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Sang-Jin Lee, Jeongmi Hwang, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Miran Yoo, Ga-Yeon Go, Jae-Rin Lee, Young-Eun Leem, Jong Woo Park, Dong-Wan Seo, Yong Kee Kim, Myong-Joon Hahn, Jeung-Whan Han, Jong-Sun Kang, Gyu-Un Bae
Skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by multiple signaling pathways that control cell adhesion/migration, survival and differentiation accompanied by muscle-specific gene expression. A cell surface protein Cdo is involved in cell contact-mediated promyogenic signals through activation of p38MAPK and AKT. Protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PKN2/PRK2) is implicated in regulation of various biological processes, including cell migration, adhesion and death. It has been shown to interact with and inhibit AKT thereby inducing cell death...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Rajeev B Tajhya, Xueyou Hu, Mark R Tanner, Redwan Huq, Natee Kongchan, Joel R Neilson, George G Rodney, Frank T Horrigan, Lubov T Timchenko, Christine Beeton
Myoblasts are mononucleated precursors of myofibers; they persist in mature skeletal muscles for growth and regeneration post injury. During myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a complex autosomal-dominant neuromuscular disease, the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts into functional myotubes is impaired, resulting in muscle wasting and weakness. The mechanisms leading to this altered differentiation are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that the calcium- and voltage-dependent potassium channel, KCa1...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Mario Tirone, Valentina Conti, Fabio Manenti, Pier Andrea Nicolosi, Cristina D'Orlando, Emanuele Azzoni, Silvia Brunelli
Embryonic VE-Cadherin-expressing progenitors (eVE-Cad+), including hemogenic endothelium, have been shown to generate hematopoietic stem cells and a variety of other progenitors, including mesoangioblasts, or MABs. MABs are vessel-associated progenitors with multilineage mesodermal differentiation potential that can physiologically contribute to skeletal muscle development and regeneration, and have been used in an ex vivo cell therapy setting for the treatment of muscular dystrophy. There is currently a therapeutic need for molecules that could improve the efficacy of cell therapy protocols; one such good candidate is nitric oxide...
2016: PloS One
Jerôme Montfort, Aurelie Le Cam, Jean-Charles Gabillard, Pierre-Yves Rescan
BACKGROUND: Muscle fibre hyperplasia stops in most fish when they reach approximately 50 % of their maximum body length. However, new small-diameter muscle fibres can be produced de novo in aged fish after muscle injury. Given that virtually nothing is known regarding the transcriptional mechanisms that regulate regenerative myogenesis in adult fish, we explored the temporal changes in gene expression during trout muscle regeneration following mechanical crushing. Then, we compared the gene transcription profiles of regenerating muscle with the previously reported gene expression signature associated with muscle fibre hyperplasia...
October 18, 2016: BMC Genomics
Renjing Liu, Kun-Yong Kim, Yong-Wook Jung, In-Hyun Park
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression. Dnmt1 plays an important role in maintaining DNA methylation patterns on daughter DNA strands. Studies have shed light into the functional role of Dnmt1 regulation in the hematopoietic and epidermal systems. Here we show that Dnmt1 is required for myogenesis. Loss of Dnmt1 results in reduced expression of myogenic genes and defects in myogenic differentiation. We have utilized a conditional knockout mouse approach to examine the functional consequences of Dnmt1 depletion specifically in the developing muscle...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Paul Knopp, Yvonne D Krom, Christopher R S Banerji, Maryna Panamarova, Louise A Moyle, Bianca den Hamer, Silvère M van der Maarel, Peter S Zammit
Skeletal muscle wasting in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) results in substantial morbidity. On a disease-permissive chromosome 4qA haplotype, genomic and/or epigenetic changes at the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat allows transcription of the DUX4 retrogene. Analysing transgenic mice carrying a human D4Z4 genomic locus from an FSHD-affected individual showed that DUX4 was transiently induced in myoblasts during skeletal muscle regeneration. Centromeric to the D4Z4 repeats is an inverted D4Z4 unit encoding DUX4c...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Svitlana Pasteuning-Vuhman, Johanna Boertje-van der Meulen, Maaike van Putten, Maurice Overzier, Peter Ten Dijke, Szymon M Kiełbasa, Wibowo Arindrarto, Ron Wolterbeek, Ksenia V Lezhnina, Ivan V Ozerov, Aleksandr M Aliper, Willem M Hoogaars, Annemieke Aartsma-Rus, Cindy J M Loomans
Skeletal muscle fibrosis and impaired muscle regeneration are major contributors to muscle wasting in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Muscle growth is negatively regulated by myostatin (MSTN) and activins. Blockage of these pathways may improve muscle quality and function in DMD. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) were designed specifically to block the function of ALK4, a key receptor for the MSTN/activin pathway in skeletal muscle. AON-induced exon skipping resulted in specific Alk4 down-regulation, inhibition of MSTN activity, and increased myoblast differentiation in vitro Unexpectedly, a marked decrease in muscle mass (10%) was found after Alk4 AON treatment in mdx mice...
October 12, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Yoichi Munehira, Ze Yang, Or Gozani
Histone methylation dynamics play a critical role in cellular programming during development. For example, specific lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and demethylases (KDMs) have been implicated in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into various cell lineages. However, a systematic functional analysis for an entire family of KMT or KDM enzymes has not been performed. Here we test the function of all the known and candidate KDMs in myoblast and osteoblast differentiation using the C2C12 cell differentiation model system...
October 9, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
María Emilia Garcia Denegri, Gladys P Teibler, Silvana L Maruñak, David R Hernández, Ofelia C Acosta, Laura C Leiva
Bothrops alternatus snake venom is particularly characterized for inducing a prominent haemorrhage and affecting hemostasis as a consequence of 43.1% of metallo-proteinases and less than 10% of PLA2 (almost all non-myotoxic phospholipases) in its venomics. In addition, myonecrosis is the major local effect in viper envenoming which might lead to permanent sequela. Then, the rebuilding of the microvasculature at the local injured site acquires significance since represents one of the pivotal stages for subsequent skeletal muscle regeneration either at morphological or functional aspects...
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Jonathan Shintaku, Jennifer M Peterson, Erin E Talbert, Jin-Mo Gu, Katherine J Ladner, Dustin R Williams, Kambiz Mousavi, Ruoning Wang, Vittorio Sartorelli, Denis C Guttridge
MyoD is a key regulator of skeletal myogenesis that directs contractile protein synthesis, but whether this transcription factor also regulates skeletal muscle metabolism has not been explored. In a genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis of skeletal muscle cells, we unexpectedly observed that MyoD directly binds to numerous metabolic genes, including those associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and the electron transport chain. Results in cultured cells and adult skeletal muscle confirmed that MyoD regulates oxidative metabolism through multiple transcriptional targets, including PGC-1β, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
O G Davies, L M Grover, M P Lewis, Y Liu
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a debilitating condition defined by the rapid formation of bone in soft tissues. What makes HO fascinating is firstly the rate at which bone is deposited, and secondly the fact that this bone is structurally and compositionally similar to that of a healthy adult. If the mechanisms governing HO are understood, they have the potential to be exploited for the development of potent osteoinductive therapies. With this aim, we utilised a tissue engineered skeletal muscle model to better understand the role of inflammation on this debilitating phenomenon...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
P R Chen, K Lee
With the increasing demand for affordable, high-quality meat, livestock and poultry producers must continually find ways to maximize muscle growth in their animals without compromising palatability of the meat products. Muscle mass relies on myoblast proliferation during prenatal or prehatch stages and fiber hypertrophy through protein synthesis and nuclei donation by satellite cells after birth or hatch. Therefore, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of myogenesis and muscle development is of great interest...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Vincent Grassot, Amel Bouchatal, Anne Da Silva, Sandrine Chantepie, Dulce Papy-Garcia, Abderrahman Maftah, Paul-François Gallet, Jean-Michel Petit
In vitro, extracted muscle satellite cells, called myogenic progenitor cells, can differentiate either in myotubes or preadipocytes, depending on environmental factors and the medium. Transcriptomic analyses on glycosylation genes during satellite cells differentiation into myotubes showed that 31 genes present a significant variation of expression at the early stages of murine myogenic progenitor cells (MPC) differentiation. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of 383 glycosylation related genes during murine MPC differentiation into preadipocytes and compared the data to those previously obtained during their differentiation into myotubes...
September 27, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Aki Nakazato, Ryo Maeda, Kohei Ishikawa, Hidefumi Suzuki, Taka-Aki Tamura
TBP-like protein (TLP) is one of the metazoan-restricted transcription factors participating in development and differentiation, though the molecular mechanism by which TLP regulates these processes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between TLP and myogenesis of mouse C2C12 myoblasts. We found that TLP gene expression decreases during myogenic differentiation. Overexpression and knockdown of TLP revealed that the levels of muscle-specific myosin heavy chain and the myogenic transcription factor myogenin are downregulated by TLP...
October 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Shuang Jiao, Zhihao Wu, Xungang Tan, Yulei Sui, Lijuan Wang, Feng You
Although chromosome set manipulation techniques including polyploidy induction and gynogentic induction in flatfish are becoming increasingly mature, there exists a poor understanding of their effects on embryonic development. PAX3 plays crucial roles during embryonic myogenesis and neurogenesis. In olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), there are two duplicated pax3 genes (pax3a, pax3b), and both of them are expressed in the brain and muscle regions with some subtle regional differences. We utilized pax3a and pax3b as indicators to preliminarily investigate whether chromosome set manipulation affects embryonic neurogenesis and myogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization...
September 27, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Xingyu Zhou, Mingsen Li, Huaxing Huang, Keren Chen, Zhuning Yuan, Ying Zhang, Yaping Nie, Hu Chen, Xumeng Zhang, Luxi Chen, Yaosheng Chen, Delin Mo
Although the mechanism underlying modulation of transcription factors in myogenesis has been well elucidated, the function of the transcription cofactors involved in this process remains poorly understood. Here, we identified HMGB2 as an essential nuclear transcriptional co-regulator in myogenesis. HMGB2 was highly expressed in undifferentiated myoblasts and regenerating muscle. Knockdown of HMGB2 inhibited myoblast proliferation and stimulated its differentiation. HMGB2 depletion down-regulated Myf5 and Cyclin A2 on the protein but not mRNA level...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Cell Science
Andrew Khayrullin, Lauren Smith, Dhwani Mistry, Amy Dukes, Y Albert Pan, Mark W Hamrick
Muscle wasting is estimated to affect 40-60% of alcoholics, and is more common than cirrhosis among chronic alcohol abusers. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying alcohol-related musculoskeletal dysfunction are, however, poorly understood. Muscle-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) referred to as myoMirs are now known to play a key role in both myogenesis and muscle atrophy. Yet, no studies have investigated a role for myoMirs in alcohol-related skeletal muscle damage. We developed a zebrafish model of chronic ethanol exposure to better define the mechanisms mediating alcohol-induced muscle atrophy...
October 21, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chintan K Kikani, Xiaoying Wu, Litty Paul, Hana Sabic, Zuolian Shen, Arvind Shakya, Alexandra Keefe, Claudio Villanueva, Gabrielle Kardon, Barbara Graves, Dean Tantin, Jared Rutter
PAS domain containing protein kinase (Pask) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase implicated in energy homeostasis and metabolic regulation across eukaryotic species. We now describe an unexpected role of Pask in promoting the differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells and adipogenic progenitor cells. This function of Pask is dependent upon its ability to phosphorylate Wdr5, a member of several protein complexes including those that catalyze histone H3 Lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) during transcriptional activation...
2016: ELife
Xuefeng Wei, Hui Li, Bowen Zhang, Caixia Li, Dong Dong, Xianyong Lan, Yongzhen Huang, Yueyu Bai, Fengpeng Lin, Xue Zhao, Hong Chen
Muscle development, or myogenesis, is a highly regulated, complex process. A subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as critical regulators of myogenesis. Recently, miR-378a was found to be involved in myogenesis, but the mechanism of how miR-378a regulates the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts has not been determined. We found that miR-378a-3p expression in muscle was significantly higher than in other tissues, suggesting an important effect on muscle development. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p increased the expression of MyoD and MHC in C2C12 myoblasts both at the level of mRNA and protein, confirming that miR-378a-3p promoted muscle cell differentiation...
September 23, 2016: RNA Biology
Chiara Mozzetta
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are key epigenetic factors responsible for the proper spatiotemporal repression of defined transcriptional programs along the process of cell differentiation, including myogenesis. The discovery of the pivotal role played by PcG factors during myogenic differentiation relied on the possibility to culture myogenic cells in vitro. We describe here the methods currently used to isolate muscle stem cells (MuSCs) both from single myofibers and from bulk muscles by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), highlighting experimental details and critical steps...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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