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Myogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161332/osteoglycin-inhibition-by-microrna-mir-155-impairs-myogenesis
#1
Paula Paccielli Freire, Sarah Santiloni Cury, Grasieli de Oliveira, Geysson Javier Fernandez, Leonardo Nazario Moraes, Bruno Oliveira da Silva Duran, Juarez Henrique Ferreira, César Seigi Fuziwara, Edna Teruko Kimura, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva, Robson Francisco Carvalho
Skeletal myogenesis is a regulated process in which mononucleated cells, the myoblasts, undergo proliferation and differentiation. Upon differentiation, the cells align with each other, and subsequently fuse to form terminally differentiated multinucleated myotubes. Previous reports have identified the protein osteoglycin (Ogn) as an important component of the skeletal muscle secretome, which is expressed differentially during muscle development. However, the posttranscriptional regulation of Ogn by microRNAs during myogenesis is unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160161/serum-from-differently-exercised-subjects-induces-myogenic-differentiation-in-lhcn-m2-human-myoblasts
#2
D Vitucci, E Imperlini, R Arcone, A Alfieri, A Canciello, L Russomando, D Martone, A Cola, G Labruna, S Orrù, D Tafuri, A Mancini, P Buono
Myogenesis is the formation of muscle tissue from muscle precursor cells. Physical exercise induces satellite cell activation in muscle. Currently, C2C12 murine myoblast cells are used to study myogenic differentiation. Herein, we evaluated whether human LHCN-M2 myoblasts can differentiate into mature myotubes and express early (myotube formation, creatine kinase activity and myogenin) and late (MyHC-β) muscle-specific markers when cultured in differentiation medium (DM) for 2, 4 and 7 days. We demonstrate that treatment of LHCN-M2 cells with DM supplemented with 0...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158520/myd88-promotes-myoblast-fusion-in-a-cell-autonomous-manner
#3
Sajedah M Hindi, Jonghyun Shin, Yann S Gallot, Alex R Straughn, Adriana Simionescu-Bankston, Lubna Hindi, Guangyan Xiong, Robert P Friedland, Ashok Kumar
Myoblast fusion is an indispensable step for skeletal muscle development, postnatal growth, and regeneration. Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that mediates Toll-like receptors and interleukin-1 receptor signaling. Here we report a cell-autonomous role of MyD88 in the regulation of myoblast fusion. MyD88 protein levels are increased during in vitro myogenesis and in conditions that promote skeletal muscle growth in vivo. Deletion of MyD88 impairs fusion of myoblasts without affecting their survival, proliferation, or differentiation...
November 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153940/tumor-derived-cytokines-impair-myogenesis-and-alter-the-skeletal-muscle-immune-microenvironment
#4
Kelly A Hogan, Dong Seong Cho, Paige C Arneson, Adrienne Samani, Patrick Palines, Yanan Yang, Jason D Doles
Muscle wasting is a decline in skeletal muscle mass and function that is associated with aging, obesity, and a spectrum of pathologies including cancer. Cancer-associated wasting not only reduces quality of life, but also directly impacts cancer mortality, chemotherapeutic efficacy, and surgical outcomes. There is an incomplete understanding of the role of tumor-derived factors in muscle wasting and sparse knowledge of how these factors impact in vivo muscle regeneration. Here, we identify several cytokines/chemokines that negatively impact in vitro myogenic differentiation...
November 16, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152063/acquisition-of-an-oncogenic-fusion-protein-is-sufficient-to-globally-alter-the-landscape-of-mirna-expression-to-inhibit-myogenic-differentiation
#5
Jacob M Loupe, Patrick J Miller, Judy S Crabtree, Jovanny Zabaleta, Andrew D Hollenbach
The differentiation status of tumors is used as a prognostic indicator, with tumors comprised of less differentiated cells exhibiting higher levels of aggressiveness that correlate with a poor prognosis. Although oncogenes contribute to blocking differentiation, it is not clear how they globally alter miRNA expression during differentiation to achieve this result. The pediatric sarcoma Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma, which is primarily characterized by the expression of the PAX3-FOXO1 oncogenic fusion protein, consists of undifferentiated muscle cells...
October 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150918/central-role-of-transforming-ggrowth-factor-type-beta-1-in-skeletal-muscle-dysfunctions-an-update-on-therapeutic-strategies
#6
Johanna Abrigo, Felipe Simon, Daniel Cabrera, Gonzalo Cordova, Capucine Trollet, Claudio Cabello Verrugio
Among the soluble factors that regulate skeletal muscle function, Transforming Growth Factor type Beta 1 (TGF-b1) is one of the most studied. This factor inhibits myogenesis and regeneration by regulating the activity and function of satellite cells (SCs). Indeed, TGF-b has a central role in muscle pathologies in which there is development of fibrosis and/or atrophy of skeletal muscle. Thus, in this review we present the critical and recent antecedents regarding the mechanisms and cellular targets involved in the effects of TGF-b1 in the muscle, in pathological processes such as the inhibition of regeneration, fibrosis and atrophy...
November 16, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146144/drosophila-adult-muscle-development-and-regeneration
#7
REVIEW
Rajesh D Gunage, Nagaraju Dhanyasi, Heinrich Reichert, K VijayRaghavan
Myogenesis is a highly orchestrated, complex developmental process by which cell lineages that are mesodermal in origin generate differentiated multinucleate muscle cells as a final product. Considerable insight into the process of myogenesis has been obtained for the embryonic development of the larval muscles of Drosophila. More recently, the postembryonic development of the muscles of the adult fly has become a focus of experimental investigation of myogenesis since specific flight muscles of the fly manifest remarkable similarities to vertebrate muscles in their development and organization...
November 13, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139178/notch1-and-notch2-coordinately-regulate-stem-cell-function-in-the-quiescent-and-activated-states-of-muscle-satellite-cells
#8
Shin Fujimaki, Daiki Seko, Yasuo Kitajima, Kiyoshi Yoshioka, Yoshifumi Tsuchiya, Shinya Masuda, Yusuke Ono
Satellite cells, the muscle tissue stem cells, express three Notch receptors (Notch1-3). The function of Notch1 and Notch2 in satellite cells has to date not been fully evaluated. We investigated the role of Notch1 and Notch2 in myogenic progression in adult skeletal muscle using tamoxifen-inducible satellite cell-specific conditional knockout mice for Notch1 (N1-scKO), Notch2 (N2-scKO), and Notch1/Notch2 (scDKO). In the quiescent state, the number of satellite cells was slightly reduced in N2-scKO, but not significantly in N1-scKO, and almost completely depleted in scDKO mice...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130633/the-mitochondrial-metabolic-reprogramming-agent-trimetazidine-as-an-exercise-mimetic-in-cachectic-c26-bearing-mice
#9
Francesca Molinari, Fabrizio Pin, Stefania Gorini, Sergio Chiandotto, Laura Pontecorvo, Fabio Penna, Emanuele Rizzuto, Simona Pisu, Antonio Musarò, Paola Costelli, Giuseppe Rosano, Elisabetta Ferraro
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia is characterized by muscle depletion and exercise intolerance caused by an imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation and by impaired myogenesis. Myofibre metabolic efficiency is crucial so as to assure optimal muscle function. Some drugs are able to reprogram cell metabolism and, in some cases, to enhance metabolic efficiency. Based on these premises, we chose to investigate the ability of the metabolic modulator trimetazidine (TMZ) to counteract skeletal muscle dysfunctions and wasting occurring in cancer cachexia...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127046/function-of-the-myogenic-regulatory-factors-myf5-myod-myogenin-and-mrf4-in-skeletal-muscle-satellite-cells-and-regenerative-myogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Peter S Zammit
Discovery of the myogenic regulatory factor family of transcription factors MYF5, MYOD, Myogenin and MRF4 was a seminal step in understanding specification of the skeletal myogenic lineage and control of muscle differentiation during development. These factors are also involved in specification of the muscle satellite cell lineage, which becomes the resident stem cell compartment in adult skeletal muscle. While MYF5, MYOD, Myogenin and MRF4 have subtle roles in mature muscle, they again play a crucial role in directing satellite cell function to regenerate skeletal muscle: linking the genetic control of developmental and regenerative myogenesis...
November 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127045/the-myogenic-regulatory-factors-determinants-of-muscle-development-cell-identity-and-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
J Manuel Hernández-Hernández, Estela G García-González, Caroline E Brun, Michael A Rudnicki
The Myogenic Regulatory Factors (MRFs) Myf5, MyoD, myogenin and MRF4 are members of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors that control the determination and differentiation of skeletal muscle cells during embryogenesis and postnatal myogenesis. The dynamics of their temporal and spatial expression as well as their biochemical properties have allowed the identification of a precise and hierarchical relationship between the four MRFs. This relationship establishes the myogenic lineage as well as the maintenance of the terminal myogenic phenotype...
November 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115986/the-breaking-and-making-of-healthy-adult-human-skeletal-muscle-in-vivo
#12
Abigail L Mackey, Michael Kjaer
BACKGROUND: While muscle regeneration has been extensively studied in animal and cell culture models, in vivo myogenesis in adult human skeletal muscle has not been investigated in detail. METHODS: Using forced lengthening contractions induced by electrical stimulation, we induced myofibre injury in young healthy males. Muscle biopsies were collected from the injured leg 7 and 30 days after muscle injury and from the uninjured leg as a control. Immuno-stained single muscle fibres and muscle cross sections were studied by wide-field and confocal microscopy...
November 7, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109955/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-promotes-c2c12-cells-myogenic-differentiation-by-enhancing-cell-cycle-exit
#13
Xinyi Liu, Yongliang Wang, Shuhong Zhao, Xinyun Li
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a secretion protein, functions as a pivotal regulator of energy metabolism and is being considered as a therapeutic candidate in metabolic syndromes. However, the roles of FGF21 in myogenic differentiation and cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we investigated the function of FGF21 in myogenesis and cell cycle exit using C2C12 cell line. Our data showed that the expression of myogenic genes as well as cell cycle exit genes was increased after FGF21 overexpression, and FGF21 overexpression induces cell cycle arrest...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107681/myogenic-progenitor-specification-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Alessandro Magli, Rita Rc Perlingeiro
Pluripotent stem cells represent important tools for both basic and translational science as they enable to study mechanisms of development, model diseases in vitro and provide a potential source of tissue-specific progenitors for cell therapy. Concomitantly with the increasing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms behind activation of the skeletal myogenic program during embryonic development, novel findings in the stem cell field provided the opportunity to begin recapitulating in vitro the events occurring during specification of the myogenic lineage...
October 28, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107296/maternal-obesity-alters-fatty-acid-oxidation-ampk-activity-and-associated-dna-methylation-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-human-infants
#15
Kristen E Boyle, Zachary W Patinkin, Allison L B Shapiro, Carly Bader, Lauren Vanderlinden, Katerina Kechris, Rachel C Janssen, Rebecca J Ford, Brennan K Smith, Gregory R Steinberg, Elizabeth J Davidson, Ivana V Yang, Dana Dabelea, Jacob E Friedman
OBJECTIVE: Infants born to mothers with obesity have greater adiposity, ectopic fat storage, and are at increased risk for childhood obesity and metabolic disease compared with infants of normal weight mothers, though the cellular mechanisms mediating these effects are unclear. METHODS: We tested the hypothesis that human, umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from infants born to obese (Ob-MSC) versus normal weight (NW-MSC) mothers demonstrate altered fatty acid metabolism consistent with adult obesity...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104955/crosstalk-between-mlo-y4-osteocytes-and-c2c12-muscle-cells-is-mediated-by-the-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway
#16
Jian Huang, Sandra Romero-Suarez, Nuria Lara, Chenglin Mo, Simon Kaja, Leticia Brotto, Sarah L Dallas, Mark L Johnson, Katharina Jähn, Lynda F Bonewald, Marco Brotto
We examined the effects of osteocyte secreted factors on myogenesis and muscle function. MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cell conditioned media (CM) (10%) increased ex vivo soleus muscle contractile force by ~25%. MLO-Y4 and primary osteocyte CM (1-10%) stimulated myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, but 10% osteoblast CMs did not enhance C2C12 cell differentiation. Since WNT3a and WNT1 are secreted by osteocytes, and the expression level of Wnt3a is increased in MLO-Y4 cells by fluid flow shear stress, both were compared, showing WNT3a more potent than WNT1 in inducing myogenesis...
October 2017: JBMR Plus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104546/corrigendum-g-csf-does-not-influence-c2c12-myogenesis-despite-receptor-expression-in-healthy-and-dystrophic-skeletal-muscle
#17
Craig R Wright, Erin L Brown, Paul A Della-Gatta, Alister C Ward, Gordon S Lynch, Aaron P Russell
[This corrects the article on p. 170 in vol. 5, PMID: 24822049.].
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080996/impact-of-local-heating-and-cooling-on-skeletal-muscle-transcriptional-response-related-to-myogenesis-and-proteolysis
#18
Roksana B Zak, B M Hassenstab, L K Zuehlke, M W S Heesch, R J Shute, T L Laursen, D T LaSalle, D R Slivka
PURPOSE: To determine the impact of local muscle heating and cooling on myogenic and proteolytic gene responses following resistance exercise. METHODS: Recreationally trained males (n = 12), age 25.3 ± 1.5, % body fat 13.6 ± 1.92, completed four sets of 8-12 repetitions of unilateral leg press and leg extension while heating one leg, and cooling the other. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of each leg pre and 4 h post exercise. RESULTS: MyoD, FOXO1, and MuRF1 mRNA increased with exercise regardless of temperature (p < 0...
October 28, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072698/circular-rna-profiling-reveals-an-abundant-circlmo7-that-regulates-myoblasts-differentiation-and-survival-by-sponging-mir-378a-3p
#19
Xuefeng Wei, Hui Li, Jiameng Yang, Dan Hao, Dong Dong, Yongzhen Huang, Xianyong Lan, Martin Plath, Chuzhao Lei, Fengpeng Lin, Yueyu Bai, Hong Chen
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been identified from various tissues and species, but their regulatory functions during developmental processes are not well understood. We examined circRNA expression profiles of two developmental stages of bovine skeletal muscle (embryonic and adult musculus longissimus) to provide first insights into their potential involvement in bovine myogenesis. We identified 12 981 circRNAs and annotated them to the Bos taurus reference genome, including 530 circular intronic RNAs (ciRNAs)...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072161/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-muscle-satellite-cells-in-drosophila
#20
Dhananjay Chaturvedi, Heinrich Reichert, Rajesh D Gunage, K VijayRaghavan
Work on genetic model systems such as Drosophila and mouse has shown that the fundamental mechanisms of myogenesis are remarkably similar in vertebrates and invertebrates. Strikingly, however, satellite cells, the adult muscle stem cells that are essential for the regeneration of damaged muscles in vertebrates, have not been reported in invertebrates. In this study, we show that lineal descendants of muscle stem cells are present in adult muscle of Drosophila as small, unfused cells observed at the surface and in close proximity to the mature muscle fibers...
October 26, 2017: ELife
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