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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535276/live-attenuated-pertussis-vaccine-bpze1-protects-baboons-against-b-pertussis-disease-and-infection
#1
Camille Locht, James F Papin, Sophie Lecher, Anne-Sophie Debrie, Marcel Thalen, Ken Solovay, Keith Rubin, Nathalie Mielcarek
Evidence suggests that the resurgence of pertussis in many industrialized countries may result from the failure of current vaccines to prevent nasopharyngeal colonization by Bordetella pertussis, the principal causative agent of whooping cough. Here, we used a baboon model to test the protective potential of the novel, live attenuated pertussis vaccine candidate BPZE1. A single intranasal/intratracheal inoculation of juvenile baboons with BPZE1 resulted in transient nasopharyngeal colonization and induction of IgG and IgA to all antigens tested, while causing no adverse symptoms or leukocytosis...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533769/celecoxib-enhances-the-efficacy-of-low-dose-antibiotic-treatment-against-polymicrobial-sepsis-in-mice-and-clinical-isolates-of-eskape-pathogens
#2
Madhavi Annamanedi, Gajapati Y N Varma, K Anuradha, Arunasree M Kalle
Treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections has been a great challenge globally. Previous studies including our study have highlighted the use of celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in combination with antibiotic has decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration to limit Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the efficacy of this combinatorial treatment against various pathogenic bacteria is not determined. Therefore, we have evaluated the potential use of celecoxib in combination with low doses of antibiotic in limiting Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vivo in murine polymicrobial sepsis developed by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) method and against clinically isolated human ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532553/the-potential-impact-of-public-health-interventions-in-preventing-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Rohina Joshi, Oommen John, Vivekanand Jha
The years of life lost and years lived with disability resulting from chronic kidney disease (CKD) increased globally by 90% and 49.5%, respectively, between 1990 and 2013. In addition to the traditional factors, infections, low birthweight, environmental factors, and low socioeconomic status contribute to the CKD burden in low- and middle-income countries. System-level challenges such as poor appreciation of the burden, insufficient human resources, high health care costs, poor referral pathways, unreliable health information systems, and inadequate medicine supply pose barriers to CKD control...
May 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531943/recent-trends-in-zikv-research-a-step-away-from-cure
#4
REVIEW
Aftab Alam, Nikhat Imam, Anam Farooqui, Shahnawaz Ali, Md Zubbair Malik, Romana Ishrat
Zika virus (ZikV) is a member of the Flaviviridae virus family, genus Flavivirus has emerged as a potential threat to human health worldwide. Consequences of vertical infections includes microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and adult infections includes Guillain-Barrésyndrome (GBS), brain ischemia, myelitis and meningoencephalitis. To develop a better treatment, many efforts are being made, like drug-repurposing concept for FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity are screened against ZikV infection and emerging as a promising alternative to expedite drug development and various vaccines like DNA, ZPIV, LAIV, mRNA and AGS-v vaccines have been designed and in under clinical trial phases...
May 17, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530039/transition-from-paediatric-to-adult-care-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-sub-saharan-africa-challenges-youth-friendly-models-and-outcomes
#5
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Chloé Gautier-Lafaye, Chloe A Teasdale, Lorna Renner, Marcel Yotebieng, Sophie Desmonde, Samuel Ayaya, Mary-Ann Davies, Valériane Leroy
INTRODUCTION: The number of adolescents with perinatally or behaviourally acquired HIV is increasing in low-income countries, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence and incidence are the highest. As they survive into adulthood in the era of antiretroviral therapy, there is a pressing need to transfer them from paediatric to adult care, known as the transition of care. We conducted a narrative review of recent evidence on their transition outcomes in Africa, highlighting the specific needs and challenges in these populations and settings, and the different models of care for transition...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529952/advancements-in-developing-strategies-for-sterilizing-and-functional-hiv-cures
#6
REVIEW
Wei Xu, Haoyang Li, Qian Wang, Chen Hua, Hanzhen Zhang, Weihua Li, Shibo Jiang, Lu Lu
Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been successful in prolonging lifespan and reducing mortality of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the eradication of latent HIV reservoirs remains a challenge for curing HIV infection (HIV cure) because of HIV latency in primary memory CD4(+) T cells. Currently, two types of HIV cures are in development: a "sterilizing cure" and a "functional cure." A sterilizing cure refers to the complete elimination of replication-competent proviruses in the body, while a functional cure refers to the long-term control of HIV replication without treatment...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529461/treatment-of-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease
#7
Julie V Philley, Mary Ann DeGroote, Jennifer R Honda, Michael M Chan, Shannon Kasperbauer, Nicholas D Walter, Edward D Chan
Treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease (NTM-LD) is challenging for several reasons including the relative resistance of NTM to currently available drugs and the difficulty in tolerating prolonged treatment with multiple drugs. Yet-to-be-done, large, multicenter, prospective randomized studies to establish the best regimens will also be arduous because multiple NTM species are known to cause human lung disease, differences in virulence and response to treatment between different species and strains within a species will make randomization more difficult, the need to distinguish relapse from a new infection, and the difficulty in adhering to the prescribed treatment due to intolerance, toxicity, and/or drug-drug interactions, often necessitating modification of therapeutic regimens...
December 2016: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529001/a-single-intranasal-administration-of-virus-like-particle-vaccine-induces-an-efficient-protection-for-mice-against-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#8
Yue-Ying Jiao, Yuan-Hui Fu, Yi-Fei Yan, Ying Hua, Yao Ma, Xiu-Juan Zhang, Jing-Dong Song, Xiang-Lei Peng, Jiaqiang Huang, Tao Hong, Jin-Sheng He
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully...
May 18, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528753/healthcare-access-and-quality-index-based-on-mortality-from-causes-amenable-to-personal-health-care-in-195-countries-and-territories-1990-2015-a-novel-analysis-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#9
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: National levels of personal health-care access and quality can be approximated by measuring mortality rates from causes that should not be fatal in the presence of effective medical care (ie, amenable mortality). Previous analyses of mortality amenable to health care only focused on high-income countries and faced several methodological challenges. In the present analysis, we use the highly standardised cause of death and risk factor estimates generated through the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) to improve and expand the quantification of personal health-care access and quality for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015...
May 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528652/nutritional-immunity-and-fungal-pathogenesis-the-struggle-for-micronutrients-at-the-host-pathogen-interface
#10
Dhara Malavia, Aaron Crawford, Duncan Wilson
All living organisms require certain micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper for cellular function and growth. For human pathogens however, the maintenance of metal ion homeostasis is particularly challenging. This is because the mammalian host actively enforces extremes of micronutrient availability on potential microbial invaders-processes collectively termed nutritional immunity. The role of iron sequestration in controlling microbial infections is well established and, more recently, the importance of other metals including zinc, manganese and copper has been recognised...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526864/a-broad-spectrum-bactericidal-lipopeptide-with-anti-biofilm-properties
#11
Ohad Meir, Fadia Zaknoon, Uri Cogan, Amram Mor
Previous studies of the oligoacyllysyl (OAK) series acyl-lysyl-lysyl-aminoacyl-lysine-amide, suggested their utility towards generating robust linear lipopeptide-like alternatives to antibiotics, although to date, none exhibited potent broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. To follow up on this premise, we produced a new analog (C14KKc12K) and investigated its properties in various media. Mechanistic studies suggest that C14KKc12K uses a non-specific membrane-disruptive mode of action for rapidly reducing viability of Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) similarly to polymyxin B (PMB), a cyclic lipopeptide used as last resort antibiotic...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526564/direct-detection-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-by-polymerase-chain-reaction-followed-by-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-from-human-blood
#12
Heimo Lagler, Nicole Harrison, Manuel Kussmann, Markus Obermüller, Heinz Burgmann, Athanasios Makristathis, Michael Ramharter
Bacterial pathogens not detectable in commercial blood culture assays constitute an important challenge for infectious disease physicians, in particular if clinical symptoms of the illness are unspecific. In this report Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected directly from a peripheral blood sample of a febrile patient reporting a tick bite by a commercial system based on polymerase chain reaction followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Therefore, the diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis infection was established by this diagnostic methodology for the first time...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525366/mesenchymal-stem-cell-carriers-enhance-antitumor-efficacy-of-oncolytic-adenoviruses-in-an-immunocompetent-mouse-model
#13
Esther Rincón, Teresa Cejalvo, Deepak Kanojia, Arantzazu Alfranca, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez-Milla, Raul Andrés Gil Hoyos, Yu Han, Lingjiao Zhang, Ramón Alemany, Maciej S Lesniak, Javier García-Castro
Oncolytic virotherapy represents a promising alternative for cancer treatment; however, viral delivery to the tumor represents a major challenge. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) chemotax to tumors, and can serve as a viral delivery tool. Previously, we demonstrated antitumor therapeutic efficacy for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) infected with the oncolytic human adenovirus ICOVIR5 (Celyvir) for treatment of neuroblastoma patients. Given the lack of suitable immunocompetent preclinical models, the mechanism underlying Celyvir antitumor activity remains unknown...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525320/sexual-and-reproductive-health-priorities-of-adolescent-girls-in-lagos-nigeria-findings-from-free-listing-interviews
#14
Juliet Iwelunmor, Sarah Blackstone, Ucheoma Nwaozuru, Donaldson Conserve, Patricia Iwelunmor, John E Ehiri
Background Adolescent girls in Nigeria experience a disproportionately high burden of sexual and reproductive health disparities that affect their well-being. Yet, little is known about adolescent girls' own unique perspectives of the sexual and reproductive health challenges they face, and possible solutions to these challenges. Aims To explore top sexual and reproductive health concerns of female adolescents in Nigeria and their perceptions regarding potential solutions to these issues. Methods Eighty adolescent girls attending two public secondary schools in Lagos, Nigeria completed individual free-listing interviews...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522585/herpes-simplex-virus-glycoprotein-d-targets-a-specific-dendritic-cell-subset-and-improves-the-performance-of-vaccines-to-human-papillomavirus-associated-tumors
#15
Bruna F M M Porchia, Ana Carolina R Moreno, Rodrigo N Ramos, Mariana O Diniz, Laís Helena T M de Andrade, Daniela S Rosa, José Alexandre M Barbuto, Silvia B Boscardin, Luís Carlos S Ferreira
Cervical cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in women. Virtually all cases of cervical cancer, as well as a growing share of anal and head/neck tumors, are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Despite the effectiveness, the available prophylactic vaccines do not benefit women with cervical lesions or cancer. Therefore, the search of new immunotherapeutic approaches to treat HPV-induced tumors is still a priority. The present study characterizes a therapeutic antitumor vaccine based on the genetic fusion of the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) with the E7 oncoprotein from HPV-16 (gDE7)...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516860/salmonella-diva-vaccine-reduces-disease-colonization-and-shedding-due-to-virulent-s-typhimurium-infection-in-swine
#16
Bradley L Bearson, Shawn M D Bearson, Brian W Brunelle, Darrell O Bayles, In Soo Lee, Jalusa D Kich
PURPOSE: Non-host-adapted Salmonella serovars, including the common human food-borne pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), are opportunistic pathogens that can colonize food-producing animals without causing overt disease. Interventions against Salmonella are needed to enhance food safety, protect animal health and allow the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). METHODOLOGY: An attenuated S. Typhimurium DIVA vaccine (BBS 866) was characterized for the protection of pigs following challenge with virulent S...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515303/spontaneous-and-vaccine-induced-clearance-of-mus-musculus-papillomavirus-type-1-mmupv1-muspv1-infection
#17
Rosie T Jiang, Joshua W Wang, Shiwen Peng, Tsui-Chin Huang, Chenguang Wang, Fabiana Cannella, Yung-Nien Chang, Raphael P Viscidi, Simon R A Best, Chien-Fu Hung, Richard B S Roden
Mus musculus Papillomavirus1 (MmuPV1/MusPV1) induces persistent papillomas in immunodeficient mice but not common laboratory strains. To facilitate study of immune control, we sought an outbred and immune competent laboratory mouse strain in which persistent papillomas could be established. We found that challenge of SKH1 mice (Crl:SKH1-Hrhr) by scarification on their tail with MmuPV1 resulted in three clinical outcomes: 1) persistent (>2 months) papillomas (∼20%), 2) transient papillomas that spontaneously regress typically within 2 months (∼15%), 3) no visible papillomas and viral clearance (∼65%)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515256/opportunities-and-challenges-human-papillomavirus-and-cancer
#18
Christina S Chu, David G Pfister
Mucosal exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV) can lead to anogenital and head and neck (H&N) cancer. Vaccination at a young age can be almost 100% effective in preventing HPV infection with the viral subtypes in both men and women, at least for disease in the anogenital tract. Therapeutic strategies targeting HPV in cervical dysplasia and cancer are showing promise as well in regressing dysplasia and controlling disease. That HPV-positive H&N cancer is a different disease from HPV-negative disease, with different molecular and clinical features and prognosis, is becoming better appreciated...
May 2017: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515135/not-all-antigens-are-created-equally-progress-challenges-and-lessons-associated-with-developing-a-vaccine-for-leishmaniasis
#19
Malcolm S Duthie, Steven G Reed
From experimental models and the analyses of patients, it is well documented that antigen-specific T cells are critical for protection against Leishmania infection. Effective vaccines require both targeting to the pathogen and an immune stimulant to induce maturation of appropriate immune responses. While a great number of antigens have been examined as vaccine candidates across various Leishmania species, few have advanced to human or canine clinical trials. With emphasis on antigen expression, in this minireview we discuss some the vaccine platforms that are currently being explored for the development of Leishmania vaccines...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515134/identification-of-novel-seroreactive-antigens-in-johne-s-disease-cattle-using-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-protein-array
#20
John P Bannantine, Joseph J Campo, Lingling Li, Arlo Randall, Jozelyn Pablo, Craig A Praul, Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay, Judith R Stabel, Vivek Kapur
Johne's Disease, a chronic gastrointestinal inflammatory disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Map), is endemic in dairy cattle and other ruminants worldwide and remains a challenge to diagnose using traditional serological methods. Given the close phylogenetic relationship between Map and the human pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), we here applied a whole proteome Mtb protein array to identify seroreactive and diagnostic Map antigens. A genome-scale pairwise analysis of amino acid identity between orthologous proteins in Map and Mtb showed an average of 62% identity, with more than half the orthologous proteins sharing > 75% identity...
May 17, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
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