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Antimicrobial susceptibility

Marika Rai, David Spratt, Paola R Gomez-Pereira, Jay Patel, Sean P Nair
Oral malodour is a common condition which affects a large proportion of the population, resulting in social, emotional and psychological stress. Certain oral bacteria form a coating called a biofilm on the tongue dorsum and degrade organic compounds releasing volatile sulfur compounds that are malodourous. Current chemical treatments for oral malodour such as mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine or essential oils, are not sufficiently effective at reducing the bacterial load on the tongue. One potential alternative to current chemical treatments for oral malodour is the use of light activated antimicrobial agents (LAAAs), which display no toxicity or antimicrobial activity in the dark, but when exposed to light of a specific wavelength produce reactive oxygen species which induce damage to target cells in a process known as photodynamic inactivation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Breath Research
E Wardal, A Kuch, I Gawryszewska, D Żabicka, W Hryniewicz, E Sadowy
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, Tn1546 transposon variability and plasmid diversity among Polish vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates of VanA phenotype in the context of their clonal structure. Two hundred sixteen clinical VREfm isolates collected between 1997 and 2010 were studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, MLST, MLVA and detection of IS16, esp Efm, pilA, intA and plasmid-specific genes by PCR. Tn1546 structure was revealed by overlapping PCR and sequencing...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Mansour Amin, Parastoo Moradi Choghakabodi, Mohammad Alhassan Hamidi, Mahin Najafian, Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh
BACKGROUND: More than 50 different species of bacteria may live in a woman's vagina, with lactobacilli being the predominant microorganism found in healthy adult females. Lactobacilli are relevant as a barrier to infection and are important in the impairment of colonization by pathogens, owing to competitive adherence to adhesion sites in the vaginal epithelium and their capacity to produce antimicrobial compounds. METHODS: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the inhibitory capability of Lactobacillus metabolites against Clostridium perfringens, an anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Ana Flores-Carrero, Indira Labrador, Alberto Paniz-Mondolfi, David R Peaper, Dana Towle, María Araque
Enterobacter spp. have emerged as an important group of pathogens linked to outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), usually involving strains expressing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). The aim of this study was to describe the first nosocomial bloodstream infection outbreak caused by Enterobacter ludwigii co-harbouring CTX-M-8, SHV-12 and TEM-15 in a NICU in a Venezuelan hospital. Initial bacterial identification was achieved by VITEK(®)2 system and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VITEK(®) MS) and was subsequently confirmed by nucleotide sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene and hsp60 genotyping...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
S McDougall, C W R Compton, N Botha
AIMS: To determine the factors associated with the selection of antimicrobials by dairy veterinarians, and the attitudes of those veterinarians and dairy farmers to antimicrobial usage and resistance. METHODS: Facilitated focus groups of dairy farmers (n=22) and an anonymous online survey of dairy cattle veterinarians (n=206 respondents) were used to determine prescribing behaviour, factors affecting prescribing of antimicrobials, and the attitudes of veterinarians and farmers to the use of antimicrobials and the risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR)...
October 16, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Anatoliy Kubyshkin, Denis Chegodar, Andrew Katsev, Armen Petrosyan, Yuri Krivorutchenko, Olga Postnikova
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of nanosilver particles in solution stabilized in a matrix of sodium alginate on the growth and development of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter cloacae, the antibiotic-resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the yeast-like fungus Candida albicans, and the luminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi Sh1. METHODS: Isolates of pathogenic bacteria obtained from bronchoalveolar and peritoneal lavage samples from Wistar rats with experimental pneumonia and peritonitis were tested for their susceptibility to silver nanoparticles in solution with an alginate stabilizer...
2016: Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal
Vishnu Kaniyarakkal, Shabana Orvankundil, Saradadevi Karunakaran Lalitha, Raji Thazhethekandi, Jahana Thottathil
Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram negative oxidase positive bacillus that causes human infections infrequently. It is a normal inhabitant of soil and stagnant water of the tropical and subtropical areas. In humans, it can cause infections ranging from life threatening sepsis with metastatic abscesses to skin infections and urinary tract infections. The organism is notoriously resistant to most cephalosporins and Ampicillin. Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides show good in vitro susceptibility. High mortality rates associated with these infections necessitate prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Wenyao Chen, Tingzi Fang, Xiujuan Zhou, Daofeng Zhang, Xianming Shi, Chunlei Shi
The wide usage of antibiotics contributes to the increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella. Plasmids play a critical role in horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance markers in Salmonella. This study aimed to screen and characterize plasmid profiles responsible for antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and ultimately to clarify the molecular mechanism of transferable plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. A total of 226 Salmonella isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility by a disk diffusion method...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
D O Andrey, P François, C Manzano, E J Bonetti, S Harbarth, J Schrenzel, W L Kelley, A Renzoni
Ceftaroline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains. Ceftaroline susceptibility of an MRSA set archived between 1994 and 2003 in the Geneva University Hospitals detected a high percentage (66 %) of ceftaroline resistance in clonotypes ST228 and ST247 and correlated with mutations in PBP2a. The ceftaroline mechanism of action is based on the inhibition of PBP2a; thus, the identification of PBP2a mutations of recently circulating clonotypes in our institution was investigated...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
JeongWoo Kang, Md Akil Hossain, Hae-Chul Park, Yangho Jang, Seonhwa Kim, Jae Young Song, Kwang-Jick Lee, Tae-Wan Kim
Conventional antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) are very time consuming and insufficiently precise to promptly select a proper antimicrobial treatment. This difficulty disrupts the management of infections and exacerbates the development of antimicrobial resistance. Generally, antimicrobial resistance involves the chemical modification of an antimicrobial compound to an inactive form by an enzyme released by bacteria. This modification causes a structural change and is followed by a characteristic mass shift of the antimicrobials...
October 15, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
X Yuan, C Chen, J Zhou, M Han, X Wang, C Wang, X He
OBJECTIVES: Donors with bacteremia and sepsis are often considered to be controversial for organ retrieval due to potential transmission of an infectious agent to the recipient. Herein we report our initial experience of organ donation and transplantation results from donors with systemic infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2013 to December 2014, 125 cases of donation were completed in our organ procurement organization including 90 cases of donation after brain death (DBD) and 35 cases of donation after circulatory death (DCD)...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Abrar K Thabit, Jared L Crandon, David P Nicolau
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens has contributed to infection-related morbidity and mortality. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to define the pharmacodynamic profile of delafloxacin against CAP pathogens using a neutropenic murine lung infection model. Five S. pneumoniae, 2 methicillin-susceptible S...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Pauline M Lang, Rogério C Jacinto, Tatiane S Dal Pizzol, Maria Beatriz C Ferreira, Francisco Montagner
Infected root canal or acute apical abscess exudates can harbour several species, including Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Parvimonas, Streptococcus, Treponema, Olsenella and not-yet cultivable species. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess resistance rates to antimicrobial agents in clinical studies that isolated bacteria from acute endodontic infections. Electronic databases and the grey literature were searched up to May 2015. Clinical studies in humans evaluating the antimicrobial resistance of primary acute endodontic infection isolates were included...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Alexander H Fischer, Alessandra Haskin, Ginette A Okoye
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic therapy is commonly used to treat hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). Although concern for antibiotic resistance exists, data examining the association between antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions are limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the frequency of antimicrobial resistance in HS lesions from patients on antibiotic therapy. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional analysis was conducted on 239 patients with HS seen at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions from 2010 through 2015...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
S D Stites, C A Cooblall, J Aronovitz, S B Singletary, K Micklow, M Sjeime
BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased in recent years. Predictive models may help to identify at-risk patients before the onset of infection. Early identification of high-risk patients could help antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes and other initiatives to better prevent C. difficile in these patients. AIM: To develop a predictive model that identifies patients at high risk for CDI at the time of hospitalization...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Kristin Mühldorfer, Gudrun Wibbelt, Claudia A Szentiks, Dominik Fischer, Holger C Scholz, Michael Zschöck, Tobias Eisenberg
AIMS: Novel cases of Brucella infections in frogs are discussed together with results of published reports to extend our current knowledge on 'atypical' brucellae isolated from amphibians and discuss challenges we face on this extraordinary emerging group of pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: Since our first description, additional 14 isolates from 4 different frog species were collected. Novel isolates and a subset of Brucella isolates previously cultured from African bullfrogs were characterized by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and broth microdilution susceptibility testing...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
J Ganjei, A Langenbach, G Watrous, J Hodgson
OBJECTIVE: To document the most common types of bacteria isolated from the canine larynx and to compare isolates, degree of growth and susceptibility patterns between dogs with laryngeal paralysis and dogs with normal laryngeal function. METHODS: Laryngeal swabs were collected from each patient and submitted for bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Dogs with laryngeal paralysis (n=23) underwent a unilateral arytenoid lateralisation and control dogs (n=24) underwent an elective orthopaedic procedure...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Sheryl A Zelenitsky, Jacy Howarth, Philippe Lagace-Wiens, Christie Sathianathan, Robert Ariano, Christine Davis, Mauro Verrelli
♦ Background: Information related to the microbiology of peritonitis is critical to the optimal management of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis (PD). The goal was to characterize the microbiological etiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of PD-related peritonitis (PDRP) from 2005 to 2014, inclusive. ♦ Methods: The distribution of organisms in culture-positive PDRP was described for new episodes and relapse infections, and further detailed for monomicrobial and polymicrobial peritonitis. Annual and overall rates of PDRP were also characterized...
October 13, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Wanida Phetsang, Ruby Pelingon, Mark S Butler, Sanjaya Kc, Miranda E Pitt, Geraldine Kaeslin, Matthew A Cooper, Mark A T Blaskovich
Reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials in Gram-negative bacteria may result from multiple resistance mechanisms, including increased efflux pump activity or reduced porin protein expression. Up-regulation of the efflux pump system is closely associated with multidrug resistance (MDR). To help investigate the role of efflux pumps on compound accumulation, a fluorescence-based assay was developed using fluorescent derivatives of trimethoprim (TMP), a broad-spectrum synthetic antibiotic that inhibits an intracellular target, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)...
October 14, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Manju Bala, Vikram Singh, Aradhana Bhargava, Monika Kakran, Naveen Chandra Joshi, Ravi Bhatnagar
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 258 N. gonorrhoeae isolates by Etest determined that 60.1% were MDR while 5% strains had decreased susceptibility to currently recommended extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs). Among these, 84.5% MDR and 76.9% strains having decreased susceptibility to ESCs were susceptible to gentamicin. No MDR isolate was resistant to gentamicin. These in vitro results suggest that gentamicin might be an effective treatment option for the MDR strains and in dual therapy for gonorrhea...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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