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snake poison

Himmatrao Saluba Bawaskar
Daily, I receive 3-4 social media messages regarding the diagnosis, management or clinical dilemmas of acute timelimiting medical emergencies due to snake bite and scorpion sting poisoning. I respond to the caller who has shared clinical signs and symptoms. I also follow up on the progress of the victim. I send pdf files of my publications on scorpion and snake bite.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Joshua B Smith, Kelsey L Turner, James C Beasley, Travis L DeVault, William C Pitt, Olin E Rhodes
Mass aerial delivery of dead mouse baits treated with acetaminophen has been evaluated as a means to reduce brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) populations over large areas, increasing the likelihood of wide-scale eradication on Guam. Given the high density of snakes in some areas of their invasive range, eradication efforts could result in a resource pulse that may influence food web dynamics and the indirect transport of acetaminophen among trophic levels. We evaluated abundance, habitat type, and snake size (i...
September 7, 2016: Ecotoxicology
R R Singh, Dharmendra Uraiya, Anoop Kumar, Neeraj Tripathi
AIMS: This study was conducted retrospectively to define early demographic and clinical predictors for acute kidney injury (AKI) among snake bite patients at the time of hospital admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 138 cases with a poisonous snake bite. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence and absence of AKI. The data regarding clinical features and demographic profile of these patients were collected from the hospital records in a prestructured pro forma and statistically compared...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Vahid Nasiri, Shohreh Teymurzadeh, Gholamreza Karimi, Mehdi Nasiri
Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is responsible for one of the most common zoonotic parasitic diseases in almost all warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide, and it is estimated that about one-third of the world human population is chronically infected with this parasite. Little is known about the circulation of T. gondii in snakes and this study for the first time aimed to evaluate the infection rates of snakes by this parasite by PCR methods. The brain of 68 Snakes, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2015 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of this parasite...
October 2016: Experimental Parasitology
Veronica L Bura, Akito Y Kawahara, Jayne E Yack
Caterpillars have long been used as models for studying animal defence. Their impressive armour, including flamboyant warning colours, poisonous spines, irritating sprays, and mimicry of plant parts, snakes and bird droppings, has been extensively documented. But research has mainly focused on visual and chemical displays. Here we show that some caterpillars also exhibit sonic displays. During simulated attacks, 45% of 38 genera and 33% of 61 species of silk and hawkmoth caterpillars (Bombycoidea) produced sounds...
2016: Scientific Reports
Raoul Bell, Laura Mieth, Axel Buchner
Findings reported in the memory literature suggest that the emotional components of an encoding episode can be dissociated from nonemotional memory. In particular, it has been found that the previous association with threatening events can be retrieved in aversive conditioning even in the absence of item identification. In the present study, we test whether emotional source memory can be independent of item recognition. Participants saw pictures of snakes paired with threatening and nonthreatening context information (poisonousness or nonpoisonousness)...
August 8, 2016: Emotion
T Jaehn, C Zunker, H Mägdefrau, B Reichert
The common European adder is an endangered animal species in Europe. Despite its endangerment, snake bite injuries do occur from time to time, even in Germany. This is a poisoning emergency. Detailed numbers concerning the incidence or lethality of adder bites in Germany do not exist. Only 13% of all cases have a severe course of disease, with children and elderly people prevailing in this patient group. We report the benign course of an adder bite injury of the index finger of a 60-year-old zoologist, which healed completely under symptomatic treatment and surveillance without any operative intervention...
August 2016: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
Christine A Bishop, Kathleen E Williams, David A Kirk, Patrick Nantel, Eric Reed, John E Elliott
Strychnine is a neurotoxin and an active ingredient in some rodenticides which are placed in burrows to suppress pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) populations in range and crop land in western North America. The population level impact was modelled of the use of strychnine-based rodenticides on a non-target snake species, the Great Basin Gophersnake (Pituophis catenifer deserticola), which is a predator of pocket gopher and a Species at Risk in Canada. Using information on population density, demographics, and movement and habitat suitability for the Gophersnake living in an agricultural valley in BC, Canada, we estimated the impact of the poisoning of adult snakes on the long-term population size...
September 2016: Ecotoxicology
Melad G Paulis, Ayman L Faheem
Snake bites are common in many regions of the world. Snake envenomation is relatively uncommon in Egypt; such unfortunate events usually attract much publicity. Snake bite is almost only accidental, occurring in urban areas and desert. Few cases were reported to commit suicide by snake. Homicidal snake poisoning is so rare. It was known in ancient world by executing capital punishment by throwing the victim into a pit full of snakes. Another way was to ask the victim to put his hand inside a small basket harboring a deadly snake...
March 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Zorica Latinović, Adrijana Leonardi, Jernej Šribar, Tamara Sajevic, Monika C Žužek, Robert Frangež, Beata Halassy, Alenka Trampuš-Bakija, Jože Pungerčar, Igor Križaj
UNLABELLED: Vipera berus berus (Vbb) is the most widely distributed and Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (Vaa) the most venomous viper in Europe. In particular areas of the Old continent their toxic bites constitute a considerable public health problem. To make the current envenomation therapy more effective we have analysed the proteome of Vbb venom and compared it with that of Vaa. We found the proteome of Vbb to be much less complex and to contain smaller levels of particularly snaclecs and sPLA2s...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Rosany Bochner
The current study presents a descriptive chronological survey of the articles published by Césaire Auguste Phisalix and Albert Calmette on snake poison, with the aim of shedding a light on the areas of research and reasoning followed by these scientists, leading up to their simultaneous discovery of antivenom serotherapy in 1894. The path taken by Phisalix is revealed in 15 articles that demonstrate the motivation of a naturalist and the way he confronted the puzzle of immunity against snake venom. In the case of Calmette, two articles preceded the discovery; microbiology was his theoretical base and the Pasteurian spirit of solving health problems his driving force...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Deb Prasad Pandey, Gita Subedi Pandey, Kamal Devkota, Matt Goode
BACKGROUND: Venomous snakebite and its effects are a source of fear for people living in southern Nepal. As a result, people have developed a negative attitude towards snakes, which can lead to human-snake conflicts that result in killing of snakes. Attempting to kill snakes increases the risk of snakebite, and actual killing of snakes contributes to loss of biodiversity. Currently, snake populations in southern Nepal are thought to be declining, but more research is needed to evaluate the conservation status of snakes...
2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Yau Sang Chan, Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Lixin Xia, Jack Ho Wong, Tzi Bun Ng, Wai Yee Chan
Snake venoms are complex mixtures of small molecules and peptides/proteins, and most of them display certain kinds of bioactivities. They include neurotoxic, cytotoxic, cardiotoxic, myotoxic, and many different enzymatic activities. Snake envenomation is a significant health issue as millions of snakebites are reported annually. A large number of people are injured and die due to snake venom poisoning. However, several fatal snake venom toxins have found potential uses as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agent, or drug leads...
July 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Géraldine Bart, Samuel Pineau, Charlotte Biron, Jérôme Connault, Mathieu Artifoni
Complications following snake bites are not common in France. We report the case of a bilateral pulmonary embolism following a viper envenomation in France.A healthy 72-year-old female presented with a lower limb hematoma following a viper bite. She was admitted at the hospital 2 days later and received low-molecular-weight heparin because of bed rest. Seven days later, she complained of thoracic pain and respiratory failure, and a bilateral pulmonary was diagnosed, without biological sign of neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor coagulation trouble...
May 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Muhammad Hamza, Maryam A Idris, Musa B Maiyaki, Mohammed Lamorde, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, David A Warrell, Andreas Kuznik, Abdulrazaq G Habib
BACKGROUND: Snakebite poisoning is a significant medical problem in agricultural societies in Sub Saharan Africa. Antivenom (AV) is the standard treatment, and we assessed the cost-effectiveness of making it available in 16 countries in West Africa. METHODS: We determined the cost-effectiveness of AV based on a decision-tree model from a public payer perspective. Specific AVs included in the model were Antivipmyn, FAV Afrique, EchiTab-G and EchiTab-Plus. We derived inputs from the literature which included: type of snakes causing bites (carpet viper (Echis species)/non-carpet viper), AV effectiveness against death, mortality without AV, probability of Early Adverse Reactions (EAR), likelihood of death from EAR, average age at envenomation in years, anticipated remaining life span and likelihood of amputation...
March 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Fouad Chafiq, Faiçal El Hattimy, Naima Rhalem, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Abdelmajid Soulaymani, Abdelrhani Mokhtari, Rachida Soulaymani-Bencheikh
BACKGROUND: Snakebites cause considerable death and injury throughout the globe, particularly in tropical regions, and pose an important yet neglected threat to public health. In 2008, the Centre Anti Poison et de Parmacovigilance du Maroc (CAPM) started to set up a specific strategy for the control of snakebites that was formalized in 2012. The aim of the present study is to describe and update the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites notified to CAPM between 2009 and 2013. METHODS: This retrospective five-year study included all cases of snakebites notified to CAPM by mail or phone...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Vance G Nielsen, Daniel T Redford, Patrick K Boyle
Annually, thousands suffer poisonous snake bite, often from defibrinogenating species. Iron and carbon monoxide (CO) improve coagulation kinetics by modulation of fibrinogen as demonstrated in various Agkistrodon species and Crotalus atrox. Thus, we sought to determine whether pretreatment of plasma with iron and CO could attenuate venom-mediated catalysis of fibrinogen obtained from four common Crotalus species with known fibrinogenase activity. Human plasma was pretreated with ferric chloride (0-10 μmol/l) and CO-releasing molecule-2 (0-100 μmol/l) prior to exposure to venom from a Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Arizona black rattlesnake, prairie rattlesnake, or red diamond rattlesnake...
February 2, 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
Svjetlana Karabuva, Ivana Vrkić, Ivica Brizić, Ivo Ivić, Boris Lukšić
This retrospective study represents observation of 160 children and adolescents aged up to 18 years that experienced venomous snakebites in southern Croatia and were treated in the Clinical Department of Infectious Diseases in the University Hospital Centre Split from 1979 to 2013. The main purpose of this research was to determine the epidemiological characteristics, clinical presentation, local and general complications, and received treatment. Most bites occurred during warm months, from early May to late August (80%), mostly in May and June...
March 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Xiao C Zhang, Alexis Kearney, Frantz J Gibbs, Jason B Hack
The incidence of poisonous snakebites has regional variance. Health care providers' knowledge and comfort in treating these envenomated patients depends on the density of poisonous snakes in their environment, with practitioners in the southern U.S. typically treating more exposed patients than those in colder regions in the North. We present a rare case of a confirmed copperhead snakebite that occurred in Rhode Island. We will review Copperhead bites, clinical management and treatment options.
2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
Parvaiz A Dar, Laishram R Singh, Mohammad A Kamal, Tanveer A Dar
Withania somnifera is an important medicinal herb that has been widely used for the treatment of different clinical conditions. The overall medicinal properties of Withania somnifera make it a viable therapeutic agent for addressing anxiety, cancer, microbial infection, immunomodulation, and neurodegenerative disorders. Biochemical constituents of Withania somnifera like withanolideA, withanolide D, withaferin A and withaniamides play an important role in its pharmacological properties. Proteins like Withania somnifera glycoprotein and withania lectin like-protein possess potent therapeutic properties like antimicrobial, anti-snake venom poison and antimicrobial...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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