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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910724/attentional-networks-and-visuospatial-working-memory-capacity-in-social-anxiety
#1
Jun Moriya
Social anxiety is associated with attentional bias and working memory for emotional stimuli; however, the ways in which social anxiety affects cognitive functions involving non-emotional stimuli remains unclear. The present study focused on the role of attentional networks (i.e. alerting, orienting, and executive control networks) and visuospatial working memory capacity (WMC) for non-emotional stimuli in the context of social anxiety. One hundred and seventeen undergraduates completed questionnaires on social anxiety...
December 2, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909445/identification-and-profiling-of-micrornas-expressed-in-elongating-cotton-fibers-using-small-rna-deep-sequencing
#2
Yanmei Wang, Yan Ding, Jin-Yuan Liu
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. In this study, small RNA deep sequencing was applied to explore novel miRNAs expressed in elongating cotton fibers. A total of 46 novel and 96 known miRNAs, primarily derived from the corresponding specific loci in genome of Gossypium arboreum, were identified. 64 miRNAs were shown to be differentially expressed during the fiber elongation process; 16 were predicted to be novel miRNAs while the remaining 48 belong to known miRNA families...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909350/erosion-of-synchronization-coupling-heterogeneity-and-network-structure
#3
Per Sebastian Skardal, Dane Taylor, Jie Sun, Alex Arenas
We study the dynamics of network-coupled phase oscillators in the presence of coupling frustration. It was recently demonstrated that in heterogeneous network topologies, the presence of coupling frustration causes perfect phase synchronization to become unattainable even in the limit of infinite coupling strength. Here, we consider the important case of heterogeneous coupling functions and extend previous results by deriving analytical predictions for the total erosion of synchronization. Our analytical results are given in terms of basic quantities related to the network structure and coupling frustration...
June 1, 2016: Physica D. Nonlinear Phenomena
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908912/a-deep-proteome-analysis-identifies-the-complete-secretome-as-the-functional-unit-of-human-cardiac-progenitor-cells
#4
Sudhish Sharma, Rachana Mishra, Grace E Bigham, Brody Wehman, Mohd M Khan, Huichun Xu, Progyaparamita Saha, Young Ah Goo, Srinivisa R Datla, Ling Chen, Mohan E Tulapurkar, Bradley S Taylor, Peixin Yang, Sotirios K Karathanasis, David R Goodlett, Sunjay Kaushal
RATIONALE: Cardiac progenitor cells are an attractive cell type for tissue regeneration but their mechanism for myocardial remodeling is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This investigation determines how chronological age influences the phenotypic characteristics and the secretome of human cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), as well as their potential to recover injured myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult (aCPCs) and neonatal (nCPCs) cells were derived from patients more than 40 years or less than one month of age, respectively, and their functional potential was determined in a rodent myocardial infarction (MI) model...
December 1, 2016: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908665/diffuse-resistance-courtship-in-the-scorpion-rhopalurus-rochai-scorpiones-buthidae
#5
Shayanne Chantall-Rocha, Hilton F JapyassĂș
Male-female courtship signals are frequently subject to arms races, with patterns of behaviour evolving reciprocally to manipulate the reproductive output. Female resistance should be particularly effective when asymmetrical offspring care occurs under low and unpredictable resource distribution, because this would increase maternal costs. Our hypothesis is that under these conditions females will evolve diffuse mating strategies to avoid predictable exploitation by male optimal counter tactics. Mating in scorpions is a complex process, and female resistance occurs through specific behaviours...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908591/an-fmri-investigation-of-the-relationship-between-future-imagination-and-cognitive-flexibility
#6
R P Roberts, K Wiebels, R L Sumner, V van Mulukom, C L Grady, D L Schacter, D R Addis
While future imagination is largely considered to be a cognitive process grounded in default mode network activity, studies have shown that future imagination recruits regions in both default mode and frontoparietal control networks. In addition, it has recently been shown that the ability to imagine the future is associated with cognitive flexibility, and that tasks requiring cognitive flexibility result in increased coupling of the default mode network with frontoparietal control and salience networks. In the current study, we investigated the neural correlates underlying the association between cognitive flexibility and future imagination in two ways...
November 28, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907011/uncover-mirna-disease-association-by-exploiting-global-network-similarity
#7
Min Chen, Xingguo Lu, Bo Liao, Zejun Li, Lijun Cai, Changlong Gu
Identification of miRNA-disease association is a fundamental challenge in human health clinic. However, the known miRNA-disease associations are rare and experimental verification methods are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, there is a strong incentive to develop computational methods. In this paper, we calculate the similarity score for each miRNAs pair by integrating miRNA functional similarity and miRNA family information. We use the disease phenotype similarity data to construct the disease similarity network...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907007/exploring-regulatory-mechanisms-of-atrial-myocyte-hypertrophy-of-mitral-regurgitation-through-gene-expression-profiling-analysis-role-of-nfat-in-cardiac-hypertrophy
#8
Tzu-Hao Chang, Mien-Cheng Chen, Jen-Ping Chang, Hsien-Da Huang, Wan-Chun Ho, Yu-Sheng Lin, Kuo-Li Pan, Yao-Kuang Huang, Wen-Hao Liu, Chia-Chen Wu
BACKGROUND: Left atrial enlargement in mitral regurgitation (MR) predicts a poor prognosis. The regulatory mechanisms of atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study comprised 14 patients with MR, 7 patients with aortic valve disease (AVD), and 6 purchased samples from normal subjects (NC). We used microarrays, enrichment analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to study the gene expression profiles in the left atria. Microarray results showed that 112 genes were differentially up-regulated and 132 genes were differentially down-regulated in the left atria between MR patients and NC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906468/optimal-timing-of-hepatitis-c-treatment-for-patients-on-the-liver-transplant-waiting-list
#9
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Sumeyye Samur, Brian Kues, Turgay Ayer, Mark S Roberts, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Drew Michael S Donnell, Raymond T Chung
: The availability of oral direct-acting antiviral (DAAs) has altered the hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment paradigm for both pre- and post-liver transplant (LT) patients. There is a perceived trade-off between pre- versus post-LT treatment of HCV-treatment may improve liver function but potentially decrease the likelihood of a necessary LT. Our objective was to identify LT-eligible patients with decompensated cirrhosis who would benefit (and not benefit) from pre-LT treatment based on their MELD scores...
November 5, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905497/weight-prediction-in-complex-networks-based-on-neighbor-set
#10
Boyao Zhu, Yongxiang Xia, Xue-Jun Zhang
Link weights are essential to network functionality, so weight prediction is important for understanding weighted networks given incomplete real-world data. In this work, we develop a novel method for weight prediction based on the local network structure, namely, the set of neighbors of each node. The performance of this method is validated in two cases. In the first case, some links are missing altogether along with their weights, while in the second case all links are known and weight information is missing for some links...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903980/identification-of-biomarker-micrornas-for-predicting-the-response-of-colorectal-cancer-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-based-on-microrna-regulatory-network
#11
Yaqun Zhu, Qiliang Peng, Yuxin Lin, Li Zou, Peipei Shen, Feifei Chen, Ming Min, Li Shen, Jiajia Chen, Bairong Shen
Preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy has become a standard procedure for treatment of patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, patients' responses to treatment are different and personalized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for predicting personalized responses. In this study, we collected 30 publicly reported miRNAs associated with chemoradiotherapy of CRC. We extracted 46 differentially expressed miRNAs from samples of responders and non-responders to preoperative radiotherapy from the Gene Expression Omnibus dataset (Student's t test, p-value < 0...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903896/img-abc-new-features-for-bacterial-secondary-metabolism-analysis-and-targeted-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-discovery-in-thousands-of-microbial-genomes
#12
Michalis Hadjithomas, I-Min A Chen, Ken Chu, Jinghua Huang, Anna Ratner, Krishna Palaniappan, Evan Andersen, Victor Markowitz, Nikos C Kyrpides, Natalia N Ivanova
Secondary metabolites produced by microbes have diverse biological functions, which makes them a great potential source of biotechnologically relevant compounds with antimicrobial, anti-cancer and other activities. The proteins needed to synthesize these natural products are often encoded by clusters of co-located genes called biosynthetic gene clusters (BCs). In order to advance the exploration of microbial secondary metabolism, we developed the largest publically available database of experimentally verified and predicted BCs, the Integrated Microbial Genomes Atlas of Biosynthetic gene Clusters (IMG-ABC) (https://img...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903883/function-driven-discovery-of-disease-genes-in-zebrafish-using-an-integrated-genomics-big-data-resource
#13
Hongseok Shim, Ji Hyun Kim, Chan Yeong Kim, Sohyun Hwang, Hyojin Kim, Sunmo Yang, Ji Eun Lee, Insuk Lee
Whole exome sequencing (WES) accelerates disease gene discovery using rare genetic variants, but further statistical and functional evidence is required to avoid false-discovery. To complement variant-driven disease gene discovery, here we present function-driven disease gene discovery in zebrafish (Danio rerio), a promising human disease model owing to its high anatomical and genomic similarity to humans. To facilitate zebrafish-based function-driven disease gene discovery, we developed a genome-scale co-functional network of zebrafish genes, DanioNet (www...
November 16, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903727/predicting-when-in-discourse-engages-the-human-dorsal-auditory-stream-an-fmri-study-using-naturalistic-stories
#14
Katerina Danae Kandylaki, Arne Nagels, Sarah Tune, Tilo Kircher, Richard Wiese, Matthias Schlesewsky, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky
: The hierarchical organization of human cortical circuits integrates information across different timescales via temporal receptive windows, which increase in length from lower to higher levels of the cortical hierarchy (Hasson et al., 2015). A recent neurobiological model of higher-order language processing (Bornkessel-Schlesewsky et al., 2015) posits that temporal receptive windows in the dorsal auditory stream provide the basis for a hierarchically organized predictive coding architecture (Friston and Kiebel, 2009)...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903707/formation-of-long-term-locomotor-memories-is-associated-with-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical-network
#15
Firas Mawase, Simona Bar-Haim, Lior Shmuelof
: Although motor adaptation is typically rapid, accumulating evidence shows that it is also associated with long-lasting behavioural and neuronal changes. Two processes were suggested to explain the formation of long-term motor memories: recall -- reflecting a retrieval of previous motor actions, and faster relearning -- reflecting an increased sensitivity to errors. While these manifestations of motor memories were initially demonstrated in the context of adaptation experiments in reaching, indications of long-term motor memories were also recently demonstrated in other kinds of adaptation, such as in locomotor adaptation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902866/bacterial-community-collapse-a-meta-analysis-of-the-sinonasal-microbiota-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#16
Brett Wagner Mackenzie, David W Waite, Michael Hoggard, Richard G Douglas, Michael W Taylor, Kristi Biswas
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common, debilitating condition characterized by long-term inflammation of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The role of the sinonasal bacteria in CRS is unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis combining and reanalyzing published bacterial 16S rRNA sequence data to explore differences in sinonasal bacterial community composition and predicted function between healthy and CRS affected subjects. The results identify the most abundant bacteria across all subjects as Staphylococcus, Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, and an unclassified lineage of Actinobacteria...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902487/identification-of-laryngeal-cancer-prognostic-biomarkers-using-an-inflammatory-gene-related-competitive-endogenous-rna-network
#17
Qun He, Linli Tian, Hao Jiang, Jiarui Zhang, Qiang Li, Yanan Sun, Jiannan Zhao, Huijun Li, Ming Liu
Competitive endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) act as molecular sponges for microRNAs (miRNAs), and are associated with tumorigenesis in various cancers, including laryngeal cancer (LC). In this work, we constructed an LC-specific inflammatory gene-related ceRNA network (IceNet). In IceNet, ceRNAs targeting inflammation-related genes tended to be network hubs. Additionally, the betweenness centralities of these hub ceRNAs were higher than those of the inflammation-related genes themselves, indicating that the hub ceRNAs in this study played critical roles in communication between IceNet molecules...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901587/changes-in-functional-connectivity-of-the-brain-associated-with-a-history-of-sport-concussion-a-preliminary-investigation
#18
Nathan Churchill, Michael G Hutchison, General Leung, Simon Graham, Tom A Schweizer
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of long-term clinical consequences associated with a history of sport concussion. However, there remains limited information about the underlying changes in brain function. The goal of this study was to identify brain regions where abnormal resting-state function is associated with chronic concussion, for athletes without persistent symptoms. METHODS: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was performed on a group of athletes with prior concussion (n = 22) and a group without documented injury (n = 21)...
November 30, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900601/rna-seq-expression-analysis-of-enteric-neuron-cells-with-rotenone-treatment-and-prediction-of-regulated-pathways
#19
Qiang Guan, Xijin Wang, Yanyan Jiang, Lijuan Zhao, Zhiyu Nie, Lingjing Jin
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is involved in the initiation and development of the pathological process of Parkinson's disease (PD). The effect of rotenone on the ENS may trigger the progression of PD through the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to examine differential expression genes (DEGs) and pathways induced by in vitro treatment of rotenone in the enteric nervous cells isolated from rats. We identified 45 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated genes...
November 30, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899717/optimization-of-waste-combinations-during-in-vessel-composting-of-agricultural-waste
#20
V Sudharsan Varma, Ajay S Kalamdhad, Bimlesh Kumar
In-vessel composting of agricultural waste is a well-described approach for stabilization of compost within a short time period. Although composting studies have shown the different combinations of waste materials for producing good quality compost, studies of the particular ratio of the waste materials in the mix are still limited. In the present study, composting was conducted with a combination of vegetable waste, cow dung, sawdust and dry leaves using a 550 L rotary drum composter. Application of a radial basis functional neural network was used to simulate the composting process...
November 28, 2016: Waste Management & Research
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