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Andrea Cerquone Perpetuini, Andrea David Re Cecconi, Michela Chiappa, Giulia Benedetta Martinelli, Claudia Fuoco, Giovanni Desiderio, Luisa Castagnoli, Cesare Gargioli, Rosanna Piccirillo, Gianni Cesareni
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Haser Hasan Sutcu, Miria Ricchetti
Skeletal muscle stem cells in the adult display heterogeneity that has been functionally linked to their behavior, self-renewal capacity, and resistance to stress in hostile environments. Behavioral heterogeneity emerges also during developmental myogenesis. Muscle stem cell diversity may be functionally linked to the changing needs of skeletal muscle regeneration. Intriguingly, dramatic reduction of stem cell diversity, the "clonal drift", that implies loss of stem cells and related expansion of clonally related stem cells has been reported for tissue replacement in several adult tissues and suggested in the zebrafish embryo...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
J Wang, L Z Yang, J S Zhang, J X Gong, Y H Wang, C L Zhang, H Chen, X T Fang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (about 22 nucleotides) noncoding RNAs, which were highly conserved among mammals. They have ushered in a new era in molecular biology over twenty years. They can negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through the principle of complementary base pairing with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNAs and induce their degradation. They involve in tissue morphogenesis, cellular processes like apoptosis, and major signaling pathways. Previous studies have promoted our understanding that miRNAs play an important role in myogenesis and have a big impact on muscle mass, muscle fiber type and muscle diseases...
May 15, 2018: Gene
Arun J Singh, Chih-Ning Chang, Hsiao-Yen Ma, Stephen A Ramsey, Theresa M Filtz, Chrissa Kioussi
Skeletal muscle in the forelimb develops during embryonic and fetal development and perinatally. While much is known regarding the molecules involved in forelimb myogenesis, little is known about the specific mechanisms and interactions. Migrating skeletal muscle precursor cells express Pax3 as they migrate into the forelimb from the dermomyotome. To compare gene expression profiles of the same cell population over time, we isolated lineage-traced Pax3+ cells (Pax3 EGFP ) from forelimbs at different embryonic days...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nunnapas Jiwlawat, Eileen Lynch, Jeremy Jeffrey, Jonathan M Van Dyke, Masatoshi Suzuki
Neuromuscular diseases are caused by functional defects of skeletal muscles, directly via muscle pathology or indirectly via disruption of the nervous system. Extensive studies have been performed to improve the outcomes of therapies; however, effective treatment strategies have not been fully established for any major neuromuscular disease. Human pluripotent stem cells have a great capacity to differentiate into myogenic progenitors and skeletal myocytes for use in treating and modeling neuromuscular diseases...
2018: Stem Cells International
Lianjie Hou, Jian Xu, Yiren Jiao, Huaqin Li, Zhicheng Pan, Junli Duan, Ting Gu, Chingyuan Hu, Chong Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Skeletal muscle plays an essential role in the body movement. However, injuries to the skeletal muscle are common. Lifelong maintenance of skeletal muscle function largely depends on preserving the regenerative capacity of muscle. Muscle satellite cells proliferation, differentiation, and myoblast fusion play an important role in muscle regeneration after injury. Therefore, understanding of the mechanisms associated with muscle development during muscle regeneration is essential for devising the alternative treatments for muscle injury in the future...
May 3, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mirca Marini, Mirko Manetti, Irene Rosa, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Eleonora Sgambati
A new peculiar stromal cell type called telocyte (TC)/CD34-positive stromal cell (i.e. cell with distinctive prolongations named telopodes) has recently been described in various tissues and organs, including the adult skeletal muscle interstitium of mammals. By forming a resident stromal three-dimensional network, TCs have been suggested to participate in different physiological processes within the skeletal muscle tissue, including homeostasis maintenance, intercellular signaling, tissue regeneration/repair and angiogenesis...
April 30, 2018: Acta Histochemica
Juarez H Ferreira, Sarah S Cury, Ivan J Vechetti-Júnior, Geysson J Fernandez, Leonardo N Moraes, Carlos A B Alves, Paula P Freire, Carlos E A Freitas, Maeli Dal-Pai-Silva, Robson F Carvalho
Low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) has been used as a non-invasive method to improve muscular regeneration capability. However, the molecular mechanisms by which LLLI exerts these effects remain largely unknown. Here, we described global gene expression profiling analysis in C2C12 myoblasts after LLLI that identified 514 differentially expressed genes (DEG). Gene ontology and pathway analysis of the DEG revealed transcripts among categories related to cell cycle, ribosome biogenesis, response to stress, cell migration, and cell proliferation...
May 2, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Steffen Mayerl, Manuel Schmidt, Denica Doycheva, Veerle M Darras, Sören S Hüttner, Anita Boelen, Theo J Visser, Christoph Kaether, Heike Heuer, Julia von Maltzahn
Thyroid hormone (TH) transporters are required for the transmembrane passage of TH in target cells. In humans, inactivating mutations in the TH transporter MCT8 cause the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, characterized by severe neuromuscular symptoms and an abnormal TH serum profile, which is fully replicated in Mct8 knockout mice and Mct8/Oatp1c1 double-knockout (M/O DKO) mice. Analysis of tissue TH content and expression of TH-regulated genes indicate a thyrotoxic state in Mct8-deficient skeletal muscles. Both TH transporters are upregulated in activated satellite cells (SCs)...
April 25, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Rui Zhou, Yi Xin Wang, Ke Ren Long, An An Jiang, Long Jin
Skeletal muscle is an essential tissue to maintain the normal functions of an organism. It is also closely associated with important economic performance, such as carcass weight, of domestic animals. In recent years, studies using high-throughput sequencing techniques have identified numerous long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) with myogenic functions involved in regulation of gene expression at multiple levels, including epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. These lncRNAs target myogenic factors, which participate in all processes of skeletal muscle development, including proliferation, migration and differentiation of skeletal muscle stem cells, proliferation, differentiation and fusion of myocytes, muscle hypertrophy and conversion of muscle fiber types...
April 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Ya-Ning Wang, Wu-Cai Yang, Pei-Wei Li, Hong-Bao Wang, Ying-Ying Zhang, Lin-Sen Zan
Myocyte enhancer factor 2A (MEF2A) is widely distributed in various tissues or organs and plays crucial roles in multiple biological processes. To examine the potential effects of MEF2A on skeletal muscle myoblast, the functional role of MFE2A in myoblast proliferation and differentiation was investigated. In this study, we found that the mRNA expression level of Mef2a was dramatically increased during the myogenesis of bovine skeletal muscle primary myoblast. Overexpression of MEF2A significantly promoted myoblast proliferation, while knockdown of MEF2A inhibited the proliferation and differentiation of myoblast...
2018: PloS One
Andrea A Domenighetti, Margie A Mathewson, Rajeswari Pichika, Lydia A Sibley, Leyna Zhao, Henry G Chambers, Richard L Lieber
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of pediatric neurodevelopmental and physical disability in the United States. It is defined as a group of motor disorders caused by a non-progressive perinatal insult to the brain. While the brain lesion is non-progressive, there is a progressive, lifelong impact on skeletal muscles, which are shorter, spastic, and may develop debilitating contractures. Satellite cells are resident muscle stem cells that are indispensable for postnatal growth and regeneration of skeletal muscles...
April 25, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Pia Bernasconi, Nicola Carboni, Giulia Ricci, Gabriele Siciliano, Luisa Politano, Lorenzo Maggi, Tiziana Mongini, Liliana Vercelli, Carmelo Rodolico, Elena Biagini, Giuseppe Boriani, Lucia Ruggiero, Lucio Santoro, Elisa Schena, Sabino Prencipe, Camilla Evangelisti, Elena Pegoraro, Lucia Morandi, Marta Columbaro, Chiara Lanzuolo, Patrizia Sabatelli, Paola Cavalcante, Cristina Cappelletti, Gisèle Bonne, Antoine Muchir, Giovanna Lattanzi
Among rare diseases caused by mutations in LMNA gene, Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy type 2 and Limb-Girdle muscular Dystrophy 1B are characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, joint contractures, cardiomyopathy with conduction system disorders. Circulating biomarkers for these pathologies have not been identified. Here, we analyzed the secretome of a cohort of patients affected by these muscular laminopathies in the attempt to identify a common signature. Multiplex cytokine assay showed that transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF β2) and interleukin 17 serum levels are consistently elevated in the vast majority of examined patients, while interleukin 6 and basic fibroblast growth factor are altered in subgroups of patients...
April 25, 2018: Nucleus
Shuwen Zhang, Yangzi Zhang, Xiang Zhou, Xing Fu, Jennifer J Michal, Guoli Ji, Min Du, Jon F Davis, Zhihua Jiang
Currently available mouse knockout (KO) lines remain largely uncharacterized for genome-to-phenome (G2P) information flows. Here we test our hypothesis that altered myogenesis seen in AMPKα1- and AMPKα2-KO mice is caused by use of alternative polyadenylation sites (APSs). AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 are two α subunits of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which serves as a cellular sensor in regulation of many biological events. A total of 56,483 APSs were derived from gastrocnemius muscles...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pinar Yilgor Huri, Justin Morrissette-McAlmon, Warren L Grayson
Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) constitute a very promising source for cell therapy and tissue engineering approaches as they can be easily obtained in large quantities with comparatively minimal patient discomfort. Moreover, ASCs have multilineage differentiation capacity. Among these, differentiation capacity along the myogenic lineage is of particular interest since myogenic precursors are scarce and obtaining a large number of cells from skeletal muscle biopsies is difficult. Here, we describe a method to effectively induce ASC myogenesis through the combination of biochemical (cocktail including 5-azacytidine and horse serum) and biophysical (dynamic culture via uniaxial cyclic strain) stimulation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Simona Ultimo, Giorgio Zauli, Alberto M Martelli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue with remarkable plasticity and its growth and regeneration are highly organized, with the activation of specific transcription factors, proliferative pathways and cytokines. The decline of skeletal muscle tissue with age, is one of the most important causes of functional loss of independence in older adults. Maintaining skeletal muscle function throughout the lifespan is a prerequisite for good health and independent living. Physical activity represents one of the most effective preventive agents for muscle decay in aging...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Ga-Yeon Go, Sang-Jin Lee, Ayoung Jo, Jae-Rin Lee, Jong-Sun Kang, Mihi Yang, Gyu-Un Bae
Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most widespread endocrine disrupting chemicals, is known as an artificial estrogen, which interacts with estrogen receptor (ER). In this study, we investigated the effects of BPA and estradiol on myoblast differentiation and the underlying signaling mechanism. Exposure to BPA (0.01-1 μM) in mouse myoblast C2C12 cells attenuated myogenic differentiation via the reduced expression of muscle-specific genes, such as myosin heavy chain (MHC), MyoD, and Myogenin, without the alteration of cell proliferation and viability...
April 19, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Dacia Dimartino, Alessio Colantoni, Monica Ballarino, Julie Martone, Davide Mariani, Johannes Danner, Astrid Bruckmann, Gunter Meister, Mariangela Morlando, Irene Bozzoni
Cytoplasmic long non-coding RNAs have been shown to act at many different levels to control post-transcriptional gene expression, although their role in translational control is poorly understood. Here, we show that lnc-31, a non-coding RNA required for myoblast proliferation, promotes ROCK1 protein synthesis by stabilizing its translational activator, YB-1. We find that lnc-31 binds to the Rock1 mRNA as well as to the YB-1 protein and that translational activation requires physical interaction between the two RNA species...
April 17, 2018: Cell Reports
Janine M Ziermann, Rui Diogo, Drew M Noden
Patterning of craniofacial muscles overtly begins with the activation of lineage-specific markers at precise, evolutionarily conserved locations within prechordal, lateral, and both unsegmented and somitic paraxial mesoderm populations. Although these initial programming events occur without influence of neural crest cells, the subsequent movements and differentiation stages of most head muscles are neural crest-dependent. Incorporating both descriptive and experimental studies, this review examines each stage of myogenesis up through the formation of attachments to their skeletal partners...
April 16, 2018: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
Xin Hu, Joshua D Chandler, Jolyn Fernandes, Michael L Orr, Li Hao, Karan Uppal, David C Neujahr, Dean P Jones, Young-Mi Go
BACKGROUND: The protective effect of selenium (Se) on cadmium (Cd) toxicity is well documented, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. METHODS: Male mice fed standard diet were given Cd (CdCl2 , 18 μmol/L) in drinking water with or without Se (Na2 SeO4, 20 μmol/L) for 16 weeks. Lungs were analyzed for Cd concentration, transcriptomics and metabolomics. Data were analyzed with biostatistics, bioinformatics, pathway enrichment analysis, and combined transcriptome-metabolome-wide association study...
April 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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