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Antimicrobial susceptibility

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912759/intestinal-dysbiosis-and-allogeneic-hematopoietic-progenitor-cell-transplantation
#1
REVIEW
Vikram M Raghunathan, Iris Sheng, Seah H Lim
The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem that is increasingly understood to play a vital role in human health. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients undergo prolonged exposure to antimicrobials, chemotherapeutic agents, and immunosuppressants, resulting in profound shifts in the gut microbiome. A growing body of research has revealed the ways in which these microbiologic shifts shape immune modulation, affecting susceptibility to infections and graft-versus-host disease, the two major post-transplant complications in this population...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907971/-interpretation-of-bacterial-susceptibility-resistance-to-antibiotics
#2
Milan Kolář
Bacterial resistance may be defined from a microbiological, clinical and pharmacological perspective. Microbiological resistance refers to the presence of genetic information coding for the relevant mechanism of resistance of a bacterium to a particular antibiotic. In case of clinical interpretation, breakpoints are of key importance as their role is to distinguish bacterial pathogens in which successful therapy is highly probable from isolates with a high likelihood of failure. However, it is questionable whether this approach is suitable for all patients, particularly those receiving intensive care for life-threatening infections...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907102/an-investigation-into-the-etiological-agents-of-swine-dysentery-in-australian-pig-herds
#3
Tom La, Nyree D Phillips, David J Hampson
Swine dysentery (SD) is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907002/chemical-composition-an-antioxidant-cytotoxic-and-microbiological-activity-of-the-essential-oil-from-the-leaves-of-aeollanthus-suaveolens-mart-ex-spreng
#4
Rosany Lopes Martins, Ranggel Carvalho Simões, Érica de Menezes Rabelo, Ana Luzia Ferreira Farias, Alex Bruno Lobato Rodrigues, Ryan da Silva Ramos, João Batista Fernandes, Lourivaldo da Silva Santos, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva de Almeida
Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905624/-detection-of-the-meca-gene-in-coagulase-positive-staphylococcus-isolated-from-cats
#5
Nicolás Galarce, Loreto Muñoz, María Antonieta Jara, Paulo Lubí, Alejandra Sepúlveda, Sonia Anticevic
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial resistance is a global concern for public health. Reports of antimicrobial resistance, including that against methicillin, have increased in strains of coagulase positive Staphylococcus (CPS) isolated from pets, however in Chile this information is limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles and to detect the mecA gene in CPS strains isolated from cats in Chile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 134 samples were obtained from healthy cats and cats with skin lesions...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905500/targeting-intracellular-p-aminobenzoic-acid-production-potentiates-the-anti-tubercular-action-of-antifolates
#6
Joshua M Thiede, Shannon L Kordus, Breanna J Turman, Joseph A Buonomo, Courtney C Aldrich, Yusuke Minato, Anthony D Baughn
The ability to revitalize and re-purpose existing drugs offers a powerful approach for novel treatment options against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other infectious agents. Antifolates are an underutilized drug class in tuberculosis (TB) therapy, capable of disrupting the biosynthesis of tetrahydrofolate, an essential cellular cofactor. Based on the observation that exogenously supplied p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can antagonize the action of antifolates that interact with dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), such as sulfonamides and p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), we hypothesized that bacterial PABA biosynthesis contributes to intrinsic antifolate resistance...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905408/limitations-of-mic-as-sole-metric-of-pharmacodynamic-response-across-the-range-of-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-within-a-single-bacterial-species
#7
Xuesong Wen, Ronette Gehring, Andrea Stallbaumer, Jim E Riviere, Victoriya V Volkova
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of an antimicrobial drug for a bacterial pathogen is used as a measure of the bacterial susceptibility to the drug. However, relationships between the antimicrobial concentration, bacterial susceptibility, and the pharmacodynamic (PD) inhibitory effect on the bacterial population are more complex. The relationships can be captured by multi-parameter models such as the Emax model. In this study, time-kill experiments were conducted with a zoonotic pathogen Pasteurella multocida and the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904747/comparing-the-disk-diffusion-and-agar-dilution-tests-for-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#8
Hsi Liu, Thomas H Taylor, Kevin Pettus, Steve Johnson, John R Papp, David Trees
BACKGROUND: We assessed the validity of testing for antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical and mutant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) isolates by disk diffusion in comparison to agar dilution, and Etest® (bioMerieux, France), respectively, for three third generation extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC): ceftriaxone (CRO), cefixime (CFX), and cefpodoxime (CPD). METHODS: One hundred and five clinical isolates and ten laboratory-mutants were tested following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's standards for each of the three methods...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903603/multicenter-evaluation-of-a-modified-cefoxitin-disk-diffusion-method-and-pbp2a-testing-to-predict-meca-mediated-oxacillin-resistance-in-atypical-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Shelley A Miller, James Karichu, Peggy Kohner, Nicolynn Cole, Janet A Hindler, Robin Patel, Sandra Richter, Romney M Humphries
Phenotypic variants of Staphylococcus aureus display small colony size, reduced pigment, hemolysis and/or coagulase activity are periodically isolated by the clinical laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of these isolates is complicated as many do not grow on routine AST media, including Mueller Hinton agar and cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth. This multi-center study evaluated cefoxitin disk diffusion for 37 isolates (156 readings) of atypical S. aureus with MHA supplemented with 5% sheep's blood (BMHA), using mecA PCR as the reference standard...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902433/escherichia-coli-clonal-group-a-cga-among-uropathogenic-infections-in-mexico-city
#10
Angel Manjarrez-Hernandez, José Molina-López, Sandra Gavilanes-Parra, Rigoberto Hernandez-Castro
Escherichia coli clonal group A (CGA) causes urinary tract and other extraintestinal infections in humans. CGA is an important cause of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT)-resistance in extraintestinal pathogens. We examined the extent to which resistance in this area is related to CGA dissemination of E. coli from urinary tract infections (UTIs) in Mexico City. The virulence backgrounds of the isolates were also characterized. In this study, the frequency of resistance to SXT used for UTI treatment was high (56-65%) and CGA isolates accounted for 9 of the 78 SXT-resistant isolates (11...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902411/non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilm-production-and-severity-in-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-mexico
#11
Michel Fernando Martínez-Reséndez, Juan Manuel González-Chávez, Elvira Garza-González, Lorena Nefertiti Castro-Fuentes, Jessica Lizzeth Gutiérrez-Ferman, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles, Adrián Camacho-Ortíz, María Noemí Carnalla-Barajas, Araceli Soto-Noguerón, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Cristina Liliana Hernández-Balboa, Jorge M Llaca-Díaz, Samantha Flores-Treviño
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common opportunistic bacterial pathogen that primarily infects the respiratory mucosa. This study was conducted to assess clinical and microbiological data related to disease severity in patients with lower respiratory tract infections caused by NTHi in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. NTHi isolates were subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation, and analyses of β-lactamase production, genetic relatedness, and biofilm formation. Clinical and demographic data were retrieved from patients' records...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902404/ultrastructural-changes-caused-by-polymyxin-b-and-meropenem-in-multiresistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-carrying-blakpc-2-gene
#12
Alexsandra Scavuzzi, Luiz Carlos Alves, Dyana Leal Veras, Fábio André Brayner, Ana Catarina de Souza Lopes
The ultrastructural alterations caused by polymyxin B, meropenem and by the association between polymyxin B and meropenem were investigated in 2 multiresistant isolates of K. pneumoniae (K3-A2 and K12-A2) carriers of blaKPC-2, coming from infection and colonization in patients of a public hospital in Recife, Brazil. The ultrastructural changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy and scanning. The susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobials was tested by the disk diffusion method and microdilution in broth...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902398/clonal-spread-and-accumulation-of-beta-lactams-resistance-determinants-in-enterobacter-aerogenes-and-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-isolates-from-infection-and-colonization-in-patients-at-a-public-hospital-in-recife-pernambuco-brazil
#13
Adriane Borges Cabral, Maria Amélia Vieira Maciel, Josineide Ferreira Barros, Marcelo Maranhão Antunes, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa de Castro, Ana Catarina Souza Lopes
Enterobacter aerogenes and Enterobacter cloacae complex are the species of this genus most involved in healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), that are ESBL and carbapenemase producers. This study has characterized phenotypically and genotypically 51 isolates of E. aerogenes and E. cloacae complex as originated from infection or colonization in patients admitted to public hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil, by antimicrobial susceptibility profile, analysis of β-lactamase genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, blaKPC, blaVIM, blaIMP and blaSPM), PCR and DNA sequencing, plasmid profile and ERIC-PCR...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902396/determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococcus-strains-isolated-from-pigs-and-their-genotypic-characterization-by-method-of-amplification-of-dna-fragments-surrounding-rare-restriction-sites-the-adsrrs-fingerprinting
#14
Aneta Nowakiewicz, Grażyna Ziółkowska, Aleksandra Trościańczyk, Przemysław Zięba, Sebastian Gnat
In this study, we analysed phenotypic resistance profiles and their reflection in the genomic profiles of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from pigs raised on different farms. Samples were collected from five pig farms (n=90 animals) and tested for Enterococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 12 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method, and epidemiological molecular analysis of strains belonging to selected species (E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. hirae) was performed using the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method with a few modifications...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902389/antimicrobial-susceptibility-to-azithromycin-among-salmonella-enterica-typhi-and-paratyphi-a-isolates-from-india
#15
Richa Misra, Kashi N Prasad
Decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS) and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in typhoidal Salmonella isolates in areas of endemicity is a significant therapeutic problem. Guidelines for azithromycin disk diffusion and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive criteria for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi were published recently by CLSI in 2015.We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of azithromycin in 100 isolates of Salmonella Typhi (n=80), Paratyphi A (n=18) and B (n=2) recovered from blood stream infections from January 2013 to December 2015...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902380/antimicrobial-resistance-profiling-and-molecular-typing-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-isolated-from-a-malaysian-teaching-hospital
#16
Ainihayati Noordin, Hassriana Fazzila Sapri, Nurul Azirah Mohamad Sani, Shih Kei Leong, Xin-Ee Tan, Toh Leong Tan, Noraziah Mohamad Zin, Hui-Min Neoh, Salasawati Hussin
The annual prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Malaysia has been estimated to be at 30-40% of all S. aureus infections. Nevertheless, data on the antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of Malaysian MRSAs remain few. In 2009, we collected 318 MRSA strains from various wards of our teaching hospital located in Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia, and performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on the strains. The strains were then molecularly characterized via SCCmec and virulence gene (cna, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, sei, eta, etb, PVL and TSST-1) typing; a subset of 49 strains isolated from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were also typed using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902375/improving-time-to-optimal-staphylococcus-aureus-treatment-using-a-penicillin-binding-protein-2a-assay
#17
Sonia N Rao, Sheila K Wang, Jose Gonzalez Zamora, Amy P Hanson, Radhika S Polisetty, Kamaljit Singh
The penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) assay is a quick, accurate and inexpensive test for determining methicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus aureus. A pre-post study design was conducted using a PBP2a assay with and without the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship (AS) intervention to improve time to optimal therapy for methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates. Our results demonstrate significantly improved time to optimal therapy and support the use of a PBP2a assay as part of an AS program for all healthcare facilities, especially those with limited resources...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900727/antimicrobial-activity-and-stability-of-the-d-amino-acid-substituted-derivatives-of-antimicrobial-peptide-polybia-mpi
#18
Yanyan Zhao, Min Zhang, Shuai Qiu, Jiayi Wang, Jinxiu Peng, Ping Zhao, Ranran Zhu, Hailin Wang, Yuan Li, Kairong Wang, Wenjin Yan, Rui Wang
Antimicrobial peptide has the potential to be developed as new kind of antimicrobial agents with novel action mechanism. However, the susceptibility to protease is a drawback for potential peptides to be clinical used. D-amino acid substitution can be one way to increase the proteolytic stability of peptides. In the present study, we synthesized the D-lysines substituted analog (D-lys-MPI) and the D-enantiomer of polybia-MPI (D-MPI) to improve the proteolytic resistance of polybia-MPI. Our results showed that, the stability of its D-amino acid partially substituted analog D-lys-MPI was increased...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899918/mechanistic-basis-of-antimicrobial-actions-of-silver-nanoparticles
#19
REVIEW
Tikam Chand Dakal, Anu Kumar, Rita S Majumdar, Vinod Yadav
Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899627/improvements-to-patric-the-all-bacterial-bioinformatics-database-and-analysis-resource-center
#20
Alice R Wattam, James J Davis, Rida Assaf, Sébastien Boisvert, Thomas Brettin, Christopher Bun, Neal Conrad, Emily M Dietrich, Terry Disz, Joseph L Gabbard, Svetlana Gerdes, Christopher S Henry, Ronald W Kenyon, Dustin Machi, Chunhong Mao, Eric K Nordberg, Gary J Olsen, Daniel E Murphy-Olson, Robert Olson, Ross Overbeek, Bruce Parrello, Gordon D Pusch, Maulik Shukla, Veronika Vonstein, Andrew Warren, Fangfang Xia, Hyunseung Yoo, Rick L Stevens
The Pathosystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) is the bacterial Bioinformatics Resource Center (https://www.patricbrc.org). Recent changes to PATRIC include a redesign of the web interface and some new services that provide users with a platform that takes them from raw reads to an integrated analysis experience. The redesigned interface allows researchers direct access to tools and data, and the emphasis has changed to user-created genome-groups, with detailed summaries and views of the data that researchers have selected...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
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