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Gas anesthetics

Gabriella Di Lascio, Edvin Prifti, Elmi Messai, Adriano Peris, Guy Harmelin, Roland Xhaxho, Albana Fico, Guido Sani, Massimo Bonacchi
INTRODUCTION: Status asthmaticus is a life-threatening condition characterized by progressive respiratory failure due to asthma that is unresponsive to standard therapeutic measures. We used extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to treat patients with near-fatal status asthamticus who did not respond to aggressive medical therapies and mechanical ventilation under controlled permissive hypercapnia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2011 and October 2015, we treated 16 adult patients with status asthmaticus (8 women, 8 men, mean age: 50...
October 6, 2016: Perfusion
Mary Ellen McCann, Jurgen de Graaff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Numerous preclinical studies have shown that general anesthetics adversely influence on the development of young brains. These adverse effects are dose-dependent occurring in specific stages of brain development. Histologic examinations show increased apoptosis, pathological neurogenesis and dendritic formation after exposure of infant animals to virtually all general anesthetics at a clinically effective dose which are associated with memory and behavioral changes at adulthood...
October 15, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
Neena Jain, Pooja Rawat Mathur, Shoyeb Khan, Arvind Khare, Veena Mathur, Surendra Sethi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Early extubation is a desirable goal after general anesthesia. Very few studies have compared the effect of bispectral index (BIS) monitoring versus standard end-tidal anesthetic gas (ETAG) concentration monitoring on tracheal extubation time for halothane-based anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of BIS versus ETAG-guided anesthesia on time to tracheal extubation for halothane-based anesthesia in general surgical setting. METHODS: This was a randomized, controlled double-blind study...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Keelara Shivalingaiah Savitha, Radhika Dhanpal, J Shilpa
BACKGROUND: Multimodal analgesia (MMA) by synergy with volatile anesthetics minimizes their use thus decreasing operation theater pollution and greenhouse gas emission. AIMS: To estimate minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) requirement of isoflurane (ISO) for skin incision with use of MMA in the study group versus conventional regime in the control group for a constant bispectral index (BIS). To observe the side effects of analgesic drugs administered in the study...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Kirsten F Smit, Daniel Brevoord, Stefan De Hert, Bas A de Mol, Raphaela P Kerindongo, Susan van Dieren, Wolfgang S Schlack, Markus W Hollmann, Nina C Weber, Benedikt Preckel
BACKGROUND: The noble gas helium induces pre- and postconditioning in animals and humans. Volatile anesthetics induce cardioprotection in humans undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. We hypothesized that helium induces pre- and postconditioning in CABG-patients, affecting signaling molecules protein kinase C-epsilon (PKC-ε), p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK-1/2) and heat shock protein 27 (HSP-27) within cardiac tissue, and reducing postoperative troponin levels...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Elisa Damiani, Alex Dyson, Lucia Zacchetti, Abele Donati, Mervyn Singer
BACKGROUND: Hypoxemia may compromise cell metabolism and organ function. Supplemental oxygen (O2) at high concentrations may prove ineffective, and issues relating to hyperoxia, barotrauma, mechanical ventilation, and extracorporeal oxygenation are well documented. Old reports suggest the potential safety and efficacy of alternative routes for O2 administration, such as intravenous or intestinal. We re-explored these routes in rat models of hypoxemia. METHODS: Hypoxemia was induced in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized rats by breathing a hypoxic gas mix (FiO2 0...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Jeong-Jin Yang, Seong-Hoon Seok, Dong-Joo Song, Seong-Chan Yeon
The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on various cardiovascular parameters and the stable range of isoflurane concentrations in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Seven Asiatic black bears were intramuscularly injected with medetomidine, zolazepam, and tiletamine (MZT) to induce anesthesia and anesthesia was maintained by administering isoflurane in 100% oxygen (4 l/min) without mechanical ventilation. Several cardiovascular parameters were measured at five end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (0...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Torben Esser, Gerburg Keilhoff, Uwe Ebmeyer
OBJECTIVE: Our asphyxia cardiac arrest (ACA) rat model is well established. The original model was designed in the 1990(th) using halothane and nitrous oxide for pre-insult anesthesia. Because of its hepato-toxicity and its potential to induce severe liver failures, halothane is no longer used in clinical anesthesia for several years. In order to minimize the health risk for our laboratory staff as well as to keep the experimental settings of our model on a clinically oriented basis we decided to replace halothane by sevoflurane...
October 7, 2016: Brain Research
Keith L Shelton
Inhalants are a loosely organized category of abused compounds defined entirely by their common route of administration. Inhalants include volatile solvents, fuels, volatile anesthetics, gasses, and liquefied refrigerants, among others. They are ubiquitous in modern society as ingredients in a wide variety of household, commercial, and medical products. Persons of all ages abuse inhalants but the highest prevalence of abuse is in younger adolescents. Although inhalants have been shown to act upon a host of neurotransmitter receptors, the stimulus effects of the few inhalants which have been trained or tested in drug discrimination procedures suggest that their discriminative stimulus properties are mediated by a few key neurotransmitter receptor systems...
October 7, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
David Freiermuth, Berend Mets, Daniel Bolliger, Oliver Reuthebuch, Thomas Doebele, Markus Scholz, Michael Gregor, Matthias Haschke, Manfred Daniel Seeberger, Jens Fassl
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profiles of sevoflurane and isoflurane during use of minimized extracorporeal circulation to perform coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Furthermore, cardiovascular stability during bypass and the postoperative release of troponins were evaluated. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized study. SETTING: University hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 31 adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Martine van Zijll Langhout, Charles G B Caraguel, Jacobus P Raath, Wayne S J Boardman
Nineteen white rhinoceroses ( Ceratotherium simum ) were anesthetized with 4 mg of etorphine hydrochloride; 35-40 mg of midazolam; and 7,500 international units of hyaluronidase for dehorning purposes at a game ranch in South Africa, to investigate this anesthetic combination. Median time to recumbency was 548 sec (range 361-787 sec). Good muscle relaxation and no muscle rigidity or tremors were observed in 18 animals, and only 1 individual showed slight tremors. In addition, all animals received butorphanol i...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Daisy Lin, Jinyang Liu, Lea Kramberg, Andrea Ruggiero, James Cottrell, Ira S Kass
BACKGROUND: Single-episode anesthetic exposure is the most prevalent surgery-related incidence among young children in the United States. Although numerous studies have used animals to model the effects of neonatal anesthetics on behavioral changes later on in life, our understanding of the functional consequences to the developing brain in a comprehensive and clinically relevant manner is unclear. METHODS: The volatile anesthetic, sevoflurane (sevo) was administered to C57BL6 postnatal day 7 (P7) mice in a 40% oxygen and 60% nitrogen gas mixture...
September 2016: Brain and Behavior
Clair Hartmann, Sebastian Hafner, Angelika Scheuerle, Peter Möller, Markus Huber-Lang, Birgit Jung, Benedikt Nubaum, Oscar McCook, Michael Gröger, Florian Wagner, Sandra Weber, Bettina Stahl, Enrico Calzia, Michael Georgieff, Csaba Szabó, Rui Wang, Peter Radermacher, Katja Wagner
Pre-traumatic cigarette smoke (CS) exposure aggravates post-traumatic acute lung injury (ALI). Cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) protects against ALI and CS exposure-induced chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether genetic CSE knockout (CSE) would aggravate post-traumatic ALI after CS exposure. After 3-4 weeks of CS exposure, anesthetized wild type (WT) and CSE mice underwent blunt chest trauma, surgical instrumentation and 4 hours of lung-protective mechanical ventilation...
September 28, 2016: Shock
Martin Russ, Sebastian Kronfeldt, Willehad Boemke, Thilo Busch, Roland C E Francis, Philipp A Pickerodt
Various animal models of lung injury exist to study the complex pathomechanisms of human acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and evaluate future therapies. Severe lung injury with a reproducible deterioration of pulmonary gas exchange and hemodynamics can be induced in anesthetized pigs using repeated lung lavages with warmed 0.9% saline (50 ml/kg body weight). Including standard respiratory and hemodynamic monitoring with clinically applied devices in this model allows the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies (drugs, modern ventilators, extracorporeal membrane oxygenators, ECMO), and bridges the gap between bench and bedside...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Amelia R Adelsperger, Krista J Bigiarelli-Nogas, Irina Toore, Craig J Goergen
A traditional vaporizer depends on flowing gas and atmospheric pressure for passive anesthetic vaporization. Newly developed direct injection vaporizers utilize a syringe pump to directly administer volatile anesthetics into a gas stream. Unlike a traditional vaporizer, it can be used at very low flow rates, making it ideal for use on mice and rats. The equipment's capability to use low flow rates could result in a substantial cost savings due to the reduced need for anesthetic agents, compressed gas, and charcoal scavenging filters(1)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Bodo Davieds, Julian Gross, Marc M Berger, Emel Baloğlu, Peter Bärtsch, Heimo Mairbäurl
Oxygen diffusion across the alveolar wall is compromised by low alveolar oxygen but also by pulmonary edema, and leads to hypoxemia and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). To test, whether inhibition of alveolar fluid reabsorption results in an increased pulmonary arterial pressure and whether this effect enhances HPV, we established a model, where anesthetized rats were ventilated with normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (13.5% O2) gas received aerosolized amiloride and lipopolisaccharide (LPS) to inhibit alveolar fluid reabsorption...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Gorel Nyman, Bengt Röken, Eva-Maria Hedin, Goran Hedenstierna
The trachea in the giraffe is long but narrow and dead space ventilation is in general considered to be of similar size as in other mammals. Less is known about matching of ventilation and lung blood flow. The lungs are large, up to 1 m high and 0.7 m wide, that may cause considerable ventilation/perfusion (VA/Q) mis-match by the influence of gravitational forces, leading to hypoxemia. We studied a young giraffe under anesthesia utilizing multiple inert gas elimination technique to analyze VA/Q distribution and arterial oxygenation and compared the results with other species of different sizes, including man...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Hiroe Yoshioka, Haruyuki Yamazaki, Rie Yasumura, Kosuke Wada, Yoshiro Kobayashi
A 53-year-old man with chronic renal tubular acidosis and subclinical hypothyroidism underwent lower leg amputation surgery under general anesthesia. Perioperative acid-base management in such patients poses many difficulties because both pathophysiologies have the potential to complicate the interpretation of capnometry and arterial blood gas analysis data; inappropriate correction of chronic metabolic acidosis may lead to postoperative respiratory deterioration. We discuss the management of perioperative acidosis in order to achieve successful weaning from mechanical ventilation and promise a complete recovery from anesthesia...
2016: Case Reports in Anesthesiology
Pablo Tapia, Felipe Lillo, Dagoberto Soto, Leslie Escobar, Felipe Simon, Karina Hernández, Leyla Alegría, Alejandro Bruhn
A promising approach to facilitate protective mechanical ventilation is the use of extracorporeal CO2 removal techniques. Several strategies based on membrane gas exchangers have been developed. However, these techniques are still poorly available. The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of THAM infusion coupled to hemofiltration for the management of hypercapnic acidosis. A severe respiratory acidosis was induced in seven anesthetized pigs. Five of them were treated with THAM 8-mmol·kg(-1)·h(-1) coupled to hemofiltration (THAM+HF group) at 100 mL·kg(-1)·h(-1)...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Verônica Santana de Freitas-Blanco, Michelle Franz-Montan, Francisco Carlos Groppo, João Ernesto de Carvalho, Glyn Mara Figueira, Luciano Serpe, Ilza Maria Oliveira Sousa, Viviane Aparecida Guilherme Damasio, Lais Thiemi Yamane, Eneida de Paula, Rodney Alexandre Ferreira Rodrigues
PURPOSE: To develop an anesthetic mucoadhesive film containing Acmella oleracea (jambu) extract for topical use on oral mucosa. METHODS: Ethanolic extracts from aerial parts of jambu were prepared by maceration. Pigment removal was obtained by adsorption with activated carbon. Three mucoadhesive films were developed using a film casting method: 10 or 20% of crude jambu extract (10% JB and 20% JB), and 10% of crude jambu extract treated with activated carbon (10% JBC)...
2016: PloS One
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