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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812416/role-of-branchiomotor-neurons-in-controlling-food-intake-of-zebrafish-larvae
#1
James R Allen, Kiran D Bhattacharyya, Emilia Asante, Badr Almadi, Kyle Schafer, Jeremy Davis, Jane Cox, Mark Voigt, John A Viator, Anand Chandrasekhar
The physical act of eating or feeding involves the coordinated action of several organs like eyes and jaws, and associated neural networks. Moreover, the activity of the neural networks controlling jaw movements (branchiomotor circuits) is regulated by the visual, olfactory, gustatory and hypothalamic systems, which are largely well characterized at the physiological level. By contrast, the behavioral output of the branchiomotor circuits and the functional consequences of disruption of these circuits by abnormal neural development are poorly understood...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812049/importance-of-adiponectin-activity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Masaaki Waragai, Gilbert Ho, Yoshiki Takamatsu, Kazunari Sekiyama, Shuei Sugama, Takato Takenouchi, Eliezer Masliah, Makoto Hashimoto
A recent study suggested that insulin resistance may play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this regard, it is of note that upregulation of plasma adiponectin (APN), a benign adipokine that sensitizes the insulin receptor signaling pathway and suppresses inflammation, has recently been associated with the severities of amyloid deposits and cognitive deficits in the elderly, suggesting that APN may enhance the risk of AD. These results are unanticipated because AD has been linked to type II diabetes and other metabolic disorders in which hypoadiponectinemia has been firmly established, and because APN ameliorated neuropathological features in a mouse model of neurodegeneration...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812045/soluble-st2-predicts-outcome-and-hemorrhagic-transformation-after-acute-stroke
#3
Zoe Wolcott, Ayush Batra, Matthew B Bevers, Cristina Sastre, Jane Khoury, Matthew Sperling, Brett C Meyer, Kyle B Walsh, Opeolu Adeoye, Joseph P Broderick, W Taylor Kimberly
OBJECTIVE: ST2 is a member of the toll-like receptor superfamily that can alter inflammatory signaling of helper T-cells. We investigated whether soluble ST2 (sST2) could independently predict outcome and hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in the setting of stroke. METHODS: We measured sST2 in patients enrolled in the Specialized Program of Translational Research in Acute Stroke (SPOTRIAS) network biomarker study. 646 patients had plasma samples collected at the time of hospital admission and 210 patients had a second sample collected 48 h after stroke onset...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807994/a-novel-computational-model-predicts-key-regulators-of-chemokine-gradient-formation-in-lymph-nodes-and-site-specific-roles-for-ccl19-and-ackr4
#4
Mohammad Jafarnejad, David C Zawieja, Bindi S Brook, Robert J B Nibbs, James E Moore
The chemokine receptor CCR7 drives leukocyte migration into and within lymph nodes (LNs). It is activated by chemokines CCL19 and CCL21, which are scavenged by the atypical chemokine receptor ACKR4. CCR7-dependent navigation is determined by the distribution of extracellular CCL19 and CCL21, which form concentration gradients at specific microanatomical locations. The mechanisms underpinning the establishment and regulation of these gradients are poorly understood. In this article, we have incorporated multiple biochemical processes describing the CCL19-CCL21-CCR7-ACKR4 network into our model of LN fluid flow to establish a computational model to investigate intranodal chemokine gradients...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807871/mentalizing-regions-represent-distributed-continuous-and-abstract-dimensions-of-others-beliefs
#5
Jorie Koster-Hale, Hilary Richardson, Natalia Velez, Mika Asaba, Liane Young, Rebecca Saxe
The human capacity to reason about others' minds includes making causal inferences about intentions, beliefs, values, and goals. Previous fMRI research has suggested that a network of brain regions, including bilateral temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and medial prefrontal-cortex (MPFC), are reliably recruited for mental state reasoning. Here, in two fMRI experiments, we investigate the representational content of these regions. Building on existing computational and neural evidence, we hypothesized that social brain regions contain at least two functionally and spatially distinct components: one that represents information related to others' motivations and values, and another that represents information about others' beliefs and knowledge...
August 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807238/unravelling-the-complexity-of-signalling-networks-in-cancer-a-review-of-the-increasing-role-for-computational-modelling
#6
REVIEW
John Garland
Cancer induction is a highly complex process involving hundreds of different inducers but whose eventual outcome is the same. Clearly, it is essential to understand how signalling pathways and networks generated by these inducers interact to regulate cell behaviour and create the cancer phenotype. While enormous strides have been made in identifying key networking profiles, the amount of data generated far exceeds our ability to understand how it all "fits together". The number of potential interactions is astronomically large and requires novel approaches and extreme computation methods to dissect them out...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806930/factors-associated-with-change-in-objectively-measured-physical-activity-in-older-people-data-from-the-physical-activity-cohort-scotland-study
#7
Clare L Clarke, Falko F Sniehotta, Thenmalar Vadiveloo, Ishbel S Argo, Peter T Donnan, Marion E T McMurdo, Miles D Witham
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional relationships between physical activity and health have been explored extensively, but less is known about how physical activity changes with time in older people. The aim of this study was to assess baseline predictors of how objectively measured physical activity changes with time in older people. METHODS: Longitudinal cohort study using data from the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. A sample of community-dwelling older people aged 65 and over were recruited in 2009-2011, then followed up 2-3 years later...
August 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806707/deviant-functional-activation-and-connectivity-of-the-right-insula-are-associated-with-lack-of-awareness-of-episodic-memory-impairment-in-nonamnesic-alcoholism
#8
Anne-Pascale Le Berre, Eva M Müller-Oehring, Tilman Schulte, Matthew R Serventi, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Edith V Sullivan
A disorder of metamemory, expressed as unawareness of mnemonic ability, is typically associated with the profound amnesia of Korsakoff's Syndrome (KS). A similar but less severe type of limited awareness can also occur in non-KS alcoholism and is observed as an impairment in generating Feeling-of-Knowing (FOK) predictions about future recognition performance. We previously found that FOK accuracy was selectively related to volumes of the insula in alcoholics involved in the present study. Unknown, however, are the neural substrates of unawareness of memory impairment in alcoholism...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806599/resting-state-functional-connectivity-of-the-anterior-striatum-and-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-reading-performance-in-school-age-children
#9
Sarael Alcauter, Liliana García-Mondragón, Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Martha B Moreno, Juan J Ortiz, Fernando A Barrios
The current study investigated the neural basis of reading performance in 60 school-age Spanish-speaking children, aged 6 to 9years. By using a data-driven approach and an automated matching procedure, we identified a left-lateralized resting state network that included typical language regions (Wernicke's and Broca's regions), prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyri, superior and middle temporal gyri, cerebellum, and subcortical regions, and explored its relevance for reading performance (accuracy, comprehension and speed)...
August 11, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806496/anterior-superior-alveolar-nerve-injury-after-extended-endoscopic-medial-maxillectomy-a-preclinical-study-to-predict-neurological-morbidity
#10
Alberto Schreiber, Davide Mattavelli, Marco Ferrari, Vittorio Rampinelli, Davide Lancini, Marco Ravanelli, Giacomo Bertazzoni, Luigi Fabrizio Rodella, Barbara Buffoli, Francesco Doglietto, Piero Nicolai
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic medial maxillectomies (EMMs) are used to optimize exposure of the maxillary sinus and retromaxillary areas. Although in type D EMM (Sturmann-Canfield procedure) the anterior superior alveolar nerve (ASAN) is always at risk of injury, only 29% of patients complained of alveolar process and dental anesthesia. The purpose of this anatomical study is to assess the neural anastomotic network of the ASAN (ASAN-NAN) and describe different extensions of type D EMMs in a preclinical setting...
August 14, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803867/dynamics-of-eeg-functional-connectivity-during-statistical-learning
#11
Brigitta Tóth, Karolina Janacsek, Ádám Takács, Andrea Kóbor, Zsófia Zavecz, Dezso Nemeth
Statistical learning is a fundamental mechanism of the brain, which extracts and represents regularities of our environment. Statistical learning is crucial in predictive processing, and in the acquisition of perceptual, motor, cognitive, and social skills. Although previous studies have revealed competitive neurocognitive processes underlying statistical learning, the neural communication of the related brain regions (functional connectivity, FC) has not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating FC networks that promote statistical learning in humans...
August 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802167/induction-of-senescence-in-cancer-cells-by-5-aza-2-deoxycytidine-bioinformatics-and-experimental-insights-to-its-targets
#12
Jayarani F Putri, Nashi Widodo, Kazuichi Sakamoto, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa
5'-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) is a demethylating drug that causes genome-wide hypomethylation resulting in the expression of several tumor suppressor genes causing growth arrest of cancer cells. Cancer is well established as a multifactorial disease and requires multi-module therapeutics. Search for new drugs and their approval by FDA takes a long time. Keeping this in view, research on new functions of FDA-approved anticancer drugs is desired to expand the list of multi-module functioning drugs for cancer therapy...
August 2, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798961/leaking-privacy-and-shadow-profiles-in-online-social-networks
#13
David Garcia
Social interaction and data integration in the digital society can affect the control that individuals have on their privacy. Social networking sites can access data from other services, including user contact lists where nonusers are listed too. Although most research on online privacy has focused on inference of personal information of users, this data integration poses the question of whether it is possible to predict personal information of nonusers. This article tests the shadow profile hypothesis, which postulates that the data given by the users of an online service predict personal information of nonusers...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798849/a-small-scale-rolled-membrane-microfluidic-artificial-lung-designed-towards-future-large-area-manufacturing
#14
A J Thompson, L H Marks, M J Goudie, A Rojas-Pena, H Handa, J A Potkay
Artificial lungs have been used in the clinic for multiple decades to supplement patient pulmonary function. Recently, small-scale microfluidic artificial lungs (μAL) have been demonstrated with large surface area to blood volume ratios, biomimetic blood flow paths, and pressure drops compatible with pumpless operation. Initial small-scale microfluidic devices with blood flow rates in the μl/min to ml/min range have exhibited excellent gas transfer efficiencies; however, current manufacturing techniques may not be suitable for scaling up to human applications...
March 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797096/prediction-of-n-linked-glycosylation-sites-using-position-relative-features-and-statistical-moments
#15
Muhammad Aizaz Akmal, Nouman Rasool, Yaser Daanial Khan
Glycosylation is one of the most complex post translation modification in eukaryotic cells. Almost 50% of the human proteome is glycosylated as glycosylation plays a vital role in various biological functions such as antigen's recognition, cell-cell communication, expression of genes and protein folding. It is a significant challenge to identify glycosylation sites in protein sequences as experimental methods are time taking and expensive. A reliable computational method is desirable for the identification of glycosylation sites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796601/time-dependent-behavior-of-microvascular-blood-flow-and-oxygenation-a-predictor-of-functional-outcomes
#16
Kasia Z Kuliga, Rodney Gush, Geraldine F Clough, Andrew J Chipperfield
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the time-dependent behaviour and algorithmic complexity of low frequency, periodic oscillations in blood flux and oxygenation signals from the microvasculature. METHODS: Microvascular blood flux (BF) and oxygenation (OXY: oxyHb, deoxyHb, totalHb and SO2%) was recorded from 15 healthy young adult males using combined laser Doppler fluximetry and white light spectroscopy with local skin temperature clamped to 33C and during local thermal hyperaemia (LTH) at 43C...
August 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796509/predicting-thermal-behavior-of-secondary-organic-aerosols
#17
John H Offenberg, Michael Lewandowski, Tadeusz E Kleindienst, Kenneth S Docherty, Mohammed Jaoui, Jonathan Krug, Theran P Riedel, David A Olson
Volume concentrations of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are measured in 139 steady-state, single precursor hydrocarbon oxidation experiments after passing through a temperature controlled inlet. The response to change in temperature is well predicted through a feedforward Artificial Neural Network. The most parsimonious model, as indicated by Akaike's Information Criterion, Corrected (AIC,C), utilizes 11 input variables, a single hidden layer of 4 tanh activation function nodes, and a single linear output function...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796060/candidate-genes-investigation-for-severe-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-based-on-bioinformatics-analysis
#18
Shan Qi, Changhong Wang, Chunfu Li, Pu Wang, Minghui Liu
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver condition worldwide. However, its etiology and fundamental pathophysiology for the disease process are poorly understood. In this study, we thus used bioinformatics to identify candidate genes potentially causative of severe NAFLD. METHODS: Gene expression profile data GSE49541 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Tissues samples from 32 severe and 40 mild NAFLD patients were evaluated to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the 2 groups, followed by analyses of Gene Ontology (GO) functions and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796037/functional-prediction-of-mir-3144-5p-in-human-cardiac-myocytes-based-on-transcriptome-sequencing-and-bioinformatics
#19
Lei Ruan, Yi Yang, Yi Huang, Ling Ding, Cuntai Zhang, Xiaofen Wu
BACKGROUND: RAN guanine nucleotide release factor (RANGRF) encoding protein MOG1 plays an important role in cardiac arrhythmia, so we intended to investigate the regulatory miRNA of RANGRF and explore its potential regulatory mechanism in arrhythmogenesis. METHODS: Based on bioinformatic analysis, miR-3144-5p was predicted to be a regulatory miRNA of RANGRF, which were then validated through a dual-luciferase reporter plasmid assay. Subsequently, the expression level of miR-3144-5p in human cardiac myocytes (HCMs) was detected, followed by cell transfection with miR-3144-5p mimics...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795686/hdl-and-atherosclerotic-cardiovascular-disease-genetic-insights-into-complex-biology
#20
REVIEW
Robert S Rosenson, H Bryan Brewer, Philip J Barter, Johan L M Björkegren, M John Chapman, Daniel Gaudet, Daniel Seung Kim, Eric Niesor, Kerry-Anne Rye, Frank M Sacks, Jean-Claude Tardif, Robert A Hegele
Plasma levels of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) predict the risk of cardiovascular disease at the epidemiological level, but a direct causal role for HDL in cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Studies in animal models and humans with rare monogenic disorders link only particular HDL-associated mechanisms with causality, including those mechanisms related to particle functionality rather than cholesterol content. Mendelian randomization studies indicate that most genetic variants that affect a range of pathways that increase plasma HDL-C levels are not usually associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, with some exceptions, such as cholesteryl ester transfer protein variants...
August 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
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