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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917653/human-il6-stimulates-bovine-satellite-cell-proliferation-through-a-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-3-stat3-dependent-mechanism
#1
A M Brandt, J M Kania, B M Reinholt, S E Johnson
Bovine satellite cell (bSC) myogenesis and skeletal muscle hypertrophy occur through the orchestrated actions of multiple autocrine and paracrine growth factors. Intimate to the bSC niche is IL6, a dual-purpose cytokine with proinflammatory and mitogenic properties. The objective of the experiment was to examine the effects of IL6 on proliferation and differentiation of bSC in vitro. Treatment of primary bSC cultures with recombinant bovine IL6 (bIL6) failed to alter myogenesis owing to the absence of intracellular signal transduction...
August 31, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915407/differentiation-and-sarcomere-formation-in-skeletal-myocytes-directly-prepared-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-sphere-based-culture
#2
Saowanee Jiwlawat, Eileen Lynch, Jennifer Glaser, Ivy Smit-Oistad, Jeremy Jeffrey, Jonathan M Van Dyke, Masatoshi Suzuki
Human induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a promising resource for propagation of myogenic progenitors. Our group recently reported a unique protocol for the derivation of myogenic progenitors directly (without genetic modification) from human pluripotent cells using free-floating spherical culture. Here we expand our previous efforts and attempt to determine how differentiation duration, culture surface coatings, and nutrient supplements in the medium influence progenitor differentiation and formation of skeletal myotubes containing sarcomeric structures...
August 1, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912874/dietary-vitamin-b6-modulates-the-gene-expression-of-myokines-nrf2-related-factors-myogenin-and-hsp60-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-rats
#3
Sofya Suidasari, Shinji Uragami, Noriyuki Yanaka, Norihisa Kato
Previous studies have suggested that vitamin B6 is an ergogenic factor. However, the role of dietary vitamin B6 in skeletal muscle has not been widely researched. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin B6 on the gene expression of 19 myokines, 14 nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated factors, 8 myogenesis-related factors and 4 heat shock proteins (HSPs), which may serve important roles in skeletal muscles. Rats were fed a diet containing 1 (marginal vitamin B6 deficiency), 7 (recommended dietary level) or 35 mg/kg of pyridoxine (PN) HCl/ for 6 weeks...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904016/lncrna-ak017368-promotes-proliferation-and-suppresses-differentiation-of-myoblasts-in-skeletal-muscle-development-by-attenuating-the-function-of-mir-30c
#4
Tingting Liang, Bo Zhou, Lei Shi, Han Wang, Qingpo Chu, Feilong Xu, Yuan Li, Ruonan Chen, Chunyan Shen, Allan P Schinckel
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play diverse roles in biologic and pathologic processes, including myogenesis. We found that lncRNA AK017368 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle cells. Functional analyses showed that overexpression of AK017368 promoted proliferation and restrained differentiation of myoblasts; whereas inhibition of AK017368 had completely opposite effects in vitro In mice, knockdown of AK017368 promoted muscle hypertrophy in vivo RNA molecules of AK017368 acted mechanistically as competing endogenous RNAs to target micro-RNA (miR)-30c, which was supported by the results of bioinformatics analyses and dual-luciferase reporter assays...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899666/stem-cells-and-the-circadian-clock
#5
REVIEW
Meltem Weger, Nicolas Diotel, Anne-Claire Dorsemans, Thomas Dickmeis, Benjamin D Weger
The circadian timing system is a complex biological network of interacting circadian clocks that regulates 24h rhythms of behavioral and physiological processes. One intriguing observation is that stem cell homeostasis is subject to circadian clock regulation. Rhythmic oscillations have been observed in a variety of embryonic and adult stem cell dependent processes, such as hematopoietic progenitor cell migration, the hair follicle cycle, bone remodeling, regenerative myogenesis and neurogenesis. This review aims to discuss the nature of the circadian clock in embryonic stem cells and how it changes during differentiation...
September 9, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891439/the-regulation-of-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-skeletal-muscle-a-look-at-signalling-molecules-involved-in-myogenesis
#6
Bethany Hodgson, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are an attractive option for the development of treatment for musculoskeletal pathologies due to their wide availability, clinical safety and multiple techniques available. Understanding the control of MSC differentiation into skeletal muscle is vital for developing protocols and therapeutic applications that are safe and effective. This paper therefore aims to review the current understanding of factors that regulate the differentiation of MSCs into skeletal muscle. Medline, Embase, Pubmed and Web of Science were searched December 2015 using the terms 'differentia*, skeletal*, skeleton*, myocyt*, myogen* and mesenchym* stem-cell*...
September 6, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891223/promoter-architecture-and-transcriptional-regulation-of-musculoskeletal-embryonic-nuclear-protein-1b-mustn1b-gene-in-zebrafish
#7
P Suarez-Bregua, C J Chien, M Megias, S D Du, J Rotllant
BACKGROUND: Mustn1 is a specific musculoskeletal protein that plays a critical role in myogenesis and chondrogenesis in vertebrates. Whole-mount in situ hybridization revealed that mustn1b mRNAs are specifically expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles in zebrafish embryos. However, the precise function and the regulatory elements required for its muscle-specific expression are largely unknown. RESULTS: The purpose of this study was to explore and uncover the target genomic regions that regulate mustn1b gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the mustn1b promoter...
September 11, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887016/myotome-adaptability-confers-developmental-robustness-to-somitic-myogenesis-in-response-to-fibre-number-alteration
#8
Shukolpa D Roy, Victoria C Williams, Tapan G Pipalia, Kuoyu Li, Christina L Hammond, Stefanie Knappe, Robert D Knight, Simon M Hughes
Balancing the number of stem cells and their progeny is crucial for tissue development and repair. Here we examine how cell numbers and overall muscle size are tightly regulated during zebrafish somitic muscle development. Muscle stem/precursor cell (MPCs) expressing Pax7 are initially located in the dermomyotome (DM) external cell layer, adopt a highly stereotypical distribution and thereafter a proportion of MPCs migrate into the myotome. Regional variations in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of MPCs contribute to growth of the myotome...
September 5, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881496/xk-related-protein-8-regulates-myoblast-differentiation-and-survival
#9
Go-Woon Kim, Gi-Hoon Nam, In-San Kim, Seung-Yoon Park
Xk-related protein 8 (Xkr8) is a scramblase and responsible for PS exposure on the cell surface in a caspase-dependent manner. Although PS exposure is found to be important for myotube formation during myoblast differentiation, the role of Xkr8 during myogenesis has not been elucidated. Here we show that Xkr8 contributes to myoblast differentiation. Xkr8 overexpression induced the formation of large myotubes during early differentiation, but this phenotype was not related to caspase-dependent cleavage of Xkr8...
September 7, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872121/minimally-invasive-muscle-embedding-mime-a-novel-experimental-technique-to-facilitate-donor-cell-mediated-myogenesis
#10
Joseph A Roche, Morium Begam, Sujay S Galen
Skeletal muscle possesses regenerative capacity due to tissue-resident, muscle-fiber-generating (myogenic) satellite cells (SCs), which can form new muscle fibers under the right conditions. Although SCs can be harvested from muscle tissue and cultured in vitro, the resulting myoblast cells are not very effective in promoting myogenesis when transplanted into host muscle. Surgically exposing the host muscle and grafting segments of donor muscle tissue, or the isolated muscle fibers with their SCs onto host muscle, promotes better myogenesis compared to myoblast transplantation...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867610/muscle-lim-protein-and-myosin-binding-protein-c-form-a-complex-regulating-muscle-differentiation
#11
Demetrios A Arvanitis, Elizabeth Vafiadaki, Vasiliki Papalouka, Despina Sanoudou
Muscle Lim Protein (MLP) is a protein with multiple functional roles in striated muscle physiology and pathophysiology. Herein, we demonstrate that MLP directly binds to slow, fast, and cardiac myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C) during myogenesis, as shown by yeast two-hybrid, and a range of protein-protein interaction assays. The minimal interacting domains involve MLP inter-LIM and MyBP-C C4. The interaction is sensitive to cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations changes and to MyBP-C phosphorylation by PKA or CaMKII...
August 31, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842909/quantification-of-embryonic-myofiber-development-by-immunofluorescence
#12
Harika Nagandla, M David Stewart
Mammalian myogenesis occurs in two distinct phases, primary and secondary, which are temporally separated. The primary wave occurs shortly after somitogenesis producing embryonic myofibers. The secondary wave occurs after somitogenesis producing fetal myofibers that form adjacent to the embryonic myofibers. The myogenic cells that give rise to these two waves have distinct characteristics as do the myofibers they produce. The objective of this chapter is to describe our methods for quantifying embryonic and fetal myofiber development in mouse embryos using immunofluorescence...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842906/application-of-split-gfp-reassembly-assay-to-study-myogenesis-and-myofusion-in-vitro
#13
Manami Kodaka, Xiaoyin Xu, Zeyu Yang, Junichi Maruyama, Yutaka Hata
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is composed of 11 β-strands, and loses GFP signals, when divided into the N-terminal ten β-strands (GFP1-10) and the C-terminal last β-strand (GFP11). However, when GFP1-10 and GFP11 encounter, they reassemble into the fluorescent GFP. We expressed GFP1-10 and blasticidin resistance gene product-fused GFP11 (BSR-GFP11) in C2C12 cells. Both the cell lines do not show GFP but when they undergo myogenesis and myofusion, GFP1-10 and BSR-GFP11 form the fluorescent complex in multi-nuclear myotubes, so that GFP signals reflect myogenesis and myofusion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838540/microrna-dysregulation-in-aging-and-pathologies-of-the-skeletal-muscle
#14
Rachel McCormick, Katarzyna Goljanek-Whysall
Skeletal muscle is one of the biggest organs of the body with important mechanistic and metabolic functions. Muscle homeostasis is controlled by environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Indeed, MiRNAs, small noncoding RNAs robust regulators of gene expression, have and have been shown to regulate muscle homeostasis on several levels: through controlling myogenesis, muscle growth (hypertrophy) and atrophy, as well as interactions of muscle with other tissues. Given the large number of MiRNA target genes and the important role of MiRNAs in most physiological processes and various diseases, MiRNAs may have an enormous potential as therapeutic targets against numerous disorders, including pathologies of muscle...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837398/the-long-noncoding-rna-malat1-its-physiological-and-pathophysiological-functions
#15
Xuejing Zhang, Milton H Hamblin, Ke-Jie Yin
Recent studies suggest that in humans, DNA sequences responsible for protein coding regions comprise only 2% of the total genome. The rest of the transcripts result in RNA transcripts without protein-coding ability, including long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Different from most members in the lncRNA family, the metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) is abundantly expressed and evolutionarily conserved throughout various mammalian species. Malat1 is one of the first identified lncRNAs associated with human disease, and cumulative studies have indicated that Malat1 plays critical roles in the development and progression of various cancers...
August 24, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821740/irs4-a-novel-modulator-of-bmp-smad-and-akt-signalling-during-early-muscle-differentiation
#16
Gina Dörpholz, Arunima Murgai, Jerome Jatzlau, Daniel Horbelt, Mohammad Poorgholi Belverdi, Christina Heroven, Isabelle Schreiber, Gisela Wendel, Karen Ruschke, Sigmar Stricker, Petra Knaus
Elaborate regulatory networks of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathways ensure precise signalling outcome during cell differentiation and tissue homeostasis. Here, we identified IRS4 as a novel regulator of BMP signal transduction and provide molecular insights how it integrates into the signalling pathway. We found that IRS4 interacts with the BMP receptor BMPRII and specifically targets Smad1 for proteasomal degradation consequently leading to repressed BMP/Smad signalling in C2C12 myoblasts while concomitantly activating the PI3K/Akt axis...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815944/neonatal-fractures-as-a-presenting-feature-of-lmod3-associated-congenital-myopathy
#17
Megan Abbott, Mahim Jain, Rachel Pferdehirt, Yuqing Chen, Alyssa Tran, Mehmet B Duz, Mehmet Seven, Richard A Gibbs, Donna Muzny, Brendan Lee, Ronit Marom, Lindsay C Burrage
Nemaline myopathy is a rare inherited disorder characterized by weakness, hypotonia, and depressed deep tendon reflexes. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, with the most severe phenotype presenting as perinatal akinesia, severe muscle weakness, feeding difficulties and respiratory failure, leading to early mortality. Pathogenic variants in 12 genes, encoding components of the sarcomere or factors related to myogenesis, have been reported in patients affected with the disorder. Here, we describe an early, lethal presentation of decreased fetal movements, hypotonia, muscle weakness, and neonatal respiratory failure requiring ventilator support in three siblings from a consanguineous family...
October 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813700/regenerative-medicine-approaches-for-age-related-muscle-loss-and-sarcopenia-a-mini-review
#18
Juan Diego Naranjo, Jenna L Dziki, Stephen F Badylak
Sarcopenia is a complex and multifactorial disease that includes a decrease in the number, structure and physiology of muscle fibers, and age-related muscle mass loss, and is associated with loss of strength, increased frailty, and increased risk for fractures and falls. Treatment options are suboptimal and consist of exercise and nutrition as the cornerstone of therapy. Current treatment principles involve identification and modification of risk factors to prevent the disease, but these efforts are of limited value to the elderly individuals currently affected by sarcopenia...
August 17, 2017: Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805303/controlled-release-of-igf1-enhances-urethral-sphincter-function-and-histological-structure-in-the-treatment-of-female-stress-urinary-incontinence-in-a-rodent-model
#19
Hao Yan, Liren Zhong, Yaodong Jiang, Jian Yang, Junhong Deng, Shicheng Wei, Emmanuel Opara, Anthony Atala, Xiangming Mao, Margot Damaser, Yuanyuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) diminishes the quality of life of millions, particularly women who have delivered vaginally, which can injure the urethral sphincter. Despite several well-established treatments for SUI, growth factor therapy might provide an alternative to promote urethral sphincter repair. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of controlled release of IGF1 from alginate-poly-L-ornithine-gelatin microbeads (IGF1-A-PLO-G microbeads) on sphincter tissue regeneration in a rat model of SUI...
August 14, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803986/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-regulates-myoblast-proliferation-and-differentiation
#20
Hongbo Gao, Sigurd Hartnett, Yifan Li
Skeletal muscles are dynamic tissues that possess regenerative abilities, which require multiple processes and regulatory factors. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), which is primarily expressed in neuronal tissues, was upregulated in skeletal muscles in disease conditions but its functional role in skeletal muscles is unknown. Using mouse myoblast cells C2C12 as an in vitro model, this study reported that UCHL1 elicits different regulation in myoblast cell proliferation and differentiation. We first observed that UCHL1 protein level was continuously declined during cell differentiation...
October 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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