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Myogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067271/praja1-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-promotes-skeletal-myogenesis-through-degradation-of-ezh2-upon-p38%C3%AE-activation
#1
Silvia Consalvi, Arianna Brancaccio, Alessandra Dall'Agnese, Pier Lorenzo Puri, Daniela Palacios
Polycomb proteins are critical chromatin modifiers that regulate stem cell differentiation via transcriptional repression. In skeletal muscle progenitors Enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunit of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), contributes to maintain the chromatin of muscle genes in a repressive conformation, whereas its down-regulation allows the progression through the myogenic programme. Here, we show that p38α kinase promotes EZH2 degradation in differentiating muscle cells through phosphorylation of threonine 372...
January 9, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062562/keep-your-friends-close-cell-cell-contact-and-skeletal-myogenesis
#2
Robert S Krauss, Giselle A Joseph, Aviva J Goel
Development of skeletal muscle is a multistage process that includes lineage commitment of multipotent progenitor cells, differentiation and fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myofibers, and maturation of myofibers into distinct types. Lineage-specific transcriptional regulation lies at the core of this process, but myogenesis is also regulated by extracellular cues. Some of these cues are initiated by direct cell-cell contact between muscle precursor cells themselves or between muscle precursors and cells of other lineages...
January 6, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061746/microrna-expression-patterns-in-post-natal-mouse-skeletal-muscle-development
#3
Séverine Lamon, Evelyn Zacharewicz, Lauren C Butchart, Liliana Orellana, Jasmine Mikovic, Miranda D Grounds, Aaron P Russell
BACKGROUND: MiRNAs are essential regulators of skeletal muscle development and homeostasis. To date, the role and regulation of miRNAs in myogenesis have been mostly studied in tissue culture and during embryogenesis. However, little information relating to miRNA regulation during early post-natal skeletal muscle growth in mammals is available. Using a high-throughput miRNA qPCR-based array, followed by stringent statistical and bioinformatics analysis, we describe the expression pattern and putative role of 768 miRNAs in the quadriceps muscle of mice aged 2 days, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks...
January 7, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058815/small-rnaome-profiling-from-human-skeletal-muscle-novel-mirnas-and-their-targets-associated-with-cancer-cachexia
#4
Ashok Narasimhan, Sunita Ghosh, Cynthia Stretch, Russell Greiner, Oliver F Bathe, Vickie Baracos, Sambasivarao Damaraju
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene (mRNA) expression. Although the pathological role of miRs have been studied in muscle wasting conditions such as myotonic and muscular dystrophy, their roles in cancer cachexia (CC) are still emerging. OBJECTIVES: The objectives are (i) to profile human skeletal muscle expressed miRs; (ii) to identify differentially expressed (DE) miRs between cachectic and non-cachectic cancer patients; (iii) to identify mRNA targets for the DE miRs to gain mechanistic insights; and (iv) to investigate if miRs show potential prognostic and predictive value...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039048/sh2b1-modulates-chromatin-state-and-myod-occupancy-to-enhance-expressions-of-myogenic-genes
#5
Kuan-Wei Chen, Yu-Jung Chang, Chia-Ming Yeh, Yen-Ling Lian, Michael W Y Chan, Cheng-Fu Kao, Linyi Chen
As mesoderm-derived cell lineage commits to myogenesis, a spectrum of signaling molecules, including insulin growth factor (IGF), activate signaling pathways and ultimately instruct chromatin remodeling and the transcription of myogenic genes. MyoD is a key transcription factor during myogenesis. In this study, we have identified and characterized a novel myogenic regulator, SH2B1. Knocking down SH2B1 delays global chromatin condensation and decreases the formation of myotubes. SH2B1 interacts with histone H1 and is required for the removal of histone H1 from active transcription sites, allowing for the expressions of myogenic genes, IGF2 and MYOG...
December 27, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036392/a-differentiation-transcription-factor-establishes-muscle-specific-proteostasis-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Yael Bar-Lavan, Netta Shemesh, Shiran Dror, Rivka Ofir, Esti Yeger-Lotem, Anat Ben-Zvi
Safeguarding the proteome is central to the health of the cell. In multi-cellular organisms, the composition of the proteome, and by extension, protein-folding requirements, varies between cells. In agreement, chaperone network composition differs between tissues. Here, we ask how chaperone expression is regulated in a cell type-specific manner and whether cellular differentiation affects chaperone expression. Our bioinformatics analyses show that the myogenic transcription factor HLH-1 (MyoD) can bind to the promoters of chaperone genes expressed or required for the folding of muscle proteins...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028127/myofibrillar-z-discs-are-a-protein-phosphorylation-hot-spot-with-pkc-%C3%AE-modulating-protein-dynamics
#7
Lena Reimann, Heike Wiese, Yvonne Leber, Anja N Schwäble, Anna L Fricke, Anne Rohland, Bettina Knapp, Christian D Peikert, Friedel Drepper, Peter F M van der Ven, Gerald Radziwill, Dieter O Fürst, Bettina Warscheid
The Z-disc is a protein-rich structure critically important for the development and integrity of myofibrils, which are the contractile organelles of cross-striated muscle cells. We here used mouse C2C12 myoblast which were differentiated into myotubes followed by electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) to generate contracting myotubes comprising mature Z-discs. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, we analyzed changes in the relative abundance of 2,588 proteins, of which 387 were significantly regulated in myoblasts versus myotubes...
December 27, 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017376/myogenic-potential-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-lacking-functional-pax7-tested-in-vitro-by-5-azacitidine-treatment-and-in-vivo-in-regenerating-skeletal-muscle
#8
Anita Helinska, Maciej Krupa, Karolina Archacka, Areta M Czerwinska, Wladyslawa Streminska, Katarzyna Janczyk-Ilach, Maria A Ciemerych, Iwona Grabowska
Regeneration of skeletal muscle relies on the presence of satellite cells. Satellite cells deficiency accompanying some degenerative diseases is the reason for the search for the "replacement cells" that can be used in the muscle therapies. Due to their unique properties embryonic stem cells (ESCs), as well as myogenic cells derived from them, are considered as a promising source of therapeutic cells. Among the factors crucial for the specification of myogenic precursor cells is Pax7 that sustains proper function of satellite cells...
December 15, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012893/matrix-gla-protein-an-extracellular-matrix-protein-regulates-myostatin-expression-in-the-muscle-developmental-program
#9
Sarafraz Ahmad, Arif Tasleem Jan, Mohammad Hassan Baig, Eun Ju Lee, Inho Choi
AIM: Skeletal muscle development involves interactions between intracellular and extracellular factors that act in concert to regulate the myogenic process. Matrix gla protein (MGP), a well-known inhibitor of calcification in soft tissues, has been reported to be highly up-regulated during myogenesis. Our interest in the regulation of muscle satellite cells (MSCs) by extracellular matrix (ECM) genes led us to investigate the effects of MGP during the progression of myogenesis. METHODOLOGY: Participation of MGP in the myogenic process was investigated in vitro using C2C12 cells, and knockdown of its gene was performed to determine its effects on the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and other ECM genes...
December 21, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011237/estradiol-regulates-expression-of-mirnas-associated-with-myogenesis-in-rainbow-trout
#10
Prasanthi P Koganti, Jian Wang, Beth Cleveland, Hao Ma, Gregory M Weber, Jianbo Yao
17β-Estradiol (E2) is a steroid hormone that negatively affects muscle growth in rainbow trout, but the mechanism associated with this response is not fully understood. To better characterize the effects of E2 on muscle, we identified differentially regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) and muscle atrophy-related transcripts in juvenile rainbow trout exposed to E2. Small RNA-Seq analysis of E2-treated vs. control muscle identified 36 differentially expressed miRNAs including those known to be involved in myogenesis, cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell death...
December 21, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009008/down-regulation-of-common-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inos-pathway-by-chronic-thalidomide-treatment-improves-hepatopulmonary-syndrome-and-muscle-wasting-in-rats-with-biliary-cirrhosis
#11
Tzu-Hao Li, Pei-Chang Lee, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Chang-Youh Tsai, Ying-Ying Yang, Shiang-Fen Huang, Tung-Hu Tsai, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin, Shou-Dong Lee
Thalidomide can modulate the TNFα-NFκB and iNOS pathway, which involve in the pathogenesis of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and muscle wasting in cirrhosis. In bile duct ligated-cirrhotic rats, the increased circulating CD16(+) (inflammatory) monocytes and its intracellular TNFα, NFκB, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) and iNOS levels were associated with increased circulating MCP-1/soluable intercellular cell adehesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), pulmonary TNFα/NOx, up-regulated M1 polarization, exacerbated angiogenesis and hypoxemia (increased AaPO2) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and pulmonary homogenates...
December 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002685/effects-of-blood-flow-restriction-on-biomarkers-of-myogenesis-in-response-to-resistance-exercise
#12
Andrew S Layne, Kelly Larkin-Kaiser, R Gavin MacNeil, Marvin Dirain, Bhanuprasad Sandesara, Todd M Manini, Thomas W Buford
We investigated the acute myogenic response to resistance exercise with and without blood-flow restriction (BFR). Six men and women (age, 22 ± 1 years) performed unilateral knee extensions at 40% of 1-repetition maximum with or without (CNTRL) BFR applied via pressure cuff inflated to 220 mm Hg. Muscle biopsies were collected at 4 h and 24 h postexercise. Addition of BFR increased myoD and c-Met messenger RNA expression relative to CNTRL. Expression of hepatocyte growth factor protein was significantly higher following CNTRL...
January 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997829/redox-regulation-by-pitx2-and-pitx3-is-critical-for-fetal-myogenesis
#13
Aurore L'honoré, Pierre-Henri Commère, Jean-François Ouimette, Didier Montarras, Jacques Drouin, Margaret Buckingham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993983/ascl2-inhibits-myogenesis-by-antagonizing-the-transcriptional-activity-of-myogenic-regulatory-factors
#14
Chao Wang, Min Wang, Justine Arrington, Tizhong Shan, Feng Yue, Yaohui Nie, Weiguo Andy Tao, Shihuan Kuang
Myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) including Myf5, MyoD and Myog are muscle-specific transcriptional factors orchestrating myogenesis. Although MRFs are essential for myogenic commitment and differentiation, timely repression of their activity is necessary for self-renewal and maintenance of muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Here we define a novel inhibitor of MRFs: the achaete-scute homologue 2 (Ascl2). During development, Ascl2 is transiently detected in a subpopulation of Pax7(+)MyoD(+) progenitors (myoblasts) that become Pax7(+)MyoD(-) satellite cells prior to birth, but not detectable in postnatal satellite cells...
December 19, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984116/microrna-and-gene-co-expression-networks-characterize-biological-and-clinical-behavior-of-rhabdomyosarcomas
#15
Edoardo Missiaglia, Chris J Shepherd, Ewa Aladowicz, David Olmos, Joanna Selfe, Gaëlle Pierron, Olivier Delattre, Zoe Walters, Janet Shipley
Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) in children and adolescents are heterogeneous sarcomas broadly defined by skeletal muscle features and the presence/absence of PAX3/7-FOXO1 fusion genes. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression in a cell context specific manner. Sequencing analyses of microRNAs in 64 RMS revealed expression patterns separating skeletal muscle, fusion gene positive and negative RMS. Integration with parallel gene expression data assigned biological functions to 12 co-expression networks/modules that reassuringly included myogenic roles strongly correlated with microRNAs known in myogenesis and RMS development...
October 28, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980238/glucose-deprivation-attenuates-sortilin-levels-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#16
Miyako Ariga, Yosuke Yoneyama, Toshiaki Fukushima, Yuri Ishiuchi, Takayuki Ishii, Hitoshi Sato, Fumihiko Hakuno, Taku Nedachi, Shin-Ichiro Takahashi
In skeletal muscle, sortilin plays a predominant role in the sorting of glucose transporter 4 (Glut4), thereby controlling glucose uptake. Moreover, our previous study suggested that the sortilin expression levels are also implicated in myogenesis. Despite the importance of sortilin in skeletal muscle, however, the regulation of sortilin expression has not been completely understood. In the present study, we analyzed if the sortilin expression is regulated by glucose in C2C12 myocytes and rat skeletal muscles in vivo...
December 13, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979985/changes-in-muscle-fiber-contractility-and-extracellular-matrix-production-during-skeletal-muscle-hypertrophy
#17
Christopher L Mendias, Andrew J Schwartz, Jeremy A Grekin, Jonathan P Gumucio, Kristoffer B Sugg
Skeletal muscle can adapt to increased mechanical loads by undergoing hypertrophy. Transient reductions in whole muscle force production have been reported during the onset of hypertrophy, but contractile changes in individual muscle fibers have not previously been studied. Additionally, the extracellular matrix (ECM) stores and transmits forces from muscle fibers to tendons and bones, and determining how the ECM changes during hypertrophy is important in understanding the adaptation of muscle tissue as a whole to mechanical loading...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977864/n-methyl-d-aspartate-nmda-impairs-myogenesis-in-c2c12-cells
#18
Q-Schick Auh, Kyung-Ran Park, Myeong-Ok Lee, Mi-Jin Hwang, Soo-Kyung Kang, Jung-Pyo Hong, Hyung-Mun Yun, Eun-Cheol Kim
INTRODUCTION: N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) is expressed in sensory neurons and plays important roles in peripheral pain mechanisms. The aim of this study was to examine the effects and molecular mechanisms of NMDA on C2C12 myoblast proliferation and differentiation. METHODS: Cytotoxicity and differentiation were examined by the MTT assay, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: NMDA had no cytotoxicity (10-500 μM) and inhibited myoblastic differentiation of C2C12 cells, as assessed by F-actin immunofluorescence and levels of mRNAs encoding myogenic markers such as myogenin and myosin heavy-chain 2 (MYH2)...
December 15, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967605/early-developmental-disruption-of-type-2-deiodinase-pathway-in-mouse-skeletal-muscle-does-not-impair-muscle-function
#19
Danielle Leao Ignacio, Diego Henrique Silvestre, Elena Palmer, Barbara Bocco, Tatiana Fonseca, Balazs Gereben, Miriam Ribeiro, Antonio Carlos Bianco, Joao Pedro Werneck de Castro
BACKGROUND: Myogenesis is positively regulated by thyroid hormone (T3), which is amplified by the type 2 deiodinase (D2) activation of T4-to-T3. Global inactivation of Dio2 gene impairs skel-etal muscle (SKM) differentiation and regeneration in response to muscle injury. Given that new-born and adult mice with late developmental SKM Dio2 disruption do not develop a significant phenotype, we hypothesized that D2 plays an early role in this process. METHODS: This was tested in mice with SKM disruption of Dio2 driven by two early develop-mental promoters, i...
December 14, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966786/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-promotes-formation-of-aerobic-myofibers-via-the-fgf21-sirt1-ampk-pgc1%C3%AE-pathway
#20
X Y Liu, Y L Wang, L M Hou, Y Z Xiong, S H Zhao
Fibroblast growth factor 21(FGF21) is a pivotal regulator of energy metabolism, which is currently being assessed as a potential drug target for the treatment of insulin-resistant conditions. However, the cellular mechanisms by which FGF21 affects myogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we explored the function of FGF21 in myogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Our experiments showed for the first time that FGF21 promotes myoblast differentiation and serves as a switch of molecular transformation from anaerobic myofibers to aerobic myofibers via the FGF21-SIRT1-AMPK-PGC1α axis...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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