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Ranajit Das, Paul Wexler, Mehdi Pirooznia, Eran Elhaik
Recently, the geographical origins of Ashkenazic Jews (AJs) and their native language Yiddish were investigated by applying the Geographic Population Structure (GPS) to a cohort of exclusively Yiddish-speaking and multilingual AJs. GPS localized most AJs along major ancient trade routes in northeastern Turkey adjacent to primeval villages with names that resemble the word "Ashkenaz." These findings were compatible with the hypothesis of an Irano-Turko-Slavic origin for AJs and a Slavic origin for Yiddish and at odds with the Rhineland hypothesis advocating a Levantine origin for AJs and German origins for Yiddish...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
Pavel Flegontov, Alexei Kassian, Mark G Thomas, Valentina Fedchenko, Piya Changmai, George Starostin
In a recent interdisciplinary study, Das et al. have attempted to trace the homeland of Ashkenazi Jews and of their historical language, Yiddish (Das et al. 2016 Localizing Ashkenazic Jews to Primeval Villages in the Ancient Iranian Lands of Ashkenaz. Genome Biol Evol. 8:1132-1149). Das et al. applied the geographic population structure (GPS) method to autosomal genotyping data and inferred geographic coordinates of populations supposedly ancestral to Ashkenazi Jews, placing them in Eastern Turkey. They argued that this unexpected genetic result goes against the widely accepted notion of Ashkenazi origin in the Levant, and speculated that Yiddish was originally a Slavic language strongly influenced by Iranian and Turkic languages, and later remodeled completely under Germanic influence...
August 16, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Ranajit Das, Paul Wexler, Mehdi Pirooznia, Eran Elhaik
The Yiddish language is over 1,000 years old and incorporates German, Slavic, and Hebrew elements. The prevalent view claims Yiddish has a German origin, whereas the opposing view posits a Slavic origin with strong Iranian and weak Turkic substrata. One of the major difficulties in deciding between these hypotheses is the unknown geographical origin of Yiddish speaking Ashkenazic Jews (AJs). An analysis of 393 Ashkenazic, Iranian, and mountain Jews and over 600 non-Jewish genomes demonstrated that Greeks, Romans, Iranians, and Turks exhibit the highest genetic similarity with AJs...
April 19, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Lawrence A Zeidman, Jaap Cohen
Dutch neuroscientist Cornelius Ubbo Ariëns Kappers is famous for pioneering neuroembryological work and for establishing the Amsterdam Central Institute for Brain Research. Less well known is his anthropological work, which ultimately played a role in saving Dutch Jews from deportation to their deaths during the Holocaust. Ariëns Kappers extensively campaigned against anti-Semitism and Nazi persecution during the 1930s. During World War II, he utilized his credentials to help create anthropological reports "proving" full-Jews were "actually" partial- or non-Jews to evade Nazi criteria, and at least 300 Jews were thus saved by Ariëns Kappers and colleagues...
2014: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Ilir Agalliu, Zhaoming Wang, Tao Wang, Anne Dunn, Hemang Parikh, Timothy Myers, Robert D Burk, Laufey Amundadottir
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple SNPs associated with prostate cancer (PrCa). Population isolates may have different sets of risk alleles for PrCa constituting unique population and individual risk profiles. METHODS: To test this hypothesis, associations between 31 GWAS SNPs of PrCa were examined among 979 PrCa cases and 1,251 controls of Ashkenazic descent using logistic regression. We also investigated risks by age at diagnosis, pathological features of PrCa, and family history of cancer...
2013: PloS One
Stephen J Holland, Istvan Bartok, Meriem Attaf, Raphael Genolet, Immanuel F Luescher, Eleni Kotsiou, Ashkenaz Richard, Edward Wang, Matthew White, David J Coe, Jian-Guo Chai, Cristina Ferreira, Julian Dyson
The bias of αβ T cells for MHC ligands has been proposed to be intrinsic to the T-cell receptor (TCR). Equally, the CD4 and CD8 coreceptors contribute to ligand restriction by colocalizing Lck with the TCR when MHC ligands are engaged. To determine the importance of intrinsic ligand bias, the germ-line TCR complementarity determining regions were extensively diversified in vivo. We show that engagement with MHC ligands during thymocyte selection and peripheral T-cell activation imposes remarkably little constraint over TCR structure...
November 6, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mohamed I Fayad, Paul J Ashkenaz, Bradford R Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Vertical root fractures (VRFs) pose a clinical dilemma and a challenge to clinicians. Definitive diagnosis is often complicated by the lack of consistent signs and symptoms and the low sensitivity of conventional radiographs in the detection of VRFs. New radiographic imaging systems have recently become available for use in dentistry. Among these new imaging technologies is cone-beam volumetric tomography (CBVT). CBVT technology allows the precise visualization and evaluation of teeth with VRFs...
October 2012: Journal of Endodontics
Elizabeth Midlarsky, Steven Pirutinsky, Florette Cohen
Many presume that White culture supports psychotherapy utilization. However, cultural analyses suggest that many aspects of White culture are antithetical to the values and practices underlying psychotherapy, which appear more congruent with Ashkenazic Jewish attitudes and values. The current research empirically tested this possibility by comparing older Jewish White people, non-Jewish Whites, and Black participants on attitudes relevant to psychotherapy. Results indicated that Jews had greater confidence in a therapist's ability to help, were more tolerant of stigma, and more open to sharing their feelings and concerns than participants in the other groups...
June 2012: Journal of Religion and Health
Qingping Yao, Kristin A Englund, Stephen P Hayden, Kenneth J Tomecki
OBJECTIVES: To report a case of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS) with unusual clinical phenotypes and a systematic review. METHODS: The relevant English literature of TRAPS was searched using the keywords TRAPS, autoinflammatory disease, and gene mutation. Original and review articles were reviewed and the clinical scenarios were exemplified with a case report. RESULTS: A 58-year-old Jewish woman with Eastern European Ashkenazic background presented with photographic evidence of various skin disease, including previously unreported vesicles and alopecia, as well as other systemic manifestations...
February 2012: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
P S Chan, S L Gersen
Familial colorectal cancer (FCC) is a hereditary form of colorectal cancer that accounts for 15-50% of all colorectal cancers (1,2). FCC patients generally have one or two family members affected with colon polyps or cancer. A mutation (I1307K) in the APC gene has been associated with colorectal cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (3). This specific mutation is detected in approx 6% of the Ashkenazic Jewish population. The frequency increases to about 28% in Ashkenazim with a family history of colorectal cancer. A person carrying this mutation will have a twofold increased risk, over the general Ashkenazic Jewish population, of developing colorectal cancer in his or her lifetime (3)...
2001: Methods in Molecular Medicine
M Spiegel-Adolf, G C Henny, E W Ashkenaz
1. X-ray diffraction studies of sartorius muscles of Rana pipiens were made in a new x-ray diffraction camera which permits exposures of 3 to 6 minutes. The object-film distance can be varied from 20 to 80 mm; the muscle inside the camera can be electrically stimulated while contracting isotonically or isometrically, and can be observed by a special device. After exposures up to 30 minutes (approximately 40,830 r) muscles are still alive and responsive. 2. Contrary to the x-ray diffraction pattern of powdered dry muscle, which pattern consists of two rings corresponding to spacings of 4...
November 20, 1944: Journal of General Physiology
Gordon F Schwartz, Kevin S Hughes, Henry T Lynch, Carol J Fabian, Ian S Fentiman, Mark E Robson, Susan M Domchek, Lynn C Hartmann, Roland Holland, David J Winchester, Benjamin O Anderson, Banu K Arun, Harry Bartelink, Philip Bernard, Bernardo Bonanni, Blake Cady, Krishna B Clough, Stephen A Feig, Sylvia H Heywang-Köbrunner, Anthony Howell, Claudine Isaacs, Daniel B Kopans, Robert E Mansel, Shahla Masood, Juan P Palazzo, Peter I Pressman, Lawrence J Solin, Michael Untch
A consensus conference including thirty experts was held in April, 2007, to discuss risk factors for breast cancer and their management. Four categories of risk were outlined, from breast cancer "average" through "very high" risk, the latter including individuals with high penetrance BRCA1/2 gene mutations. Guidelines for management of patients in each of these categories were discussed, with the major portion of the conference being devoted to individuals with BRCA1/2 mutations. Prevalence of these mutations in the general populations was estimated to be 1 in 250-500 individuals, with an increased prevalence in Ashkenazic Jews and other founder groups...
January 2009: Breast Journal
Maital Ashkenazi, Gary D Bader, Allan Kuchinsky, Menachem Moshelion, David J States
SUMMARY: Cytoscape enhanced search plugin (ESP) enables searching complex biological networks on multiple attribute fields using logical operators and wildcards. Queries use an intuitive syntax and simple search line interface. ESP is implemented as a Cytoscape plugin and complements existing search functions in the Cytoscape network visualization and analysis software, allowing users to easily identify nodes, edges and subgraphs of interest, even for very large networks. Availabiity: http://chianti...
June 15, 2008: Bioinformatics
H G Lasser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 1959: Science
P H Saldanha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 1959: Science
Bella Kaufman, Yael Laitman, Marcelo A Carvalho, Limor Edelman, Tal Distelman Menachem, Jamal Zidan, Alvaro N Monteiro, Eitan Friedman
Founder mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been discovered in the Ashkenazic Jewish population, but a founder mutation(s) has not been discovered among non-Ashkenazi Jews (NAJ). Two BRCA1 mutations (P1812A, P25T), and a BRCA2 mutation (5164del4) have been detected in NAJ high-risk families. We studied the prevalence of these three mutations in 270 high-risk NAJ families, including 85 from Iraq/Iran, 67 from North Africa, 27 from Yemen, 50 from the Balkan region, and 41 with mixed ancestry. The three mutations were detected only in individuals related to the original families...
2006: Genetic Testing
Stephen B Hanauer
Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), the primary constituents of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are precipitated by a complex interaction of environmental, genetic, and immunoregulatory factors. Higher rates of IBD are seen in northern, industrialized countries, with greater prevalence among Caucasians and Ashkenazic Jews. Racial gaps are closing, indicating that environmental factors may play a role. IBD is multigenic, with the most clearly established genetic link between certain NOD2 variants and CD...
January 2006: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Taste thresholds for phenylthiourea were measured for 244 Ashkenazic Jews. The frequency of nontasters was 27.86 percent. In the sample, 102 individuals were of pure Polish ancestry, and the frequency of nontasters among these was significantly different from the frequencies of nontasters among Europeans and Mongoloids.
January 16, 1959: Science
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 1958: Harefuah
Gérard Lucotte, Géraldine Mercier
One Y-specific DNA polymorphism (p49/Taq I) was studied in 54 Lebanese and 69 Palestinian males, and compared with the results found in 693 Jews from three communities (Oriental, Sephardic, and Ashkenazic). Lebanese, Palestinian, and Sephardic Jews seem to be similar in their Y-haplotype patterns, both with regard to the haplotype distributions and the ancestral haplotype VIII frequencies. The haplotype distribution in Oriental Jews is characterized by a significantly higher frequency of haplotype VIII. These results confirm similarities in the Y-haplotype frequencies in Lebanese, Palestinian, and Sephardic Jewish men, three Near-Eastern populations sharing a common geographic origin...
2003: Genetic Testing
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