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Antimicrobial susceptibility

Ivana Mareković, Zrinka Bošnjak, Karla Jurić, Mario Ćorić, Sanja Popović-Grle
Nitroxoline (NTX), 5-nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline is an oral antibiotic with mechanism of bacteriostatic activity that is based on chelation of divalent cations required for bacterial RNA polymerase. Susceptibility to NTX of 100 Escherichia coli urine isolates was determined at the Department of Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, University Hospital Centre Zagreb during September and October 2017. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disc diffusion and the results were interpreted according to the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) standards...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Chemotherapy
Amelia K Sofjan, Benjamin O Casey, Boxin A Xu, Jonathan Amadio, Alejandro Restrepo, M Jahangir Alam, Kevin W Garey
BACKGROUND: The Accelerate PhenoTestTM BC kit (AXDX) provides rapid organism identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) results. Its potential role for antimicrobial stewardship is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of AXDX with conventional methods (CMs) and assess AXDX's potential role for antimicrobial stewardship in patients with Gram-positive bloodstream infections (BSIs). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included adults with Staphylococcus aureus or Enterococcus spp BSIs from July 2014 to January 2016 at a tertiary care medical center...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Vikas C Ghattargi, Yogesh S Nimonkar, Shaunak A Burse, Dimple Davray, Shreyas V Kumbhare, Sudarshan A Shetty, Meghana A Gaikwad, Mangesh V Suryavanshi, Swapnil P Doijad, Bhimashankar Utage, Om Prakash Sharma, Yogesh S Shouche, Bharati S Meti, Shrikant P Pawar
The human gut microbiome plays a crucial role in human health and efforts need to be done for cultivation and characterisation of bacteria with potential health benefits. Here, we isolated a bacterium from a healthy Indian adult faeces and investigated its potential as probiotic. The cultured bacterial strain 17OM39 was identified as Enterococcus faecium by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The strain 17OM39 exhibited tolerance to acidic pH, showed antimicrobial activity and displayed strong cell surface traits such as hydrophobicity and autoaggregation capacity...
March 19, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Alexandre Luscher, Lucile Moynié, Pamela Saint Auguste, Dirk Bumann, Lena Mazza, Daniel Pletzer, James H Naismith, Thilo Köhler
The conjugation of siderophores to antimicrobial molecules is an attractive strategy to overcome the low outer membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria. In this Trojan horse approach the transport of drug conjugates is redirected via TonB-dependent receptors (TBDR), involved in the uptake of essential nutrients including iron. Previous reports have demonstrated the involvement of the TBDRs PiuA and PirA from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their orthologues in Acinetobacter baumannii in the uptake of siderophore-beta-lactam drug conjugates...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Francesca Forti, Dwayne R Roach, Marco Cafora, Maria E Pasini, David S Horner, Ersilia V Fiscarelli, Martina Rossitto, Lisa Cariani, Federica Briani, Laurent Debarbieux, Daniela Ghisotti
The alarming diffusion of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacterial strains requires investigations on non-antibiotic therapies. Amongst them, the use of bacteriophages (phages) as antimicrobial agents, namely phage therapy, is a promising treatment strategy with support by recent successful compassionate treatments in Europe and the U.S.A. In this work, we combined host range and genomic information to design a 6-phage cocktail killing several clinical strains of P. aeruginosa , including those collected from Italian cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and analyzed the cocktail performance...
March 19, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Bahare Salehi, Hossein Goudarzi, Bahram Nikmanesh, Hamidreza Houri, Mostafa Alavi-Moghaddam, Zohreh Ghalavand
RATIONALE: Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the antibiotic-resistant superbugs that threatens hospitalized patients. Emergence and spread of the multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) clones cause erratic outbreaks following environmental contamination of hospital settings. OBJECTIVE: The present study intended to characterize the antimicrobial resistant profiles and the genotypes of clinical and environmental isolates of A. baumannii as a result of dissemination of resistant strains...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Yoshio Takesue, Shinya Kusachi, Hiroshige Mikamo, Junko Sato, Akira Watanabe, Hiroshi Kiyota, Satoshi Iwata, Mitsuo Kaku, Hideaki Hanaki, Yoshinobu Sumiyama, Yuko Kitagawa, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Takashi Ueda, Motoi Uchino, Toru Mizuguchi, Yoshiyasu Ambo, Masafumi Konosu, Keiichiro Ishibashi, Akihisa Matsuda, Kazuo Hase, Yasushi Harihara, Koji Okabayashi, Shiko Seki, Takuo Hara, Koshi Matsui, Yoichi Matsuo, Minako Kobayashi, Shoji Kubo, Kazuhisa Uchiyama, Junzo Shimizu, Ryohei Kawabata, Hiroki Ohge, Shinji Akagi, Masaaki Oka, Toshiro Wakatsuki, Katsunori Suzuki, Kohji Okamoto, Katsunori Yanagihara
The principle of empirical therapy for patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAI) should include antibiotics with activity against Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides fragilis group species. Coverage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus faecalis is also recommended for hospital-associated IAI. A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from postoperative IAI. All 504 isolates were collected at 26 institutions and referred to a central laboratory for susceptibility testing...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
David W Dowdy, Grant Theron, Jeffrey A Tornheim, Robin Warren, Emily A Kendall
A novel, shorter-course regimen for treating multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis was recently recommended by the World Health Organization. However, the most appropriate use of drug susceptibility testing (DST) to support this regimen is less clear. Implementing countries must therefore often choose between using a standardized regimen despite high levels of underlying drug resistance or require more stringent DST prior to treatment initiation. The former carries a high likelihood of exposing patients to de facto monotherapy with a critical drug class (fluoroquinolones), whereas the latter could exclude large groups of patients from their most effective treatment option...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Calliandra Maria de-Souza-Silva, Fernanda Guilhelmelli, Daniel Zamith-Miranda, Marco Antônio de Oliveira, Joshua Daniel Nosanchuk, Ildinete Silva-Pereira, Patrícia Albuquerque
Fungal infections have become an important medical condition in the last decades, but the number of available antifungal drugs is limited. In this scenario, the search for new antifungal drugs is necessary. The protocol reported here details a method to screen peptides for their antifungal properties. It is based on the broth microdilution susceptibility test from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 guidelines with modifications to suit the research of antimicrobial peptides as potential new antifungals...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Qusay Abdoh, Lubna Kharraz, Khubaib Ayoub, Jana Khraim, Wafaa Awad, Aysha Sbeah, Safaa Turman
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is considered the most important determinant of treatment failure. Monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to common antibiotics is therefore of special importance for clinicians. The frequency of resistance to antibiotics in Helicobacter pylori isolates is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of H pylori antibiotic resistance at the An-Najah National University Hospital. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited patients older than 18 year who were admitted to the An-Najah National University Hospital...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Hegde Sharat Shivaramaiah, Nidhi Relhan, Avinash Pathengay, Nitin Mohan, Harry W Flynn
Purpose: To report the clinical settings, causative organisms, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and treatment outcomes of patients with endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin. Methods: Retrospective case series of all patients with culture-proven endophthalmitis caused by gram-positive bacteria resistant to vancomycin between January 2010 and December 2016 in LV Prasad Eye Institute, Visakhapatnam, India. Results: The current study included 14 patients...
June 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
H Tligui, W Oudaina, S El Ftouh, F Madda, L Hesseissen
Human cutaneous infections due to Rhodotorula species as an emerged pathogens yeasts are rarely reported, particularly in skin folds, with the ability to infect immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent patient. In present case, we describe a fungal cutaneous infection due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in immunocompromised child, the patient has been diagnosed with retinoblastoma; the diagnosis was established by the cytological and clinical examination. However, the cytological examination found fungal forms...
March 15, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Karmen Godič Torkar, Branka Bedenić
The susceptibility of 66 clinical and environmental B. cereus isolates were tested to selected antimicrobials by a broth microdilution method. All strains were resistant to β-lactams and susceptible to gentamicin and imipenem. Sixty-five (98.5%) isolates were susceptible to meropenem and ciprofloxacin and 74.2% to azithromycin. Significant differences in MIC values between environmental and clinical isolates were not demonstrated (p > 0.05). According to the disc diffusion method, 80.3%-98.5% of the strains were resistant to one or more of four cephalosporins...
March 15, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sylvie Daunes, Claudius D'Silva
N-Benzyloxycarbony-S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione diesters have been investigated for antimalarial activity against chloroquinine sensitive (NF54) and resistant (K1) strains of P. falciparum. Both strains appear equally susceptible to inhibition by compounds 1-4, with an IC50  ∼ 4.92-6.97 μM, consistent with the target of these compounds being the PfMRP transporter. Against the NF54 strain, diester derivatives containing ethyl side chains showed lower in vitro activity than those with methyl side chains 1-4, IC50  ∼ 5...
March 7, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
A Sonpar, K Brown, J Chen, D Megran, M Sabo, C Cervera, S Girgis, D Kabbani
Mycoplasma hominis is part of the genitourinary flora in sexually active people and can cause disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients. We describe a rare case of an immunocompetent pregnant woman with simultaneous necrotizing HSV hepatitis and disseminated M. hominis infection. Detection of M. hominis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of this fastidious organism in the clinical laboratory is discussed.
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Mari Kusuki, Kayo Osawa, Kentaro Arikawa, Miho Tamura, Katsumi Shigemura, Toshiro Shirakawa, Tatsuya Nakamura, Yuji Nakamachi, Masato Fujisawa, Jun Saegusa, Issei Tokimatsu
Mycobacterium abscessus complex, including three subspecies-M. abscessus, M. massiliense, and M. bolletii-is resistant to a variety of antibiotics so limited treatment options are available. The susceptibility of these subspecies to antimicrobial agents depends in particular on the erm(41) sequevar and rrl mutations in the 23S rRNA, which are potentially related to clarithromycin (CLR) resistance. The purpose of this study was to carry out identification and molecular characterization of these subspecies based on variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis...
February 18, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Jing Han, Sean J Pendleton, Joanna Deck, Ruby Singh, Jeffrey Gilbert, Timothy J Johnson, Yasser M Sanad, Rajesh Nayak, Steven L Foley
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica is often plasmid encoded. A key resistance plasmid group is the incompatibility group (Inc) A/C plasmids that often carry multiple resistance determinants. Previous studies showed that IncA/C plasmids were often co-located with other plasmids. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of plasmid co-carriage on antimicrobial resistance and plasmid transfer. METHODS: A total of 1267 Salmonella isolates, representing multiple serotypes and sources were previously subjected to susceptibility testing and 251 isolates with resistance to at least 5 antimicrobial agents were identified for further study...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Mia A Venegas, Matthew D Bollaert, Alireza Jafari, Jasper Marc G Bondoc, Jennafer Twilley, William Thompson, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh
Pseudomonas spp. collected from areas where human regularly comes into contact with were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics. Twenty-nine samples were collected and screened for Pseudomonas spp. Of the nine isolated strains Pseudomonas spp. six were resistant to antibiotics. A few were used for an antimicrobial study on the interaction with silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles individually and as a mixture. A mixture of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles showed synergy against resistant Pseudomonas spp...
March 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sandrine Mariaux, Ulrika Furustrand Tafin, Olivier Borens
Introduction : When treating periprosthetic joint infection with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers can be used in the interval between prosthetic removal and reimplantation. In our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of the study was to assess whether that sonication causes an elution of antibiotics, leading to elevated antibiotic concentrations in the sonication fluid inhibiting bacterial growth and thus causing false-negative cultures. Methods : A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to March 2016...
2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Norelle Sherry, Benjamin Howden
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria have emerged as a major threat to human health globally. This has resulted in the "re-discovery" of some older antimicrobials and development of new agents, however resistance has also rapidly emerged to these agents. Areas Covered: Here we describe recent developments in resistance to three of the most important last-line antimicrobials for treatment of MDR and XDR Gram negatives: fosfomycin, colistin and ceftazidime-avibactam...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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