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Myogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306190/natural-polymeric-hydrogel-evaluation-for-skeletal-muscle-tissue-engineering
#1
Beth E Pollot, Christopher R Rathbone, Joseph C Wenke, Teja Guda
Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable ability to repair/regenerate after most types of injuries, there is limited regeneration after volumetric muscle loss (VML). A number of scaffold materials have been used in the development of grafts to treat VML, however, there is still a need to better understand the most appropriate material with regards to its ability to maintain mechanical integrity while also supporting myogenesis. Five commonly used natural polymeric materials (Collagen I, Agarose, Alginate, Fibrin, and Collagen Chitosan) used in skeletal muscle tissue engineering grafts were evaluated for their mechanical properties and myogenic capacity...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303574/functional-impact-of-an-oculopharyngeal-muscular-dystrophy-mutation-in-pabpn1
#2
Maricela García-Castañeda, Ana Victoria Vega, Rocío Rodríguez, Maria Guadalupe Montiel-Jaen, Bulmaro Cisneros, Angel Zarain-Herzberg, Guillermo Avila
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is linked to mutations in the gene encoding poly(A)-binding protein nuclear 1 (PABPN1). OPMD mutations consist in an expansion of a tract that contains 10 alanines (to 12-17). The disease courses with muscle weakness that begins in adulthood, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here we investigated functional effects of PABPN1 and an OPMD mutation (PABPN1-17A), using myotubes transfected with cDNAs encoding these proteins (GFP-tagged). PABPN1 stimulated myoblast fusion (100%), but PABPN1-17A failed to mimic this effect...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287512/preparation-and-culture-of-myogenic-precursor-cells-primary-myoblasts-from-skeletal-muscle-of-adult-and-aged-humans
#3
Ana Soriano-Arroquia, Peter D Clegg, Andrew P Molloy, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
Skeletal muscle homeostasis depends on muscle growth (hypertrophy), atrophy and regeneration. During ageing and in several diseases, muscle wasting occurs. Loss of muscle mass and function is associated with muscle fiber type atrophy, fiber type switching, defective muscle regeneration associated with dysfunction of satellite cells, muscle stem cells, and other pathophysiological processes. These changes are associated with changes in intracellular as well as local and systemic niches. In addition to most commonly used rodent models of muscle ageing, there is a need to study muscle homeostasis and wasting using human models, which due to ethical implications, consist predominantly of in vitro cultures...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287243/models-of-amphibian-myogenesis-the-case-of-bombina-variegata
#4
Leokadia Kiełbwna, Marta Migocka-Patrzałek
Several different models of myogenesis describing early stages of amphibian paraxial myotomal myogenesis are known. Myoblasts of Xenopus laevis and Hymenochirus boettgeri change their position from perpendicular to parallel, in relation to axial organs, and differentiate into mononucleate myotubes. In Bombina variegate the myotomal myoblasts change their shape from round to elongate and then differentiate into mononuclear, morphologically mature myotubes. In Pelobates fuscus and Triturus vulgaris, myoblasts fuse into multinuclear myotubes...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282454/identification-of-the-essential-protein-domains-for-mib2-function-during-the-development-of-the-drosophila-larval-musculature-and-adult-flight-muscles
#5
Katrin Domsch, Andreas Acs, Claudia Obermeier, Hanh T Nguyen, Ingolf Reim
The proper differentiation and maintenance of myofibers is fundamental to a functional musculature. Disruption of numerous mostly structural factors leads to perturbations of these processes. Among the limited number of known regulatory factors for these processes is Mind bomb2 (Mib2), a muscle-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase, which was previously established to be required for maintaining the integrity of larval muscles. In this study, we have examined the mechanistic aspects of Mib2 function by performing a detailed functional dissection of the Mib2 protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281528/lnc-mg-is-a-long-non-coding-rna-that-promotes-myogenesis
#6
Mu Zhu, Jiafan Liu, Jia Xiao, Li Yang, Mingxiang Cai, Hongyu Shen, Xiaojia Chen, Yi Ma, Sumin Hu, Zuolin Wang, An Hong, Yingxian Li, Yao Sun, Xiaogang Wang
Recent studies indicate important roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as essential regulators of myogenesis and adult skeletal muscle regeneration. However, the specific roles of lncRNAs in myogenic differentiation of adult skeletal muscle stem cells and myogenesis are still largely unknown. Here we identify a lncRNA that is specifically enriched in skeletal muscle (myogenesis-associated lncRNA, in short, lnc-mg). In mice, conditional knockout of lnc-mg in skeletal muscle results in muscle atrophy and the loss of muscular endurance during exercise...
March 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274146/optimizing-the-host-substrate-environment-for-cardiac-angiogenesis-arteriogenesis-and-myogenesis
#7
Kay Maeda, Emilio I Alarcon, Erik J Suuronen, Marc Ruel
The diseased host milieu, such as endothelial dysfunction (ED), decreased NO bioavailability, and ischemic/inflammatory post-MI environment, hamper the clinical success of existing cardiac regenerative therapies. Area covered: In this article, current strategies including pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches for improving the diseased host milieu are reviewed. Specifically, the authors provide focus on: i) the mechanism of ED in patients with cardiovascular diseases, ii) the current results of ED improving strategies in pre-clinical and clinical studies, and iii) the use of biomaterials as a novel modulator in damaged post-MI environment...
April 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272491/ten-eleven-translocation-2-tet2-is-involved-in-myogenic-differentiation-of-skeletal-myoblast-cells-in-vitro
#8
Xia Zhong, Qian-Qian Wang, Jian-Wei Li, Yu-Mei Zhang, Xiao-Rong An, Jian Hou
Muscle cell differentiation is a complex process that is principally governed by related myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). DNA methylation is considered to play an important role on the expression of MRF genes and on muscle cell differentiation. However, the roles of enzymes specifically in myogenesis are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Tet2, a ten-eleven translocation (Tet) methylcytosine dioxygenase, exerts a role during skeletal myoblast differentiation. By using an immunostaining method, we found that the levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) were much higher in differentiated myotubes than in undifferentiated C2C12 myoblasts...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267409/myogenic-differentiation-potential-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-fetal-bovine-bone-marrow
#9
Lucas Hidenori Okamura, Paloma Cordero, Jaime Palomino, Victor Hugo Parraguez, Cristian Gabriel Torres, Oscar Alejandro Peralta
The myogenic potential of bovine fetal MSC (bfMSC) derived from bone marrow (BM) remains unknown; despite its potential application for the study of myogenesis and its implications for livestock production. In the present study, three protocols for in vitro myogenic differentiation of bfMSC based on the use of DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza), myoblast-secreted factor Galectin-1 (Gal-1), and myoblast culture medium SkGM-2 BulletKit were used. Plastic-adherent bfMSC were isolated from fetal BM collected from abattoir-derived fetuses...
March 7, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259927/autophagy-induction-in-the-skeletal-myogenic-differentiation-of-human-tonsil-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Saeyoung Park, Yoonyoung Choi, Namhee Jung, Jieun Kim, Seiyoon Oh, Yeonsil Yu, Jung-Hyuck Ahn, Inho Jo, Byung-Ok Choi, Sung-Chul Jung
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation and are thus a valuable source for the replacement of diseased or damaged organs. Previously, we reported that the tonsils can be an excellent reservoir of MSCs for the regeneration of skeletal muscle (SKM) damage. However, the mechanisms involved in the differentiation from tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs) to myocytes via myoblasts remain unclear. To clarify these mechanisms, we analyzed gene expression profiles of T-MSCs during differentiation into myocytes compared with human skeletal muscle cells (hSKMCs)...
February 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258011/mir-16-controls-myoblast-proliferation-and-apoptosis-through-directly-suppressing-bcl2-and-foxo1-activities
#11
Xinzheng Jia, Hongjia Ouyang, Bahareldin Ali Abdalla, Haiping Xu, Qinghua Nie, Xiquan Zhang
Myogenesis mainly involves several steps including myoblast proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and fusion. Except for muscle specific regulators, few miRNAs were proved to coordinate this complex process. Here, we reported that miR-16 inhibited myoblast proliferation and promoted myoblast apoptosis by directly targeting Bcl2 and FOXO1. The expression level of miR-16 was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic pectoral muscle compared to the normal pectoral muscle in chicken. In vitro, elevating miR-16 significantly inhibited myoblast proliferation and promoted myoblast apoptosis, resulting in about 11...
February 28, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255268/regulatory-axis-of-mir-195-497-and-hmga1-id3-governs-muscle-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation
#12
Huiling Qiu, Jiasheng Zhong, Lan Luo, Zhixiong Tang, Nian Liu, Kang Kang, Li Li, Deming Gou
Myocytes withdraw from the cell cycle to differentiate during muscle development. Given the capacity of microRNAs (miRNAs) to regulate gene expression during development, we screened for miRNAs that were associated with muscle development. S-Poly(T) Plus analysis of 273 miRNAs in porcine longissimus dorsi muscles revealed 14 miRNAs that were strongly upregulated with age of postnatal muscle development in vivo, including miR-195 and miR-497. These two miRNAs were also strongly upregulated at late differentiation stages of mouse skeletal myoblast C2C12 cells, and demethylation treatment induced significant upregulation of miR-195/497...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248237/comparative-skeletal-muscle-proteomics-using-two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis
#13
REVIEW
Sandra Murphy, Paul Dowling, Kay Ohlendieck
The pioneering work by Patrick H. O'Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry1975, 250, 4007-4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O'Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques...
September 9, 2016: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247358/effects-of-macrophage-conditioned-medium-on-murine-and-human-muscle-cells-analysis-of-proliferation-differentiation-and-fusion
#14
Marielle Saclier, Marine Theret, Rémi Mounier, Bénédicte Chazaud
Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic tissue, which is able to regenerate after an injury. Effective and complete regeneration requires interactions between myogenic precursor cells and several cell types such as macrophages . Bone marrow derived macrophages in mouse and monocyte-derived macrophages in human are useful tools to obtain macrophage populations that may be specifically activated/polarized in vitro (e.g., pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory, and alternatively activated macrophages ). In vitro , human or murine primary myogenic cells recapitulate the adult myogenesis program through proliferation, myogenic differentiation, and fusion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247343/isolation-of-muscle-stem-cells-from-mouse-skeletal-muscle
#15
Barbara Gayraud-Morel, Francesca Pala, Hiroshi Sakai, Shahragim Tajbakhsh
Isolation of muscle stem cells from skeletal muscle is a critical step for the study of skeletal myogenesis and regeneration. Although stem cell isolation has been performed for decades, the emergence of flow cytometry with defined cell surface markers, or transgenic mouse models, has allowed the efficient isolation of highly enriched stem cell populations. Here, we describe the isolation of mouse muscle stem cells using two different combinations of enzyme treatments allowing the release of mononucleated muscle stem cells from their niche...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228264/lsd1-controls-timely-myod-expression-via-myod-core-enhancer-transcription
#16
Isabella Scionti, Shinichiro Hayashi, Sandrine Mouradian, Emmanuelle Girard, Joana Esteves de Lima, Véronique Morel, Thomas Simonet, Maud Wurmser, Pascal Maire, Katia Ancelin, Eric Metzger, Roland Schüle, Evelyne Goillot, Frederic Relaix, Laurent Schaeffer
MyoD is a master regulator of myogenesis. Chromatin modifications required to trigger MyoD expression are still poorly described. Here, we demonstrate that the histone demethylase LSD1/KDM1a is recruited on the MyoD core enhancer upon muscle differentiation. Depletion of Lsd1 in myoblasts precludes the removal of H3K9 methylation and the recruitment of RNA polymerase II on the core enhancer, thereby preventing transcription of the non-coding enhancer RNA required for MyoD expression (CEeRNA). Consistently, Lsd1 conditional inactivation in muscle progenitor cells during embryogenesis prevented transcription of the CEeRNA and delayed MyoD expression...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222718/abnormal-epigenetic-changes-during-differentiation-of-human-skeletal-muscle-stem-cells-from-obese-subjects
#17
Cajsa Davegårdh, Christa Broholm, Alexander Perfilyev, Tora Henriksen, Sonia García-Calzón, Lone Peijs, Ninna Schiøler Hansen, Petr Volkov, Rasmus Kjøbsted, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Maria Pedersen, Bente Klarlund Pedersen, Dov B Ballak, Charles A Dinarello, Bas Heinhuis, Leo A B Joosten, Emma Nilsson, Allan Vaag, Camilla Scheele, Charlotte Ling
BACKGROUND: Human skeletal muscle stem cells are important for muscle regeneration. However, the combined genome-wide DNA methylation and expression changes taking place during adult myogenesis have not been described in detail and novel myogenic factors may be discovered. Additionally, obesity is associated with low relative muscle mass and diminished metabolism. Epigenetic alterations taking place during myogenesis might contribute to these defects. METHODS: We used Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip Kit (Illumina) and HumanHT-12 Expression BeadChip (Illumina) to analyze genome-wide DNA methylation and transcription before versus after differentiation of primary human myoblasts from 14 non-obese and 14 obese individuals...
February 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218909/a-twist2-dependent-progenitor-cell-contributes-to-adult-skeletal-muscle
#18
Ning Liu, Glynnis A Garry, Stephen Li, Svetlana Bezprozvannaya, Efrain Sanchez-Ortiz, Beibei Chen, John M Shelton, Priscilla Jaichander, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable regenerative potential due to satellite cells, an injury-responsive stem cell population located beneath the muscle basal lamina that expresses Pax7. By lineage tracing of progenitor cells expressing the Twist2 (Tw2) transcription factor in mice, we discovered a myogenic lineage that resides outside the basal lamina of adult skeletal muscle. Tw2(+) progenitors are molecularly and anatomically distinct from satellite cells, are highly myogenic in vitro, and can fuse with themselves and with satellite cells...
March 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215905/apobec2-negatively-regulates-myoblast-differentiation-in-muscle-regeneration
#19
Hideaki Ohtsubo, Yusuke Sato, Takahiro Suzuki, Wataru Mizunoya, Mako Nakamura, Ryuichi Tatsumi, Yoshihide Ikeuchi
Recently we found that the deficiency of APOBEC2, a member of apoB mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like family, leads to a diminished muscle mass and increased myofiber with centrally-located nuclei known as dystrophic phenotypes. APOBEC2 expression is predominant in skeletal and cardiac muscles and elevated exclusively at the early-differentiation phase of wild-type (WT) myoblast cultures; however the physiological significance is still un-known. Here we show that APOBEC2 is a key negative regulator of myoblast differentiation in muscle regeneration...
February 12, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188178/activation-of-the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-promotes-myogenesis-through-the-noncanonical-wnt-pathway-leading-to-hypertrophic-myotubes
#20
Federica Cirillo, Giulia Resmini, Andrea Ghiroldi, Marco Piccoli, Sonia Bergante, Guido Tettamanti, Luigi Anastasia
Regeneration of skeletal muscle is a complex process that requires the activation of quiescent adult stem cells, called satellite cells, which are resident in hypoxic niches in the tissue. Hypoxia has been recognized as a key factor to maintain stem cells in an undifferentiated state. Herein we report that hypoxia plays a fundamental role also in activating myogenesis. In particular, we found that the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α under hypoxia, in murine skeletal myoblasts, leads to activation of MyoD through the noncanonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway...
February 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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