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Infection human challenge

Anna L Funk, Flavie Luce Goutard, Eve Miguel, Mathieu Bourgarel, Veronique Chevalier, Bernard Faye, J S Malik Peiris, Maria D Van Kerkhove, Francois Louis Roger
Nearly 4 years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and more than risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Carlos F Cáceres, Annick Borquez, Jeffrey D Klausner, Rachel Baggaley, Chris Beyrer
BACKGROUND: In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. DISCUSSION: The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Katarzyna A Radomska, Mahdi M Vaezirad, Koen M Verstappen, Marc M S M Wösten, Jaap A Wagenaar, Jos P M van Putten
Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant C. jejuni flagellin-based subunit vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity. Toll-like receptor activation assays demonstrated the purity and TLR5 stimulating (adjuvant) activity of the vaccine...
2016: PloS One
Flavia Petrini, Ida Di Giacinto, Rita Cataldo, Clelia Esposito, Vittorio Pavoni, Paolo Donato, Antonella Trolio, Guido Merli, Massimiliano Sorbello, Paolo Pelosi
Proper management of obese patients requires a team vision and appropriate behaviors by all health care providers in hospital. Specialist competencies are fundamental, as are specific clinical pathways and good clinical practices designed to deal with patients whose body mass index is ≥30 kg/m2. Standards of care for bariatric and non-bariatric surgery and for the critical care management of this population exist but are not well defined nor clearly followed in every hospital. Thus every anesthesiologist is likely to deal with this challenging population...
October 19, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Chao Tan, Jun Wang, Yifang Hu, Peng Wang, Lili Zou
Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two of the most significant opportunistic human pathogens, causing medical implant and nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria contain surface proteins that play crucial roles in multiple biological processes. It has become apparent that they have evolved a number of unique mechanisms by which they can immobilise proteins on their surface. Notably, a conserved cell membrane-anchored enzyme, sortase A (SrtA), can catalyse the covalent attachment of precursor bacterial cell wall-attached proteins to peptidoglycan...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Héloïse M Delagrèverie, Constance Delaugerre, Sharon R Lewin, Steven G Deeks, Jonathan Z Li
In chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, long-lived latently infected cells are the major barrier to virus eradication and functional cure. Several therapeutic strategies to perturb, eliminate, and/or control this reservoir are now being pursued in the clinic. These strategies include latency reversal agents (LRAs) designed to reactivate HIV-1 ribonucleic acid transcription and virus production and a variety of immune-modifying drugs designed to reverse latency, block homeostatic proliferation, and replenish the viral reservoir, eliminate virus-producing cells, and/or control HIV replication after cessation of antiretroviral therapy...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Mariko Yabe, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Sa A Wang, Guilin Tang, Carlos E Bueso-Ramos, Jeffrey L Jorgensen, Govind Bhagat, Weina Chen, Shaoying Li, Ken H Young, Roberto N Miranda
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) is a rare, aggressive T-cell lymphoma that can be challenging to diagnose. In particular, distinguishing HSTCL from T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia of γδ T-cell receptor (TCR) type is difficult without examination of a splenectomy specimen. In this study, we systematically assessed a series of HSTCL cases for findings reported in the literature as supporting or not supporting the diagnosis of HSTCL. We also compared HSTCL with a group of cases of T-LGL of γδ TCR type...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Jay-Hyun Jo, Elizabeth A Kennedy, Heidi H Kong
Skin constantly encounters external elements, including microbes. Culture-based studies have identified fungi present on human skin and have linked some species with certain skin diseases. Moreover, modern medical treatments, especially immunosuppressants, have increased the population at risk for cutaneous and invasive fungal infections, emphasizing the need to understand skin fungal communities in health and disease. A major hurdle for studying fungal flora at a community level has been the heterogeneous culture conditions required by skin fungi...
October 18, 2016: Virulence
Wanbo Tai, Guangyu Zhao, Shihun Sun, Yan Guo, Yufei Wang, Xinrong Tao, Chien-Te K Tseng, Fang Li, Shibo Jiang, Lanying Du, Yusen Zhou
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first identified in 2012, and it continues to threaten human health worldwide. No MERS vaccines are licensed for human use, reinforcing the urgency to develop safe and efficacious vaccines to prevent MERS. MERS-CoV spike protein forms a trimer, and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) serves as a vaccine target. Nevertheless, the protective efficacy of RBD in its native trimeric form has never been evaluated. In this study, a trimeric protein, RBD-Fd, was generated by fusing RBD with foldon trimerization motif...
October 14, 2016: Virology
Richmond Darko, Jessica L Mashburn
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and its associated complications have become a significant public health concern. Zika virus is a Flavivirus, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. In May 2015, the World Health Organization reported the first locally acquired transmission of ZIKV in Brazil, the first case in the Western Hemisphere. There have also been reports of increased incidence of microcephaly and other neurologic complications associated with ZIKV infection, as well as a 20-fold increase in the incidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome during ZIKV outbreaks...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Suman Pradhan, Christine Pellino, Kayleigh MacMaster, Dennis Coyle, Alison A Weiss
Seizures and neurologic involvement have been reported in patients infected with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli, and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with neurologic involvement is associated with more severe outcome. We investigated the extent of renal and neurologic damage in mice following injection of the highly potent form of Stx, Stx2a, and less potent Stx1. As observed in previous studies, Stx2a brought about moderate to acute tubular necrosis of proximal and distal tubules in the kidneys. Brain sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) appeared normal, although some red blood cell congestion was observed...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ming Sun, Yue Li, Huiwen Zheng, Yiming Shao
The recent discoveries of broadly potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies represent a new generation of antiretrovirals for the treatment and prophylaxis. Antibodies are generally considered more effective and safer and have been proved to provide passive protection against mucosal challenge in humanized mice and macaques. Several neutralizing Abs could protect animals against HIV-1 but are not effective when used in an established infected model for therapy. In order to overcome the limitation of antiviral activities, multiple antibody-engineering technologies have been explored to generate "the better" neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 since bNAbs attack viral entry by various mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Laura A Thompson, Tracy A Romano
Increased pressure, associated with diving, can alter cell function through several mechanisms and has been shown to impact immune functions performed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in humans. While marine mammals possess specific adaptations which protect them from dive related injury, it is unknown how their immune system is adapted to the challenges associated with diving. The purpose of this study was to measure PBMC activation (IL2R expression) and Concanavalin A induced lymphocyte proliferation (BrdU incorporation) in belugas following in vitro pressure exposures during baseline, Out of Water Examination (OWE) and capture/release conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Annie Elong Ngono, Hui-Wen Chen, William W Tang, Yunichel Joo, Kevin King, Daniela Weiskopf, John Sidney, Alessandro Sette, Sujan Shresta
Infection with one of the four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4) presumably leads to lifelong immunity against the infecting serotype but not against heterotypic reinfection, resulting in a greater risk of developing Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS) during secondary infection. Both antibodies and T cell responses have been implicated in DHF/DSS pathogenesis. According to the T cell-based hypothesis termed "original antigenic sin," secondary DENV infection is dominated by non-protective, cross-reactive T cells that elicit an aberrant immune response...
October 7, 2016: EBioMedicine
Paul M Arnaboldi, Mariya Sambir, Christina D'Arco, Lauren A Peters, Jos F M L Seegers, Lloyd Mayer, Alison A McCormick, Raymond J Dattwyler
Yersinia pestis, one of history's deadliest pathogens, has killed millions over the course of human history. It has attributes that make it an ideal choice to produce mass casualties and is a prime candidate for use as a biological weapon. When aerosolized, Y. pestis causes pneumonic plague, a pneumonia that is 100% lethal if not promptly treated with effective antibiotics. Currently, there is no FDA approved plague vaccine. The current lead vaccine candidate, a parenterally administered protein subunit vaccine comprised of the Y...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
Jianbin Wang, Michael C Holmes
The battle with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been ongoing for more than 30 years, and although progress has been made, there are still significant challenges remaining. A few unique features render HIV to be one of the toughest viruses to conquer in the modern medicine era, such as the ability to target the host immune system, persist by integrating into the host genome and adapt to a hostile environment such as a single anti-HIV medication by continuously evolving. The finding of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) about 2 decades ago has transformed the treatment options for HIV-infected patients and significantly improved patient outcomes...
November 2016: Cytotherapy
Houlin Tang, Zunyou Wu, Yurong Mao, Javier Cepeda, Jamie Morano
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and condom use have been proven to reduce the risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among HIV sero-different couples, but its full implementation remains a challenge. This study aims to assess HIV seroconversion rate of HIV-negative spouse and its associated risk factors among HIV sero-different couples in rural China. METHODS: An open cohort of HIV sero-different couples enrolled in 30 counties in China between October 1, 2010, and September 30, 2012, and followed-up to December 31, 2012, was constructed retrospectively...
2016: PloS One
Jenny Knapp, Benoît Combes, Gérald Umhang, Soufiane Aknouche, Laurence Millon
Echinococcus multilocularis, a cestode parasite responsible for alveolar echinococcosis in humans, is often reported in Europe. It involves red foxes, domestic dogs, and domestic and wild cats as definitive hosts. The parasite infects small mammals and accidentally humans as intermediate hosts and develops in a similar way to a tumor, usually in the liver. Domestic animals are suspected of playing a role in parasite transmission, but this is rarely proven. Moreover, the role of domestic cats is thought to be small, because of experimental studies showing incomplete development of the parasite observed in their intestines...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
R C Bernhards, C K Cote, K Amemiya, D M Waag, C P Klimko, P L Worsham, S L Welkos
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Burkholderia mallei (Bm), the agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively, are Tier 1 biothreats. They infect humans and animals, causing disease ranging from acute and fatal to protracted and chronic. Chronic infections are especially challenging to treat, and the identification of in vitro phenotypic markers which signal progression from acute to persistent infection would be extremely valuable. First, a phenotyping strategy was developed employing colony morphotyping, chemical sensitivity testing, macrophage infection, and lipopolysaccharide fingerprint analyses to distinguish Burkholderia strains...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Chamraj Kaewraemruaen, Rasana W Sermswan, Surasakdi Wongratanacheewin
Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg)...
October 11, 2016: Acta Tropica
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