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Myogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640861/inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-improves-the-stress-resistance-and-myogenic-differentiation-of-mdspcs-isolated-from-naturally-aged-mice
#1
Jonathan D Proto, Aiping Lu, Akaitz Dorronsoro, Alex Scibetta, Paul D Robbins, Laura J Niedernhofer, Johnny Huard
A decline in the regenerative capacity of adult stem cells with aging is well documented. As a result of this decline, the efficacy of autologous stem cell therapies is likely to decline with increasing donor age. In these cases, strategies to restore the function of aged stem cells would have clinical utility. Globally, the transcription factor NF-κB is up-regulated in aged tissues. Given the negative role that NF-κB plays in myogenesis, we investigated whether the age-related decline in the function of muscle-derived stem/progenitor cells (MDSPCs) could be improved by inhibition of NF-κB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639573/a-transcriptomic-analysis-of-physiological-significance-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-in-myogenesis-and-carbohydrate-metabolism-of-genioglossus-in-mice
#2
Tong Hao, Yue-Hua Liu, Yuan-Yuan Li, Yun Lu, Hong-Yi Xu
BACKGROUND: Chronic intermittent hypoxia is the most remarkable feature of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome and it can induce the change of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and contractile properties in the genioglossus. To clarify the role of HIF-1α in contractile properties of the genioglossus, this study generated and compared high-throughput RNA-sequencing data from genioglossus between HIF-1α conditional knockout (KO) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) mice...
July 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638414/an-examination-of-the-role-of-transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-regulation-in-rhabdomyosarcoma
#3
REVIEW
Alexander J Hron, Atsushi Asakura
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive family of soft tissue tumors that most commonly manifests in children. RMS variants express several skeletal muscle markers, suggesting myogenic stem or progenitor cell origin of RMS. In this review, the roles of both recently identified and well-established microRNAs in RMS are discussed and summarized in a succinct, tabulated format. Additionally, the subtypes of RMS are reviewed along with the involvement of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, Pax proteins, and microRNAs in normal and pathologic myogenesis...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637957/gm7325-is-myod-dependently-expressed-in-activated-muscle-satellite-cells
#4
Daisuke Takei, Nishi Miyuki, Fukada So-Ichiro, Doi Masao, Hitoshi Okamura, Akiyoshi Uezumi, Lidan Zhang, Morikatsu Yoshida, Mikiya Miyazato, Atsuhiko Ichimura, Hiroshi Takeshima
The Gm7325 gene, bioinformatically identified in the mouse genome, encodes a small protein but has not been characterized until recently. Our gene expression analysis revealed that Gm7325 transcription is remarkably upregulated in injured skeletal muscle tissues. Activated satellite cells and immature myotubes were densely decorated with positive signals for Gm7325 mRNA in in situ hybridization analysis, while no obvious signals were observed in quiescent satellite cells and mature myofibers. In the 5'-flanking regions of mouse Gm7325 and its human homologue, conserved E-box motifs for helix-loop-helix transcription factors are repeatedly arranged around the putative promoter regions...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637676/editorial-focus-on-balance-between-s-nitrosylation-and-denitrosylation-modulates-myoblast-proliferation-independently-of-soluble-guanylyl-cyclase-activation
#5
Hugo P Monteiro, Fernando T Ogata
Myogenesis involves a complex series of signaling events that will result in the formation of muscle fibers. The participation of nitric oxide (NO) in myogenesis is well established. NO generation in skeletal muscle comes from the neuronal isoform of the NO synthase (nNOS). NO signals through cGMP production and s-nitrosylation of proteins in skeletal muscle. In skeletal muscle, nNOS interacts with two domains of caveolin-3 which is part of caveolae, and forms a signaling complex through additional interactions with Src kinase and p21Ras...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637658/decreased-myoblast-differentiation-in-chronic-binge-alcohol-administered-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-male-macaques-role-of-decreased-mir-206
#6
Liz Simon, Stephen M Ford, Kejing Song, Paul Berner, Curtis Vande Stouwe, Steve Nelson, Gregory J Bagby, Patricia E Molina
Skeletal muscle stem cells play a critical role in regeneration of myofibers. We have previously demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) markedly attenuates myoblast differentiation potential and myogenic gene expression. Muscle specific microRNAs are implicated in regulating myogenic genes. The aim of this study was to determine whether myoblasts isolated from asymptomatic CBA administered SIV-infected macaques treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) showed similar impairments and if so, to elucidate potential underlying mechanisms...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637492/expression-patterns-of-fshd-causing-dux4-and-myogenic-transcription-factors-pax3-and-pax7-are-spatially-distinct-in-differentiating-human-stem-cell-cultures
#7
Premi Haynes, Kelly Kernan, Suk-Lin Zhou, Daniel G Miller
BACKGROUND: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is most commonly inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and caused by the abnormal expression of DUX4 in skeletal muscle. The DUX4 transcription factor has DNA binding domains similar to several paired class homeotic transcription factors, but only myogenic factors PAX3 and PAX7 rescue cell viability when co-expressed with DUX4 in mouse myoblasts. This observation suggests competition for DNA binding sites in satellite cells might limit muscle repair and may be one aspect of DUX4-associated myotoxicity...
June 21, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634270/making-muscle-skeletal-myogenesis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#8
REVIEW
Jérome Chal, Olivier Pourquié
Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the body and loss of its function or its regenerative properties results in debilitating musculoskeletal disorders. Understanding the mechanisms that drive skeletal muscle formation will not only help to unravel the molecular basis of skeletal muscle diseases, but also provide a roadmap for recapitulating skeletal myogenesis in vitro from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). PSCs have become an important tool for probing developmental questions, while differentiated cell types allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies...
June 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630021/thyroid-hormone-signaling-and-deiodinase-actions-in-muscle-stem-progenitor-cells
#9
REVIEW
Raffaele Ambrosio, Maria Angela De Stefano, Daniela Di Girolamo, Domenico Salvatore
Thyroid hormone (TH) regulates such crucial biological functions as normal growth, development and metabolism of nearly all vertebrate tissues. In skeletal muscle, TH plays a critical role in regulating the function of satellite cells, the bona fide skeletal muscle stem cells. Deiodinases (D2 and D3) have been found to modulate the expression of various TH target genes in satellite cells. Regulation of the expression and activity of the deiodinases constitutes a cell-autonomous, pre-receptor mechanism that controls crucial steps during the various phases of myogenesis...
June 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621431/adhesion-molecule-kirrel3-neph2-is-required-for-the-elongated-shape-of-myocytes-during-skeletal-muscle-differentiation
#10
Yael Tamir-Livne, Raeda Mubariki, Eyal Bengal
Kirrel/Neph proteins are evolutionarily conserved members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of adhesion proteins. Kirrel3 is the mouse orthologue of Dumbfounded (Duf), a family member that regulates myoblast pre-fusion events in Drosophila. Yet, the role of Kirrel3 in mammalian myogenesis has not been demonstrated. Experiments performed here indicate that the mouse Kirrel3 protein regulates morphological changes of myoblasts that are required for their subsequent fusion into multinucleated myotubes. We show that Kirrel3 is transiently expressed at the tips of myocytes during early myoblast differentiation and that its expression is dependent on the myogenic transcription factor, MyoD...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608935/cdk9-regulates-apoptosis-of-myoblast-cells-by-modulation-of-microrna-1-expression
#11
Vahideh Tarhriz, Kay-Dietrich Wagner, Zahra Masoumi, Ommoleila Molavi, Mohammad Saeid Hejazi, Hossein Ghanbarian
Cdk9 is the catalytic core of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) and regulates transcriptional elongation factors by phosphorylation of RNA pol II. Apart from its role on myogenic gene expression, Cdk9 regulation of muscle-specific microRNAs in the early stage of cardiomyogenesis is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Cdk9 not only regulates myogenic transcription factors, but also controls muscle-specific microRNAs. During cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells, high Cdk9 expression preceded up-regulation of miR-1...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607151/the-transcriptional-co-repressor-tle3-regulates-myogenic-differentiation-by-repressing-the-activity-of-the-myod-transcription-factor
#12
Shoichiro Kokabu, Chihiro Nakatomi, Takuma Matsubara, Yusuke Ono, William N Addison, Jonathan W Lowery, Mariko Urata, Aaron M Hudnall, Suzuro Hitomi, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Tsuyoshi Sato, Kenji Osawa, Tetsuya Yoda, Vicki Rosen, Eijiro Jimi
Satellite cells are skeletal muscle stem cells that provide myonuclei for postnatal muscle growth, maintenance, and repair/regeneration in adults. Normally, satellite cells are mitotically quiescent, but they are activated in response to muscle injury, in which case they proliferate extensively and exhibit upregulated expression of the transcription factor MyoD, a master regulator of myogenesis. MyoD forms a heterodimer with E proteins through their basic helix-loophelix (bHLH) domain, binds to E boxes in the genome, and thereby activates transcription at muscle-specific promoters...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600496/dysregulation-of-nuclear-receptor-coup-tfii-impairs-skeletal-muscle-development
#13
Hui-Ju Lee, Chung-Yang Kao, Shih-Chieh Lin, Mafei Xu, Xin Xie, Sophia Y Tsai, Ming-Jer Tsai
Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) has been shown to inhibit myogenesis and skeletal muscle metabolism in vitro. However, its precise role and in vivo function in muscle development has yet to be clearly defined. COUP-TFII protein expression level is high in undifferentiated progenitors and gradually declines during differentiation, raising an important question of whether downregulation of COUP-TFII expression is required for proper muscle cell differentiation. In this study, we generated a mouse model ectopically expressing COUP-TFII in myogenic precursors to maintain COUP-TFII activity during myogenesis and found that elevated COUP-TFII activity resulted in inefficient skeletal muscle development...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595527/creatine-supplementation-and-skeletal-muscle-metabolism-for-building-muscle-mass-review-of-the-potential-mechanisms-of-action
#14
Farnaz Farshidfar, Mark A Pinder, Semone B Myrie
Creatine, a very popular supplement among athletic populations, is of growing interest for clinical applications. Since over 90% of creatine is stored in skeletal muscle, the effect of creatine supplementation on muscle metabolism is a widely studied area. While numerous studies over the past few decades have shown that creatine supplementation has many favorable effects on skeletal muscle physiology and metabolism, including enhancing muscle mass (growth/hypertrophy); the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
June 5, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592272/betaine-promotes-cell-differentiation-of-human-osteoblasts-in-primary-culture
#15
Isabella Villa, Pamela Senesi, Anna Montesano, Anita Ferraretto, Fernanda Vacante, Alice Spinello, Michela Bottani, Simona Bolamperti, Alessandro Rubinacci, Livio Luzi, Ileana Terruzzi
BACKGROUND: Betaine (BET), a component of many foods, is an essential osmolyte and a source of methyl groups; it also shows an antioxidant activity. Moreover, BET stimulates muscle differentiation via insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I). The processes of myogenesis and osteogenesis involve common mechanisms with skeletal muscle cells and osteoblasts sharing the same precursor. Therefore, we have hypothesized that BET might be effective on osteoblast cell differentiation. METHODS: The effect of BET was tested in human osteoblasts (hObs) derived from trabecular bone samples obtained from waste material of orthopedic surgery...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590761/proteome-wide-adaptations-of-mouse-skeletal-muscles-during-a-full-month-in-space
#16
Georg Tascher, Thomas Brioche, Pauline Maes, Angèle Chopard, Donal O'Gorman, Guillemette Gauquelin-Koch, Stephane Blanc, Fabrice Bertile
The safety of space flight is challenged by a severe loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and endurance that may compromise the health and performance of astronauts. The molecular mechanisms underpinning muscle atrophy and decreased performance have been studied mostly after short duration flights, and are still not fully elucidated. By deciphering the muscle proteome changes elicited in mice after a full month aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite, we observed that the antigravity soleus incurred the greatest changes compared to locomotor muscles...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589555/common-and-distinctive-functions-of-the-hippo-effectors-taz-and-yap-in-skeletal-muscle-stem-cell-function
#17
Congshan Sun, Vanessa De Mello, Abdalla Mohamed, Huascar P Ortuste Quiroga, Amaya Garcia-Munoz, Abdullah Al Bloshi, Annie M Tremblay, Alexander von Kriegsheim, Elaina Collie-Duguid, Neil Vargesson, David Matallanas, Henning Wackerhage, Peter S Zammit
Hippo pathway downstream effectors Yap and Taz play key roles in cell proliferation and regeneration, regulating gene expression especially via Tead transcription factors. To investigate their role in skeletal muscle stem cells, we analysed Taz in vivo and ex vivo in comparison to Yap. siRNA knockdown or retroviral-mediated expression of wildtype human or constitutively active TAZ mutants in satellite cells showed that TAZ promoted proliferation, a function shared with YAP. However, at later stages of myogenesis, TAZ also enhanced myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, whereas YAP inhibits such differentiation...
June 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589421/tat-myod-fused-proteins-together-with-c2c12-conditioned-medium-are-able-to-induce-equine-adult-mesenchimal-stem-cells-towards-the-myogenic-fate
#18
Marco Patruno, Chiara Gomiero, Roberta Sacchetto, Ohad Topel, Alessandro Negro, Tiziana Martinello
The Tat protein is able to translocate through the plasma membrane and when it is fused with other peptides may acts as a protein transduction system. This ability appears particularly interesting to induce tissue-specific differentiation when the Tat protein is associated to transcription factors. In the present work, the potential of the complex Tat-MyoD in inducing equine peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (PB-MSCs) towards the myogenic fate, was evaluated. Results showed that the internalization process of Tat-MyoD happens only in serum free conditions and that the nuclear localization of the fused complex is observed after 15 hours of incubation...
June 6, 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586319/rev-erb-and-ror-therapeutic-targets-for-treating-myopathies
#19
REVIEW
Ryan D Welch, Colin A Flaveny
Muscle is primarily known for its mechanical roles in locomotion, maintenance of posture, and regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. There are numerous medical conditions that adversely affect muscle, myopathies that disrupt muscle development, regeneration and protein turnover to detrimental effect. Skeletal muscle is also a vital secretory organ that regulates thermogenesis, inflammatory signaling and directs context specific global metabolic changes in energy substrate preference on a daily basis...
June 6, 2017: Physical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584719/six4-promotes-metastasis-via-activation-of-the-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Guodong Li, Fuqing Hu, Xuelai Luo, Junbo Hu, Yongdong Feng
BACKGROUND: Several studies report aberrant expression of sine oculis homeobox (SIX) homolog family members during cancer development and progression. SIX4 participates in organ development, such as myogenesis and neurogenesis. However, the expression and clinical implication of SIX4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. METHODS: The SIX4 expression levels in colorectal patients were assessed in nine different human cancer arrays and compared using patient survival data...
2017: PeerJ
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