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Antimicrobial susceptibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634536/telavancin-a-novel-semisynthetic-lipoglycopeptide-agent-to-counter-the-challenge-of-resistant-gram-positive-pathogens
#1
REVIEW
Biswadeep Das, Chayna Sarkar, Debasmita Das, Amit Gupta, Arnav Kalra, Shubham Sahni
Telavancin (TD-6424), a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide vancomycin-derivative, is a novel antimicrobial agent developed by Theravance for overcoming resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections, specifically methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) had approved telavancin in 2009 for the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA (S. aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus anginosus group, or Enterococcus faecalis)...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632835/-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-directly-from-positive-blood-cultures-using-the-vitek-2-system-comparison-of-two-rapid-protocols
#2
Lorena Porte, Francesca Gattini, Carmen Varela, Thomas Weitzel
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Vitek® 2 (bioMérieux) cards inoculated directly from positive blood cultures was compared with the standard method for gramnegative rods. Two different protocols for the inoculum preparation were evaluated. Protocol 2 was faster and easier to perform. Rapid susceptibility testing was accurate and reduced time to results in 24 h.
April 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632482/staff-associate-specialist-and-specialty-doctors-national-audit-on-the-management-of-gonorrhoea-in-the-united-kingdom-2015
#3
Helen Mullan, Jane Richards, John Lee
The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) revised United Kingdom national guideline for the management of gonorrhoea in adults, 2011, identified five auditable outcome measures, namely, that all patients should receive first-line treatment, be screened or treated for chlamydial infection, have a test of cure (TOC), be offered written information and have partner notification carried out. The UK National Guideline for Gonorrhoea Testing, Clinical Effectiveness Group, BASHH, 2012, recommended in addition that all reactive nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) from pharynx and rectum should be confirmed by supplementary testing, using a second NAAT which detects a different nucleic acid target, all those with a positive NAAT for gonorrhoea should have culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and that TOC should be done by two weeks...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631909/-characterization-of-microbial-flora-in-patients-suspected-of-having-urogenital-tuberculosis
#4
A G Cherednichenko, E V Kulchavenya
INTRODUCTION: In the structure of tuberculosis morbidity, urogenital tuberculosis (UGT) ranks second or third only to pulmonary tuberculosis. Every fourth patient has the stage of cavern formation at first presentation. Seventy five percent of nephrotuberculosis cases co-occur with nonspecific pyelonephritis, which excludes "sterile pyuria". We aimed to determine the microbial spectrum of urine and gonadal appendages in patients with suspected UGT and to investigate the susceptibility of the isolated microorganisms to the main antibacterial drugs...
June 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631638/clinicomicrobiological-profile-of-endophthalmitis-a-10-year-experience-in-a-tertiary-care-center-in-north-india
#5
Gita Satpathy, Niranjan Nayak, Meenakshi Wadhwani, Pradeep Venkwatesh, Atul Kumar, Yograj Sharma, Vishnu Sreenivas
PURPOSE: To determine the clinicomicrobiological profile of infectious agents and their antibiotic susceptibility in different type of endophthalmitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of clinical and microbiological records from January 2001 to December 2010, was performed in 1110 patients diagnosed with different type of endophthalmitis (postoperative, posttraumatic, endogenous and post keratitis) to record the demographic details, clinical presentations; microbiological agents isolated with their antimicrobial sensitivity pattern...
April 2017: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630628/staphylococcus-saprophyticus-recovered-from-humans-food-and-recreational-waters-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#6
Viviane Santos de Sousa, Ana Paula de Souza da-Silva, Leif Sorenson, Raphael Paiva Paschoal, Renata Fernandes Rabello, Eloiza Helena Campana, Márcia Soares Pinheiro, Lyssa Oliveira Ferreira Dos Santos, Natacha Martins, Ana Carolina Nunes Botelho, Renata Cristina Picão, Sérgio Eduardo Longo Fracalanzza, Lee Woodland Riley, George Sensabaugh, Beatriz Meurer Moreira
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is an important agent of urinary tract infection (UTI) in young women, but information about this pathogen in human microbiota and in common environment is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize S. saprophyticus isolates from genitoanal microbiota of 621 pregnant women, 10 minas cheese packs, and five beaches in Rio de Janeiro city and compare PFGE profiles of these isolates with five UTI PFGE clusters described in this city. We investigated 65 S. saprophyticus isolates from microbiota, 13 from minas cheese, and 30 from beaches and 32 UTI isolates...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630196/antimicrobial-susceptibility-trends-among-staphylococcus-aureus-from-united-states-hospitals-results-from-7-years-of-the-ceftaroline-aware-surveillance-program-2010-2016
#7
Helio S Sader, Rodrigo E Mendes, Jennifer M Streit, Robert K Flamm
We evaluated trends in Staphylococcus aureus antimicrobial susceptibility in United States hospitals in the 2010-2016 period. A total of 21,056 clinical isolates from 42 medical centers were tested for susceptibility by broth microdilution methods. MRSA rates decreased from 50.0% (2010) to 42.2% (2016). Susceptibility to erythromycin, levofloxacin, and clindamycin increased slightly, whereas susceptibility to ceftaroline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline remained stable. Ceftaroline retained potent activity against MSSA and MRSA (97...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630195/topical-antimicrobial-treatments-can-elicit-shifts-to-resident-skin-bacterial-communities-and-reduce-colonization-by-staphylococcus-aureus-competitors
#8
Adam J SanMiguel, Jacquelyn S Meisel, Joseph Horwinski, Qi Zheng, Elizabeth A Grice
The skin microbiome is a complex ecosystem with important implications for cutaneous health and disease. Topical antibiotics and antiseptics are often employed to preserve the balance of this population, and inhibit colonization by more pathogenic bacteria. Despite their widespread use, however, the impact of these interventions on broader microbial communities remains poorly understood. Here we report the longitudinal effects of topical antibiotics and antiseptics on skin bacterial communities and their role in Staphylococcus aureus colonization resistance...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630192/in-vitro-activity-of-aztreonam-avibactam-against-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-by-clinical-laboratories-in-40-countries-from-2012-to-2015
#9
James A Karlowsky, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Boudewijn L M de Jonge, Meredith A Hackel, Daniel F Sahm, Patricia A Bradford
The combination of the monobactam, aztreonam, and the non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, avibactam, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of serious infections caused by metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, a difficult to treat subtype of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae for which therapeutic options are currently very limited. The present study tested clinically significant isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n=51,352) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=11,842) collected from hospitalized patients in 208 medical center laboratories from 40 countries from 2012 to 2015 for in vitro susceptibility to aztreonam-avibactam, aztreonam, and comparator antimicrobial agents using standard broth microdilution methodology...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630127/deciphering-function-of-new-gonococcal-vaccine-antigens-using-phenotypic-microarrays
#10
Benjamin I Baarda, Sarah Emerson, Philip J Proteau, Aleksandra E Sikora
The function and extracellular location of cell envelope proteins make them attractive candidates for developing vaccines against bacterial diseases, including challenging, drug-resistant pathogens such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteomics-driven reverse vaccinology delivered multiple gonorrhea vaccine candidates; however, the biological functions of many of them remain to be elucidated. Herein, the functions of six gonorrhea vaccine candidates - NGO2121, NGO1985, NGO2054, NGO2111, NGO1205, and NGO1344 - in cell envelope homeostasis were probed using phenotype microarrays with 1,056 conditions and a ΔbamE mutant (Δngo1780) as a reference of perturbed outer membrane integrity...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629721/a-16-year-retrospective-surveillance-report-on-the-pathogenic-features-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-from-fahju-in-guangzhou-representative-of-southern-china
#11
Jinhong Xie, Ling Yang, Brian M Peters, Lequn Chen, Dingqiang Chen, Bing Li, Lin Li, Guangchao Yu, Zhenbo Xu, Mark E Shirtliff
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. A 16-year retrospective report from 2000 to 2015 was conducted to assess the antimicrobial resistance of P. aeruginosa in Southern China. A total of 1387 P. aeruginosa were collected from inpatients and outpatients. Susceptibility testing results were interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI, 2015). Piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, aminoglycosides and carbapenems remained to be active against P...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629366/molecular-characterization-of-clinical-imp-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates-from-a-chinese-tertiary-hospital
#12
Kaisheng Lai, Yanning Ma, Ling Guo, Jingna An, Liyan Ye, Jiyong Yang
BACKGROUND: IMP-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (IMPKpn) exhibits sporadic prevalence in China. The mechanisms related to the spread of IMPKpn remain unclear. METHODS: Carbapenem non-susceptible K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from our hospital. The genetic relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility, as well as sequence types (ST) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), VITEK 2 AST test Kit, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), respectively...
June 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628752/high-prevalence-of-resistance-to-fluoroquinolones-and-tetracycline-campylobacter-spp-isolated-from-poultry-in-poland
#13
Anna Woźniak-Biel, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska, Alicja Kielsznia, Kamila Korzekwa, Anna Tobiasz, Agnieszka Korzeniowska-Kowal, Alina Wieliczko
Campylobacter spp. is a major cause of foodborne diseases in humans, particularly when transmitted by the handling or consumption of undercooked poultry meat. Most Campylobacter infections are self-limiting, but antimicrobial treatment (e.g., fluoroquinolones and macrolides) is necessary in severe or prolonged cases. The indiscriminate use of these drugs, both in clinical medicine and animal production, has a major impact on public health. The aim of the present study was to identify Campylobacter strains, isolated from turkey and broilers, using both PCR and the matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) methods to reveal the accuracy of identification, as well to evaluate the antimicrobial and genetic resistance of the investigated strains...
June 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628280/combination-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-for-acute-exacerbations-in-chronic-infection-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-cystic-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Valerie Waters, Felix Ratjen
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy for acute pulmonary exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis is usually chosen based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of individual drugs. Combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing assesses the efficacy of drug combinations including two or three antibiotics in vitro and can often demonstrate antimicrobial efficacy against bacterial isolates even when individual antibiotics have little or no effect. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on combination antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment in people with cystic fibrosis with acute exacerbations...
June 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627490/genotyping-and-antimicrobial-resistance-genes-of-yersinia-ruckeri-isolates-from-rainbow-trout-farms
#15
Muhammed Duman, Soner Altun, Murat Cengiz, Izzet Burcin Saticioglu, Ayse Gul Buyukekiz, Pinar Sahinturk
In this study, we compared 142 Yersinia ruckeri isolates collected between 2013 and 2016 from 6 different regions in Turkey. A total of 18 different genogroups were found, though most of the isolates clustered into the same genogroup as serotype O1. As immunization of fish with inactivated Y. ruckeri by injection, immersion, or feeding provide minimal protection against Y. ruckeri infection in Turkey, many fish producers use antimicrobials unrestrictedly, resulting in antimicrobial resistance in aquatic pathogens...
June 19, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626738/streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-prevalence-and-antibiotic-resistance-among-young-children-with-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-experience-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-south-india
#16
Savitha Nagaraj, Bhuvanesh Sukhlal Kalal, Anand Manoharan, Anita Shet
INTRODUCTION: We performed a study to describe the clinical profile, antimicrobial susceptibility and prevalent serotypes of pneumococcal isolates from children with suspected invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) admitted to a tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS: Hospitalized children, ≤ 5 years with fever (>38 °C); increased respiratory rate or neurological symptoms were recruited, (as part of the Alliance for Surveillance of Invasive Pneumococci - ASIP - project) from January 2011 to March 2013...
June 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626571/integrative-approach-for-the-analysis-of-the-proteome-wide-response-to-bismuth-drugs-in-helicobacter-pylori
#17
Yuchuan Wang, Ligang Hu, Feng Xu, Quan Quan, Yau-Tsz Lai, Wei Xia, Ya Yang, Yuen-Yan Chang, Xinming Yang, Zhifang Chai, Junwen Wang, Ivan K Chu, Hongyan Li, Hongzhe Sun
Bismuth drugs, despite being clinically used for decades, surprisingly remain in use and effective for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, even for resistant strains when co-administrated with antibiotics. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinically sustained susceptibility of H. pylori to bismuth drugs remain elusive. Herein, we report that integration of in-house metalloproteomics and quantitative proteomics allows comprehensive uncovering of the bismuth-associated proteomes, including 63 bismuth-binding and 119 bismuth-regulated proteins from Helicobacter pylori, with over 60% being annotated with catalytic functions...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625800/arsenic-alters-transcriptional-responses-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-and-decreases-antimicrobial-defense-of-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#18
B C Goodale, E J Rayack, B A Stanton
Arsenic contamination of drinking water and food threatens the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide by increasing the risk of numerous diseases. Arsenic exposure has been associated with infectious lung disease in epidemiological studies, but it is not yet understood how ingestion of low levels of arsenic increases susceptibility to bacterial infection. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to examine the effect of arsenic on gene expression in primary human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and to determine if arsenic altered epithelial cell responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen...
June 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624285/short-communication-%C3%AE-lactam-resistance-and-vancomycin-heteroresistance-in-staphylococcus-spp-isolated-from-bovine-subclinical-mastitis
#19
Priscila Luiza Mello, Luiza Pinheiro, Lisiane de Almeida Martins, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva Brito, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha
The use of antimicrobial agents has led to the emergence of resistant bacterial strains over a relatively short period. Furthermore, Staphylococcus spp. can produce β-lactamase, which explains the survival of these strains in a focus of infection despite the use of a β-lactam antibiotic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis to oxacillin and vancomycin (by minimum inhibitory concentration) and to detect vancomycin heteroresistance by a screening method...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623856/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-phylogenetic-analysis-of-propionibacterium-acnes-isolated-from-acne-patients-in-japan-between-2013-and-2015
#20
Keisuke Nakase, Nobukazu Hayashi, Yui Akiyama, Sae Aoki, Norihisa Noguchi
The prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains isolated from acne patients has been increasing in Japan. Here, to estimate the current resistance rate, we tested antimicrobial susceptibility among P. acnes from acne patients having visited a specialized dermatology clinic between 2013 and 2015. Rates of resistance to macrolides and clindamycin were 44.3 (31/70) and 38.6% (27/70), respectively. erm(X), which confers high-level clindamycin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥256 μg/mL), was detected in six isolates, whereas no resistance determinants were identified in eight strains showing high-level resistance to clindamycin...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
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