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Antimicrobial susceptibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346844/inactivation-of-i-clostridium-difficile-i-spore-outgrowth-by-synergistic-effects-of-nisin-and-lysozyme
#1
Changhoon Chai, Kyung-Soo Lee, Goo-Sang Imm, Young Soon Kim, Se-Wook Oh
Inactivating <i>Clostridium difficile</i> spores is difficult, as they are resistant to heat, chemicals, and antimicrobials. However, this note describes inactivation of <i>C. difficile</i> spore outgrowth by incubation in a solution containing a germinant (1% w/v sodium taurocholate), co-germinants (1% w/v tryptose and 1% w/v NaCl), and natural antimicrobials (20 nM nisin and 0.2 mM lysozyme). <i>C. difficile</i> spores were resistant to nisin and lysozyme but became susceptible during germination and outgrowth triggered and promoted by sodium taurocholate, tryptose, and NaCl...
March 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346546/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-multilocus-sequence-typing-of-mycoplasma-capricolum-subsp-capricolum
#2
Juan Tatay-Dualde, Miranda Prats-van der Ham, Christian de la Fe, Ana Paterna, Antonio Sánchez, Juan Carlos Corrales, Antonio Contreras, Sebastiana Tola, Ángel Gómez-Martin
Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum is one of the causative agents of contagious agalactia (CA). Nevertheless, there is still a lack of information about its antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characteristics. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial and genetic variability of different Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum field isolates. For this purpose, the growth inhibition effect of 18 antimicrobials and a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme based on five housekeeping genes (fusA, glpQ, gyrB, lepA and rpoB) were performed on 32 selected field isolates from Italy and Spain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346512/bacterial-and-viral-pathogen-spectra-of-acute-respiratory-infections-in-under-5-children-in-hospital-settings-in-dhaka-city
#3
Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain, Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Asifuzzaman Rahat, Md Tarikul Islam, Tanjina Noor Haque, Noorjahan Begum, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, A K M Muraduzzaman, Nafisa Nawal Islam, Mohammad Sazzadul Islam, Nusrat Sultana, Manjur Hossain Khan Jony, Farhana Khanam, Golam Mowla, Abdul Matin, Firoza Begum, Tahmina Shirin, Dilruba Ahmed, Narayan Saha, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
The study aimed to examine for the first time the spectra of viral and bacterial pathogens along with the antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in under-5 children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in hospital settings of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Nasal swabs were collected from 200 under-five children hospitalized with clinical signs of ARIs. Nasal swabs from 30 asymptomatic children were also collected. Screening of viral pathogens targeted ten respiratory viruses using RT-qPCR. Bacterial pathogens were identified by bacteriological culture methods and antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was determined following CLSI guidelines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345794/the-relationship-between-the-biovars-and-the-antimicrobial-resistance-of-ureaplasma-urealyticum-in-female-patients-with-urogenital-infections
#4
Yan Zhang, Chuan Hua, Su-Li Li
BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma urealyticum is considered as one of the main pathogens found in women with urogenital infection. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the biovars, serovars, and their antimicrobial resistance against antibiotics in female patients with urogenital infection. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six cervical secretion samples (125 female outpatients as the patient group, 121 healthy female subjects as the control group) were first collected and analyzed for U...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345529/diversity-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-rods
#5
Patrycja Zalas-Więcek, Tomasz Bogiel, Krzysztof Wiśniewski, Eugenia Gospodarek-Komkowska
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate genetic relatedness and antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli strains isolated from patients hospitalized in the University Hospital in Bydgoszcz (Poland). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 33 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli strains isolated from 31 patients. The chromosomal DNA was extracted from the strains and separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis...
March 27, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344783/retrospective-report-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-observed-in-bacterial-pathogens-isolated-from-ocular-samples-at-mount-sinai-hospital-2010-to-2015
#6
Marko Oydanich, Tanis C Dingle, Camille L Hamula, Claudia Ghisa, Penny Asbell
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major threat to global public health. Thus, the surveillance of changes in antimicrobial resistance in local and global settings is a paramount necessity. While many studies have tracked antimicrobial resistance, only a small percentage surveyed ocular isolates. The purpose of this study was to report the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples in New York, NY from 2010 to 2015. METHODS: A retrospective review of ocular isolates was conducted...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344161/cross-resistance-to-human-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-and-to-polymyxins-mediated-by-the-plasmid-encoded-mcr-1
#7
Jan Dobias, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether acquired resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) group molecules, being normal components of the human immune system, may select co-resistance to antibiotic peptides such as polymyxins, considering they share the same mechanism of action. We aimed to evaluate strains producing the recently identified plasmid-encoded polymyxin resistance determinant MCR-1, which is a phosphoethanolamine transferase that modifies the lipopolysaccharide structure of Gram-negative bacteria...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343444/a-pilot-study-for-antimicrobial-stewardship-post-discharge
#8
Justin M Jones, Nathan D Leedahl, Ashley Losing, Paul J Carson, David D Leedahl
PURPOSE: Lack of patient follow-up is a major concern during care transitions, and the role of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) in assessing antimicrobial regimens after hospital discharge is not well described. We implemented an expanded ASP to include patients recently discharged from the hospital and measured its impact on inappropriate antimicrobial therapy 72 hours after inpatient culture data were finalized. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a 583-bed tertiary care center in the Upper Midwest of America...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343232/genetic-polymorphisms-in-defb1-and-mirna202-are-involved-in-salivary-human-%C3%AE-defensin-1-levels-and-caries-experience-in-children
#9
Andrea Lips, Leonardo Santos Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Antunes, Júlia Guimarães Barcellos de Abreu, Driely Barreiros, Daniela Silva Barroso de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Batista, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva, Gutemberg Gomes Alves, Erika Calvano Küchler
The antimicrobial peptides human β-defensins (hBDs) are encoded by β-defensin genes (DEFBs) and are possibly involved in caries susceptibility. In this study we aimed (1) to investigate the relationship between salivary hBDs and caries and (2) to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms in DEFB1 and microRNA202 (miRNA202) with salivary levels of hBDs and caries experience. Two data sets were available for this study, totalizing 678 Brazilian children. Dental examination and saliva collection were performed in all included children...
March 25, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343210/periodic-fever-aphthous-stomatitis-pharyngitis-and-cervical-adenitis-pfapa-syndrome-in-children
#10
Vira B Semianchuk
INTRODUCTION: Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome refers to a group of primary immunodeficiencies, namely autoinflammatory diseases. Most pediatricians and otolaryngologists do not suspect PFAPA syndrome when treating recurrent pharyngitis (according to Ukrainian classification - tonsillitis) and stomatitis. Therefore, patients with a given syndrome receive unnecessary treatment (antibiotic therapy or antiviral drugs) and the diagnosis is made late...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342095/-advances-in-diagnostic-microbiology-opportunities-and-limitations
#11
F P Maurer, M Hentschke, H Rohde
In the light of ever increasing problems related to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, rapid microbiological diagnostics are of growing importance. Timely pathogen detection and availability of susceptibility data are essential for optimal treatment, but are even more crucial for de-escalation of broad spectrum empiric therapies. Medical microbiology is, thus, an integral part of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Traditional microbiological techniques for species identification and susceptibility testing rely on bacterial growth and are, thus, characterized by inherent slowness...
March 24, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341550/sphingosine-s-role-in-epithelial-host-defense-a-natural-antimicrobial-and-novel-therapeutic
#12
Grace E Martin, Ryan M Boudreau, Caroline Couch, Katrin Anne Becker, Michael J Edwards, Charles C Caldwell, Erich Gulbins, Aaron Seitz
Sphingosine is a natural sphingolipid found in membranes of all eukaryotic cells. In addition to its functions in cell signaling, sphingosine has broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. Sphingosine's role as an antimicrobial is important in tissues such as the skin and respiratory epithelium. Reduction in the normal sphingosine level is associated with problems related to infection susceptibility. Exogenous sphingosine may, therefore, be an effective antimicrobial therapeutic. Inhaled nebulized sphingosine has been shown to be effective at both preventing and treating pneumonia in multiple mouse models...
March 21, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341098/antimicrobial-activity-of-tigecycline-and-cefoperazone-sulbactam-tested-against-18-386-gram-negative-organisms-from-europe-and-the-asia-pacific-region-2013-2014
#13
M A Pfaller, R K Flamm, L R Duncan, R E Mendes, R N Jones, H S Sader
A total of 18,386 organisms, including 13,224 Enterobacteriaceae, 3536 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 1254 Acinetobacter spp., and 372Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were collected from Western Europe (WEU; n=10,021), Eastern Europe (EEU; n=4957), and the Asia-Pacific region (APAC; n=3408 [1052 from China]) in 2013-2014 as part of the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program and tested by a reference broth microdilution method for susceptibility against tigecycline, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and comparator agents. Overall, 95...
March 6, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341068/clinical-characteristics-of-pyogenic-flexor-tenosynovitis-in-pediatric-patients
#14
Christopher M Brusalis, Stephanie Thibaudeau, Robert B Carrigan, Ines C Lin, Benjamin Chang, Apurva S Shah
PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical presentation, common pathogens, antimicrobial susceptibility, and treatment methods associated with pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis (PFT) in pediatric patients. METHODS: Patients who underwent surgical treatment for PFT at a large tertiary-care children's hospital between 2001 and 2015 were identified. Descriptive summary statistics were reported on patient demographics, presenting symptoms and clinical examination features, culture results, treatment strategies, and early complications...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340858/corrigendum-to-analysis-of-discrepant-results-between-the-genotype-%C3%A2-mtbdrplus-assay-and-an-antimicrobial-susceptibility-test-for-isoniazid-resistant-tuberculosis-respiratory-med-122-january-2017-12-17
#15
Kyung-Wook Jo, Yoomi Yeo, Heungsup Sung, Mi-Na Kim, Tae Sun Shim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339845/expanded-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-chickens-with-colibacillosis-in-egypt
#16
D A El-Shazly, S A Nasef, F F Mahmoud, Daniel Jonas
Throughout the world, expanded spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) are increasing among clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, both in humans and animals. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data on ESBL or Ampicillin class C β-lactamase (AmpC) in Egypt, although antimicrobial consumption is high in this developing country. This study aims to characterize the resistance mechanisms to expanded spectrum cephalosporins among resistant veterinary Escherichia coli isolates in Egypt. We investigated 50 clinical multi-resistant E...
February 23, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339496/correction-the-tir-homologue-lies-near-resistance-genes-in-staphylococcus-aureus-coupling-modulation-of-virulence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility
#17
Sabine Patot, Paul R C Imbert, Jessica Baude, Patricia Martins Simões, Jean-Baptiste Campergue, Arthur Louche, Reindert Nijland, Michèle Bès, Anne Tristan, Frédéric Laurent, Adrien Fischer, Jacques Schrenzel, François Vandenesch, Suzana P Salcedo, Patrice François, Gérard Lina
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006092.].
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336675/evolving-risk-factors-and-antibiotic-sensitivity-patterns-for-microbial-keratitis-at-a-large-county-hospital
#18
Haoxing Jin, Walter T Parker, Nathan W Law, Cameron L Clarke, Jordan D Gisseman, Stephen C Pflugfelder, Li Wang, Zaina N Al-Mohtaseb
Purpose: To identify the risk factors, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibility and outcomes of microbial keratitis in a large county hospital in Houston, Texas. Design: Case series. METHODS: Setting: A large county hospital in Houston, Texas. Study Population: Patients with known diagnosis of microbial keratitis from January 2011 to May 2015. Observation Procedure: Retrospective chart review. Main Outcomes: Epidemiology, risk factors, outcomes and antibiotic susceptibility of microbial keratitis...
March 23, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336136/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-2906-pseudomonasaeruginosa-clinical-isolates-obtained-from-patients-in-canadian-hospitals-over-a-period-of-8-years-results-of-the-canadian-ward-surveillance-study-canward-2008-2015
#19
Andrew Walkty, Philippe Lagace-Wiens, Heather Adam, Melanie Baxter, James Karlowsky, Michael R Mulvey, Melissa McCracken, George G Zhanel
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important nosocomial pathogen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates obtained from inpatients and outpatients at hospitals across Canada from January 2008 to December 2015 (CANWARD Study). Susceptibility testing was performed using broth microdilution, as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. In total, 2906 P. aeruginosa isolates were evaluated. The percentage of isolates susceptible to common antipseudomonal antimicrobials was: colistin 94...
January 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336135/high-prevalence-of-non-clonal-imipenem-nonsusceptible-enterobacter-spp-isolates-in-korea-and-their-association-with-porin-down-regulation
#20
Ji-Young Lee, Yoon-Kyoung Hong, Haejeong Lee, Kwan Soo Ko
We investigated the prevalence and clonal distribution of imipenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter clinical isolates from hospitals in Korea and the contributions of various mechanisms to imipenem nonsusceptibility. The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility to imipenem of 357 non-duplicated Enterobacter isolates obtained from eight geographically distant tertiary care hospitals in Korea was evaluated. Imipenem-nonsusceptible Enterobacter isolates were genotyped. Additionally, β-lactamase genes were screened using PCR, and the expression of efflux pump and porin genes was investigated using quantitative RT-PCR...
January 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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