter, equivalence trial comparing infants undergoing herniorrhaphy receiving general anesthesia vs...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867481/temporal-variation-in-the-response-of-tumors-to-hyperoxia-with-breathing-carbogen-and-oxygen
#16
Hua-Gang Hou, Nadeem Khan, Gai-Xin Du, Sassan Hodge, Harold M Swartz
The effect of hyperoxygenation with carbogen (95% O2 + 5% CO2) and 100% oxygen inhalation on partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) of radiation-induced fibrosarcoma (RIF-1) tumor was investigated. RIF-1 tumors were innoculated in C3H mice, and aggregates of oximetry probe, lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc), was implanted in each tumor. A baseline tumor pO2 was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry for 20 minutes in anesthetized mice breathing 30% O2 and then the gas was switched to carbogen or 100 % oxygen for 60 minutes...
July 2016: Medical Gas Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847240/inflammation-and-airway-hyperresponsiveness-after-chlorine-exposure-are-prolonged-by-nrf2-deficiency-in-mice
#17
Satoshi Ano, Alice Panariti, Benoit Allard, Michael O'Sullivan, Toby K McGovern, Yoichiro Hamamoto, Yukio Ishii, Masayuki Yamamoto, William S Powell, James G Martin
RATIONALE: Chlorine gas (Cl2) is a potent oxidant and trigger of irritant induced asthma. We explored NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent mechanisms in the asthmatic response to Cl2, using Nrf2-deficient mice, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis and sulforaphane (SFN), a phytochemical regulator of Nrf2. METHODS: Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were assessed 24 and 48h after a 5-min nose-only exposure to 100ppm Cl2 of Nrf2-deficient and wild type Balb/C mice treated with BSO or SFN...
January 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844299/comparison-of-pneumotachography-and-anemometery-for-flow-measurement-during-mechanical-ventilation-with-volatile-anesthetics
#18
Jarred R Mondoñedo, Jacob Herrmann, John S McNeil, David W Kaczka
Volatile anesthetics alter the physical properties of inhaled gases, such as density and viscosity. We hypothesized that the use of these agents during mechanical ventilation would yield systematic biases in estimates of flow ([Formula: see text]) and tidal volume (V T) for two commonly used flowmeters: the pneumotachograph (PNT), which measures a differential pressure across a calibrated resistive element, and the hot-wire anemometer (HWA), which operates based on convective heat transfer from a current-carrying wire to a flowing gas...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810409/a-novel-anti-pollution-filter-for-volatile-agents-during-cardiopulmonary-bypass-preliminary-tests
#19
Caetano Nigro Neto, Giovanni Landoni, Maria Angela Tardelli
OBJECTIVE: Concerns regarding pollution of the operating room by volatile anesthetics and effects on atmospheric ozone depletion exist. Volatile agents commonly are used during cardiopulmonary bypass to provide anesthesia independent of any supposed myocardial protective effects. The authors' aim was to create and to assess the performance of a prototype filter for volatile agents to be connected to the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit to avoid the emission of volatile agents to the operating room, and also to the environment without causing damage to the membrane oxygenator...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805441/comparison-of-contrast-media-for-visualization-of-the-colon-of-healthy-dogs-during-computed-tomography-and-ultrasonography
#20
Byunggyu Cheon, Sohyeon Moon, Seungjo Park, Sang-Kwon Lee, Sunghwa Hong, Hyun Cho, Jihye Choi
OBJECTIVE To evaluate contrast agents for their ability to improve visualization of the colon wall and lumen during CT and ultrasonography. ANIMALS 10 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Food was withheld from dogs for 36 hours, after which dogs consumed 250 mL of polyethylene glycol solution. Dogs were then anesthetized, a contrast agent (tap water, diluted barium, or air; order randomly assigned) was administered rectally, iodine contrast medium (880 mg of I/kg) was administered IV, and CT and ultrasonography of the colon were performed...
November 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
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